TB1 Chapter 2 Multiple Choice by 6VCM0Lp

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									1. Phrenology highlighted the presumed functions of:
   A) specific brain regions.
   B) neurotransmitters.
   C) hormones.
   D) the right brain.

2. The person most likely to suggest that the shape of a person's skull indicates the extent
   to which that individual is argumentative and aggressive would be a:
   A) neurologist.
   B) behavior geneticist.
   C) psychoanalyst.
   D) phrenologist.

3. Dr. Wolski does research on the potential relationship between neurotransmitter
   deficiencies and mood states. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Wolski's research
   best represent?
   A) phrenology
   B) biological psychology
   C) psychoanalysis
   D) clinical psychology

4. A biological psychologist would be most interested in the relationship between:
   A) body chemistry and violent behavior.
   B) skull shape and character traits.
   C) self-esteem and popularity.
   D) brain size and cell structure.

5. Dendrites are branching extensions of:
   A) neurotransmitters.
   B) endorphins.
   C) neurons.
   D) glial cells.
   E) endocrine glands.

6. The function of dendrites is to:
   A) receive incoming signals from other neurons.
   B) release neurotransmitters into the spatial junctions between neurons.
   C) coordinate the activation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
   D) control pain through the release of opiatelike chemicals into the brain.

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 7. An axon is:
    A) a cell that serves as the basic building block of the nervous system.
    B) a layer of fatty tissue that encases the fibers of many neurons.
    C) an antagonist molecule that blocks neurotransmitter receptor sites.
    D) the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body.
    E) a junction between a sending and receiving neuron.

 8. The longest part of a motor neuron is likely to be the:
    A) dendrite.
    B) axon.
    C) cell body.
    D) synapse.

 9. In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal within a single
    neuron travels from the:
    A) cell body to the axon to the dendrites.
    B) dendrites to the axon to the cell body.
    C) axon to the cell body to the dendrites.
    D) dendrites to the cell body to the axon.
    E) axon to the dendrites to the cell body.

10. The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by
    A) association area.
    B) myelin sheath.
    C) endocrine gland.
    D) glial cell.
    E) synaptic vesicle.

11. Neural impulses may travel as rapidly as:
    A) sound waves.
    B) light waves.
    C) 200 miles per hour.
    D) electricity through a wire.

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12. A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the:
    A) synapse.
    B) agonist.
    C) action potential.
    D) myelin sheath.
    E) refractory period.

13. The depolarization of a neural membrane creates a(n):
    A) action potential.
    B) myelin sheath.
    C) lesion.
    D) neural network.
    E) interneuron.

14. An action potential is generated by the movement of:
    A) glial cells.
    B) hormones.
    C) vesicles.
    D) ions.

15. The resting potential of an axon results from the fact that an axon membrane is:
    A) encased by a myelin sheath.
    B) selectively permeable.
    C) sensitive to neurotransmitter molecules.
    D) part of a larger neural network.

16. Resting potential is to action potential as ________ is to ________.
    A) parasympathetic nervous system; sympathetic nervous system
    B) sensory neuron; motor neuron
    C) association area; neural network
    D) polarization; depolarization
    E) PET scan; MRI

17. With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time
    interval in which:
    A) chemical messengers traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons.
    B) a brief electrical charge travels down an axon.
    C) positively charged atoms are pumped back outside a neural membrane.
    D) an individual reflexively withdraws from a pain stimulus.

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18. The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the:
    A) reflex.
    B) threshold.
    C) synapse.
    D) action potential.

19. Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the
    intensity of an action potential. This indicates that a neuron's reaction is:
    A) inhibited by the myelin sheath.
    B) delayed by the refractory period.
    C) an all-or-none response.
    D) dependent on neurotransmitter molecules.

20. A slap on the back is more painful than a pat on the back because a slap triggers:
    A) faster neural impulses.
    B) more intense neural impulses.
    C) more frequent neural impulses.
    D) all the above.

21. Sir Charles Sherrington observed that impulses took more time to travel a neural
    pathway than he might have anticipated. His observation provided evidence for the
    existence of:
    A) association areas.
    B) glial cells.
    C) synaptic gaps.
    D) interneurons.
    E) neural networks.

22. A synapse is a(n):
    A) chemical messenger that triggers muscle contractions.
    B) automatic response to sensory input.
    C) neural network.
    D) junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron.
    E) neural cable containing many axons.

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23. The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called:
    A) hormones.
    B) neurotransmitters.
    C) synapses.
    D) genes.
    E) glial cells.

24. Neurotransmitter is to ion as ________ is to ________.
    A) agonist; antagonist
    B) molecule; atom
    C) hormone; epinephrine
    D) GABA; ACh

25. Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles located in knoblike terminals on the:
    A) dendrites.
    B) cell body.
    C) axon.
    D) myelin sheath.

26. Reuptake refers to the:
    A) movement of neurotransmitter molecules across a synaptic gap.
    B) binding of neurotransmitter molecules to dendritic receptor sites.
    C) inflow of partially charged ions through an axon membrane.
    D) reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron.

27. Research on neurotransmitters indicates that:
    A) a single synapse generally uses several dozen neurotransmitters.
    B) neurotransmitters can inhibit neural impulse transmission.
    C) less than a dozen neurotransmitters are involved in all neural transmission.
    D) the release of endorphins causes paralysis of the muscles.

28. Alzheimer's disease is most closely linked to the loss of neurons that produce:
    A) dopamine.
    B) acetylcholine.
    C) epinephrine.
    D) endorphins.

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29. Epinephrine is to hormone as acetylcholine is to:
    A) synapse.
    B) action potential.
    C) endorphin.
    D) neurotransmitter.

30. Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the
    A) dopamine.
    B) epinephrine.
    C) acetylcholine.
    D) serotonin.

31. An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to:
    A) Alzheimer's disease.
    B) schizophrenia.
    C) Parkinson's disease.
    D) depression.

32. GABA is to glutamate as ________ is to ________.
    A) inhibitory hormone; excitatory hormone
    B) inhibitory neurotransmitter; excitatory neurotransmitter
    C) excitatory hormone; inhibitory hormone
    D) excitatory neurotransmitter; inhibitory neurotransmitter

33. Migraine headaches are most closely linked with an _______ of _______.
    A) oversupply; GABA
    B) undersupply; serotonin
    C) oversupply; glutamate
    D) undersupply; acetylcholine

34. Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg muscle requires the
    neurotransmitter known as:
    A) dopamine.
    B) epinephrine.
    C) acetylcholine.
    D) insulin.

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35. Botulin poisoning from improperly canned food causes paralysis by blocking the release
    A) endorphins.
    B) epinephrine.
    C) acetylcholine.
    D) dopamine.

36. Endorphins are:
    A) neurotransmitters.
    B) sex hormones.
    C) endocrine glands.
    D) morphine antagonists.

37. Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as:
    A) acetylcholine.
    B) serotonin.
    C) endorphins.
    D) dopamine.
    E) epinephrine.

38. José has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort.
    His lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of:
    A) glutamate.
    B) dopamine.
    C) acetylcholine.
    D) endorphins.

39. Hormone is to neurotransmitter as epinephrine is to:
    A) glucose.
    B) estrogen.
    C) steroids.
    D) insulin.
    E) endorphins.

40. The body's natural production of endorphins is likely to be ________ by heroin use and
    ________ by acupuncture.
    A) increased; increased
    B) decreased; decreased
    C) increased; decreased
    D) decreased; increased

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41. Jason's painful withdrawal symptoms following heroin use were probably due in part to
    a reduction in his body's normal production of:
    A) dopamine.
    B) epinephrine.
    C) acetylcholine.
    D) endorphins.

42. A drug that mimics the effects of a particular neurotransmitter or blocks its reuptake is
    called a(n):
    A) glutimate.
    B) steroid.
    C) agonist.
    D) opiate.

43. Endorphin agonists are likely to _______ one's immediate pain and endorphin
    antagonists are likely to _______ one's immediate pain.
    A) decrease; increase
    B) increase; decrease
    C) increase; increase
    D) decrease; decrease

44. Curare is a paralyzing poison that functions as an:
    A) ACh agonist.
    B) GABA agonist.
    C) ACh antagonist.
    D) GABA antagonist.

45. Dopamine injections have proven ineffective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease
    because dopamine:
    A) fails to pass through the bloodstream into the brain.
    B) suppresses the brain's natural capacity to produce endorphins.
    C) blocks the capacity of neurons to absorb ACh.
    D) produces uncontrollable muscle spasms.

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46. The two major divisions of the nervous system are the central and the ________ nervous
    A) autonomic
    B) sympathetic
    C) parasympathetic
    D) peripheral

47. The central nervous system consists of:
    A) sensory and motor neurons.
    B) somatic and autonomic subsystems.
    C) the brain and the spinal cord.
    D) sympathetic and parasympathetic branches.

48. In order for you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, ________ must first relay
    messages from your ankle to your central nervous system.
    A) the limbic system
    B) interneurons
    C) the reticular formation
    D) motor neurons
    E) sensory neurons

49. Sensory neurons are an important part of the:
    A) limbic system.
    B) reticular formation.
    C) peripheral nervous system.
    D) central nervous system.

50. The vast majority of cells in the body's information-processing system are:
    A) interneurons.
    B) motor neurons.
    C) sensory neurons.
    D) neurotransmitters.

51. Information is carried from the central nervous system to the body's tissues by:
    A) interneurons.
    B) sensory neurons.
    C) motor neurons.
    D) the limbic system.

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52. Motor neurons transmit signals to:
    A) glands.
    B) interneurons.
    C) sensory neurons.
    D) all the above.

53. Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to muscles in your hands by the
    ________ nervous system.
    A) central
    B) peripheral
    C) parasympathetic
    D) sympathetic
    E) autonomic

54. The peripheral nervous system is to sensory neurons as the central nervous system is to:
    A) motor neurons.
    B) neurotransmitters.
    C) interneurons.
    D) the sympathetic nervous system.

55. The somatic nervous system is a component of the ________ nervous system.
    A) peripheral
    B) autonomic
    C) central
    D) sympathetic
    E) parasympathetic

56. The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls glandular activity and the
    muscles of internal organs is called the:
    A) somatic nervous system.
    B) reticular formation.
    C) limbic system.
    D) autonomic nervous system.

57. Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your heart muscles by the:
    A) limbic system.
    B) somatic nervous system.
    C) central nervous system.
    D) autonomic nervous system.

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58. The parasympathetic nervous system ________ digestion and ________ heartbeat.
    A) accelerates; decelerates
    B) decelerates; accelerates
    C) accelerates; accelerates
    D) decelerates; decelerates

59. You come home one night to find a burglar in your house. Your heart starts racing and
    you begin to perspire. These physical reactions are triggered by the:
    A) somatic nervous system.
    B) sympathetic nervous system.
    C) parasympathetic nervous system.
    D) limbic system.

60. After discovering that the shadows outside his window were only the trees in the yard,
    Ralph's blood pressure decreased and his heartbeat slowed. These physical reactions
    were most directly regulated by his:
    A) parasympathetic nervous system.
    B) sympathetic nervous system.
    C) somatic nervous system.
    D) hippocampus.

61. Heartbeat acceleration is to heartbeat deceleration as the ________ nervous system is to
    the ________ nervous system.
    A) somatic; autonomic
    B) autonomic; somatic
    C) central; peripheral
    D) sympathetic; parasympathetic
    E) parasympathetic; sympathetic

62. A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus is called a:
    A) neural network.
    B) resting potential.
    C) neurotransmitter.
    D) reflex.

63. The knee-jerk reflex is controlled by interneurons in the:
    A) limbic system.
    B) spinal cord.
    C) brainstem.
    D) cerebellum.

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64. In a tragic diving accident, Andrew damaged his spinal cord and consequently suffered
    paralysis of his legs. Andrew's injury was located in his:
    A) somatic nervous system.
    B) limbic system.
    C) sympathetic nervous system.
    D) central nervous system.

65. Aaron consistently exhibits a knee-jerk response without having any sensations of the
    taps on his knees. Aaron's experience is most indicative of a:
    A) split brain.
    B) severed spinal cord.
    C) hemispherectomy.
    D) reward deficiency syndrome.

66. The strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of:
    A) interneurons.
    B) endorphins.
    C) neural networks.
    D) glial cells.
    E) lesions.

67. Neural networks refer to:
    A) the branching extensions of a neuron.
    B) functionally interconnected clusters of neurons in the central nervous system.
    C) neural cables containing many axons.
    D) junctions between sending and receiving neurons.
    E) neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.

68. A football quarterback can simultaneously make calculations of receiver distances,
    player movements, and gravitational forces. This best illustrates the activity of multiple:
    A) endocrine glands.
    B) endorphin agonists.
    C) neural networks.
    D) endorphin antagonists.
    E) reticular formations.

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69. Surgical destruction of brain tissue is called a(n):
    A) split brain.
    B) EEG.
    C) synapse.
    D) lesion.
    E) MRI.

70. An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the surface
    of the brain is called a(n):
    A) CT scan.
    B) EEG.
    C) PET scan.
    D) MRI.

71. EEG is to CT scan as:
    A) amplified recording of brain waves is to x-ray photography.
    B) x-ray photography is to amplified recording of brain waves.
    C) radioactive emission is to amplified recording of brain waves.
    D) amplified recording of brain waves is to radioactive emission.

72. In order to identify which of Lucy's brain areas was most active when she talked,
    neuroscientists gave her a temporarily radioactive form of glucose and a(n):
    A) CT scan.
    B) PET scan.
    C) EEG.
    D) MRI.

73. To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task,
    researchers would be most likely to make use of a(n):
    A) PET scan.
    B) hemispherectomy.
    C) CT scan.
    D) brain lesions.

74. The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regions in some patients who have
    schizophrenia is to use a(n):
    A) EEG.
    B) MRI.
    C) PET scan.
    D) lobotomy.

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75. The sequence of brain regions from oldest to newest is:
    A) limbic system; brainstem; cerebral cortex.
    B) brainstem; cerebral cortex; limbic system.
    C) limbic system; cerebral cortex; brainstem.
    D) brainstem; limbic system; cerebral cortex.
    E) cerebral cortex; brainstem; limbic system.

76. The part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing is called the:
    A) cerebellum.
    B) medulla.
    C) reticular formation.
    D) thalamus.

77. If your ________ is destroyed, the left side of your brain could not control the
    movements of your right hand.
    A) brainstem
    B) amygdala
    C) hippocampus
    D) angular gyrus
    E) corpus callosum

78. The reticular formation is located in the:
    A) brainstem.
    B) limbic system.
    C) somatosensory cortex.
    D) motor cortex.
    E) cerebellum.

79. Severing a cat's reticular formation from higher brain regions causes the cat to:
    A) become violently aggressive.
    B) cower in fear.
    C) experience convulsive seizures.
    D) lapse into a coma.
    E) become sexually preoccupied.

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80. Which region of the brainstem takes you to a state of arousal when someone nearby
    mentions your name?
    A) reticular formation
    B) cerebellum
    C) hypothalamus
    D) amygdala
    E) medulla

81. Which brain structure receives information from all the senses except smell?
    A) hippocampus
    B) amygdala
    C) angular gyrus
    D) thalamus

82. Which brain structure relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex?
    A) thalamus
    B) amygdala
    C) medulla
    D) hippocampus
    E) cerebellum

83. The brain's electrical oscillations, which slow during sleep, are coordinated by the:
    A) thalamus.
    B) cerebellum.
    C) sensory cortex.
    D) pituitary gland.

84. The “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the:
    A) limbic system.
    B) corpus callosum.
    C) cerebellum.
    D) reticular formation.

85. After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum.
    Kato is most likely to have difficulty:
    A) experiencing intense emotions.
    B) reading a book.
    C) understanding what others are saying.
    D) tasting the flavors of foods.
    E) playing his guitar.

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86. A doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and
    cerebral hemispheres is known as the:
    A) angular gyrus.
    B) limbic system.
    C) reticular formation.
    D) peripheral nervous system.

87. Which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential
    role in the formation of new memories?
    A) hypothalamus
    B) thalamus
    C) hippocampus
    D) medulla

88. The brainstem is to arousal as the limbic system is to:
    A) emotion.
    B) muscular coordination.
    C) respiration.
    D) language comprehension.

89. To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a
    neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat's:
    A) reticular formation.
    B) cerebellum.
    C) medulla.
    D) amygdala.

90. A brain tumor caused extensive damage to Mr. Thorndike's hypothalamus. It is most
    likely that he may suffer a loss of:
    A) visual perception.
    B) muscular coordination.
    C) sexual motivation.
    D) language comprehension.

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91. The brain structure that provides a major link between the nervous system and the
    hormone system is the:
    A) cerebellum.
    B) amygdala.
    C) reticular formation.
    D) hypothalamus.
    E) medulla.

92. Olds and Milner located “pleasure centers” in the brain structure known as the:
    A) sensory cortex.
    B) hypothalamus.
    C) cerebellum.
    D) medulla.
    E) amygdala.

93. Addictive drug cravings are likely to be associated with reward centers in the:
    A) thalamus.
    B) cerebellum.
    C) reticular formation.
    D) limbic system.
    E) angular gyrus.

94. Your conscious awareness of your own name and self-identity depends primarily on the
    normal functioning of your:
    A) cerebellum.
    B) amygdala.
    C) hypothalamus.
    D) sympathetic nervous system.
    E) cerebral cortex.

95. One function of glial cells is to:
    A) control heartbeat and breathing.
    B) mimic the effects of neurotransmitters.
    C) provide nutrients to interneurons.
    D) stimulate the production of hormones.

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 96. Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someone scratching
     your back?
     A) parietal
     B) temporal
     C) occipital
     D) frontal

 97. The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in extensive
     loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of:
     A) muscular coordination.
     B) language comprehension.
     C) visual perception.
     D) speaking ability.
     E) pain sensations.

 98. Auditory stimulation is first processed in the ________ lobes.
     A) occipital
     B) temporal
     C) frontal
     D) parietal

 99. The occipital lobes are to ________ as the temporal lobes are to ________.
     A) hearing; sensing movement
     B) seeing; sensing touch
     C) sensing pleasure; sensing pain
     D) seeing; hearing
     E) speaking; hearing

100. The sense of hearing is to the ________ lobes as the sense of touch is to the ________
     A) frontal; occipital
     B) temporal; parietal
     C) parietal; temporal
     D) occipital; frontal

101. The motor cortex is located in the ________ lobes.
     A) occipital
     B) temporal
     C) frontal
     D) parietal

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102. A laboratory cat could be made to twitch its whiskers by direct stimulation of the
     ________ lobes of its cerebral cortex.
     A) temporal
     B) occipital
     C) frontal
     D) parietal

103. Which of the following body parts is associated with the greatest amount of brain tissue
     in the motor cortex?
     A) arms
     B) face
     C) trunk
     D) knees

104. An area at the front of the parietal lobes that receives information from the movement of
     body parts is called the:
     A) limbic system.
     B) sensory cortex.
     C) angular gyrus.
     D) cerebellum.
     E) reticular formation.

105. The sensory cortex is most critical for our sense of:
     A) taste.
     B) sight.
     C) hearing.
     D) touch.
     E) smell.

106. Which part of your brain receives information as to whether you are moving your legs?
     A) limbic system
     B) motor cortex
     C) sensory cortex
     D) Broca's area

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107. The experience of auditory hallucinations by people with schizophrenia is most closely
     linked with the activation of areas in their:
     A) motor cortex.
     B) angular gyrus.
     C) temporal lobes.
     D) hypothalamus.

108. The association areas are located in the:
     A) spinal cord.
     B) brainstem.
     C) thalamus.
     D) limbic system.
     E) cerebral cortex.

109. The most extensive regions of the brain, which enable learning and memory, are called
     A) reticular formation.
     B) projection areas.
     C) sensory areas.
     D) temporal lobes.
     E) association areas.

110. After he suffered a stroke, Mr. Santore's physical coordination skills and responsiveness
     to sensory stimulation quickly returned to normal. Unfortunately, however, he began to
     experience unusual difficulty in scheduling his daily activities and solving simple
     problems. It is most likely that Mr. Santore suffered damage to his:
     A) cerebellum.
     B) thalamus.
     C) hypothalamus.
     D) association areas.
     E) autonomic nervous system.

111. The process of anticipating that you will be punished for misbehaving takes place within
     A) limbic system.
     B) sensory cortex.
     C) reticular formation.
     D) association areas.
     E) sympathetic nervous system.

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112. The ability to recognize familiar faces is disturbed by damage to the right ________
     A) frontal
     B) parietal
     C) occipital
     D) temporal

113. An impaired use of language is known as:
     A) tomography.
     B) plasticity.
     C) phrenology.
     D) aphasia.

114. The part of the cerebral cortex that directs the muscle movements involved in speech is
     known as:
     A) Wernicke's area.
     B) Broca's area.
     C) the amygdala.
     D) the angular gyrus.
     E) the reticular formation.

115. After Miguel's recent automobile accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebral
     cortex in Broca's area. It is likely that Miguel will have difficulty:
     A) remembering past events.
     B) speaking fluently.
     C) reading.
     D) understanding other people when they speak.

116. Wernicke's area is typically located in the left ________ lobe.
     A) parietal
     B) occipital
     C) temporal
     D) frontal

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117. After Paul's serious snow-skiing accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebral
     cortex in Wernicke's area. Because of the damage, Paul is most likely to experience
     difficulty in:
     A) remembering past events.
     B) pronouncing words correctly.
     C) understanding what others are saying.
     D) recognizing familiar faces.

118. After a severe automobile accident, Louis lost his ability to read, even though he could
     see well, speak fluently, and understand whatever others said. It is likely that his cortex
     was damaged in:
     A) the angular gyrus.
     B) Wernicke's area.
     C) the frontal lobe.
     D) Broca's area.

119. The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area
     is known as brain:
     A) tomography.
     B) phrenology.
     C) hemispherectomy.
     D) aphasia.
     E) plasticity.

120. PET scans have revealed that the visual cortex is activated when blind people read
     Braille. This best illustrates:
     A) plasticity.
     B) aphasia.
     C) hemispherectomy.
     D) phrenology.

121. A person whose hand had been amputated actually felt sensations on his nonexistent
     fingers when his face was stroked. This best illustrates the consequences of:
     A) tomography.
     B) brain plasticity.
     C) the alien hand syndrome.
     D) hemispherectomy.
     E) aphasia.

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122. Neural regulation of a child's language functioning is transferred to the right hemisphere
     if speech areas in the left hemisphere are damaged. This best illustrates:
     A) aphasia.
     B) hemispherectomy.
     C) plasticity.
     D) tomography.
     E) phrenology.

123. The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in:
     A) children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed.
     B) individuals with Alzheimer's disease.
     C) adults with aphasia.
     D) elderly stroke patients.
     E) people free of any disease or brain damage.

124. Damage to the left cerebral hemisphere is most likely to reduce a person's ability to:
     A) solve arithmetic problems.
     B) copy drawings.
     C) recognize faces.
     D) recognize familiar melodies.

125. The corpus callosum is a wide band of neural fibers that:
     A) enables the left hemisphere to control the right side of the body.
     B) transmits information between the cerebral hemispheres.
     C) controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs.
     D) directs the muscle movements involved in speech.

126. Neurosurgeons have severed the corpus callosum in human patients in order to reduce:
     A) aphasia.
     B) epileptic seizures.
     C) depression.
     D) neural plasticity.
     E) reward deficiency syndrome.

127. If a picture of a comb is briefly flashed in the left visual field of a splitbrain patient, she
     should be able to:
     A) use her left hand to draw a picture of the comb.
     B) use her right hand to draw a picture of the comb.
     C) orally report what she saw.
     D) use her right hand to write the word “comb.”

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128. Most cases of alien hand syndrome involve some damage to the:
     A) reticular formation.
     B) corpus callosum.
     C) angular gyrus.
     D) hippocampus.
     E) cerebellum.

129. In a recent car accident, Tamiko sustained damage to his right cerebral hemisphere. This
     injury is most likely to reduce Tamiko's ability to:
     A) facially express emotions.
     B) solve arithmetic problems.
     C) understand simple verbal requests.
     D) process information in an orderly sequence.

130. People typically recognize ________ more rapidly and accurately when they are flashed
     to the left hemisphere; they typically recognize ________ more rapidly and accurately
     when they are flashed to the right hemisphere.
     A) letters; numbers
     B) words; numbers
     C) numbers; letters
     D) words; pictures

131. Hearing-impaired people who use sign language typically:
     A) demonstrate greater mathematical competence than people without hearing
     B) process language in their left cerebral hemisphere.
     C) recognize facial expressions of emotion with their left rather than their right
         cerebral hemisphere.
     D) have a slightly smaller corpus callosum than people without hearing impairments.

132. Babies favor the _______ side of their mouth when beginning a smile and the ______
     side when babbling.
     A) left; left
     B) right; right
     C) left; right
     D) right; left

                                          Page 24
133. Research on left-handedness suggests that:
     A) genes or prenatal factors play a role in handedness.
     B) a greater proportion of women than men are left-handed.
     C) left-handers generally demonstrate less artistic competence than right-handers.
     D) most left-handers process language primarily in their right hemisphere.

134. Left-handedness is ________ than normal among people with reading disabilities and
     ________ than normal among artists.
     A) lower; higher
     B) lower; lower
     C) higher; lower
     D) higher; higher

135. Compared with right-handers, left-handers are ________ likely to experience headaches
     and ________ likely to suffer from allergies.
     A) more; less
     B) less; more
     C) more; more
     D) less; less

136. How have Coren and Halpern explained the progressive decline in the percentage of
     left-handers among increasingly older population samples?
     A) Left-handers die at younger ages than right-handers.
     B) Left-handers gradually make increasing use of their right hands as they progress
           through adulthood.
     C) Parents today are less likely to discourage left-handedness in children than were the
           parents of previous generations.
     D) There has been a dramatic increase in the percentage of left-handed infants born in
           each successive decade of this century.

137. Reading a story involves brain activity in the ________ cerebral hemisphere(s).
     Producing a creative artistic drawing involves brain activity in the ________ cerebral
     A) left; right
     B) right; left
     C) left; right and left
     D) right and left; right
     E) right and left; right and left

                                          Page 25
138. The endocrine system consists of:
     A) glial cells.
     B) neural networks.
     C) interneurons.
     D) glands.

139. Hormones are the chemical messengers of the:
     A) cerebral cortex.
     B) autonomic nervous system.
     C) endocrine system.
     D) limbic system.
     E) reticular formation.

140. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into:
     A) synaptic gaps.
     B) the bloodstream.
     C) the limbic system.
     D) sensory neurons.
     E) interneurons.

141. The ovaries in females and the testes in males are part of the:
     A) limbic system.
     B) endocrine system.
     C) sympathetic nervous system.
     D) reticular formation.
     E) central nervous system.

142. If a professor accused you of cheating on a test, your adrenal glands would probably
     release ________ into your bloodstream.
     A) endorphins
     B) acetylcholine
     C) seratonin
     D) epinephrine
     E) insulin

                                           Page 26
143. The master gland of the endocrine system is the:
     A) thyroid gland.
     B) hypothalamus.
     C) adrenal gland.
     D) pituitary gland.
     E) pancreas.

144. Acetylcholine is to epinephrine as ________ is to ________.
     A) sympathetic nervous system; parasympathetic nervous system
     B) motor neuron; sensory neuron
     C) neurotransmitter; hormone
     D) agonist; antagonist
     E) parasympathetic nervous system; sympathetic nervous system

145. At the age of 22, Mrs. LaBlanc was less than 4 feet tall. Her short stature was probably
     influenced by the lack of a growth hormone produced by the:
     A) pancreas.
     B) thyroid.
     C) adrenal gland.
     D) pituitary gland.
     E) hypothalamus.

146. According to Roger Sperry, a recognition that the mind cannot be fully explained by the
     activity of nerve cells is important for appreciating our human capacity for:
     A) information processing.
     B) neural plasticity.
     C) moral responsibility.
     D) computed tomography.

                                           Page 27
Answer Key
   1.   A
   2.   D
   3.   B
   4.   A
   5.   C
   6.   A
   7.   D
   8.   B
   9.   D
  10.   B
  11.   C
  12.   C
  13.   A
  14.   D
  15.   B
  16.   D
  17.   C
  18.   B
  19.   C
  20.   C
  21.   C
  22.   D
  23.   B
  24.   B
  25.   C
  26.   D
  27.   B
  28.   B
  29.   D
  30.   A
  31.   D
  32.   B
  33.   C
  34.   C
  35.   C
  36.   A
  37.   C
  38.   D
  39.   E
  40.   D
  41.   D
  42.   C
  43.   A
  44.   C

             Page 28
45.   A
46.   D
47.   C
48.   E
49.   C
50.   A
51.   C
52.   A
53.   B
54.   C
55.   A
56.   D
57.   D
58.   A
59.   B
60.   A
61.   D
62.   D
63.   B
64.   D
65.   B
66.   C
67.   B
68.   C
69.   D
70.   B
71.   A
72.   B
73.   A
74.   B
75.   D
76.   B
77.   A
78.   A
79.   D
80.   A
81.   D
82.   A
83.   A
84.   C
85.   E
86.   B
87.   C
88.   A
89.   D
90.   C

          Page 29
 91.   D
 92.   B
 93.   D
 94.   E
 95.   C
 96.   A
 97.   C
 98.   B
 99.   D
100.   B
101.   C
102.   C
103.   B
104.   B
105.   D
106.   C
107.   C
108.   E
109.   E
110.   D
111.   D
112.   D
113.   D
114.   B
115.   B
116.   C
117.   C
118.   A
119.   E
120.   A
121.   B
122.   C
123.   A
124.   A
125.   B
126.   B
127.   A
128.   B
129.   A
130.   D
131.   B
132.   C
133.   A
134.   D
135.   C
136.   A

           Page 30
137.   E
138.   D
139.   C
140.   B
141.   B
142.   D
143.   D
144.   C
145.   D
146.   C

           Page 31

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