Precipitation Changes in Northeast Ohio Inferred from Tree Ring Widths, Kline Farm, Holmes County, Ohio The College of Wooster, Geology Climate Change Class 2006 Background Methods Results The strongest climatic relationship between tends to occur in June based on increase in tree growth. Mean monthly temperature and precipitation of Wooster, Ohio has been recorded At Organic Valley Farm, samples were obtained by extracting three cylindrical cores from nine The cause of the exhibited increase in tree growth is undetermined at present, but hypotheses that are continuously since 1888 by the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center different trees. For each tree a GPS Location was taken and the circumference (Fig. 8) of the currently being tested include increased precipitation, increased carbon dioxide fertilization and nitrogen (OARDC). These data are presented here to characterize the climate of the region and tree was measured. fertilization. to compare with the tree-ring records generated from the white oak stand at Kline Average Precipitation Standard Deviation Average Temperature Standard Deviation Farm. Average Monthly Precipitation and Standard Deviation Mean Monthly Temperature Values and Standard Deviation 1100 550 25 3.5 Mean Monthly Temperature 1000 500 20 3 Average Temperature Average Precipitation 900 450 15 Standard Deviation Standard Deviation 2.5 30 800 400 10 Degrees (C) 20 2 700 350 5 10 1.5 600 300 0 0 v -10 n ne c ly g ril -5 1 ar pt b ct ay 500 250 No Ja De Au Fe Ju Ap Se O M Ju Feb April June Aug Oct Dec M Feb April June Aug Oct Dec Month Month Month Figure 10. Standard deviation and average Figure 11. Standard deviation and average monthly precipitation values. Note the highest monthly temperatures and shows variation variability occurs in summer. around the mean (red line). Figure 1. Mean monthly temperature since 1888. As expected, summer months have June Monthly Mean Temperature KF Standardized. Index KF Raw Data KF Standardized Index the highest values with a maximum for June. June Mean Monthly Temperature and KF Standardized Index vs. Year KF Raw Data and KF Standarized Index vs. Year 16 1.4 3 1.8 June Monthly Mean Temperature (degrees C) Mean Monthly Precipitation 17 1.6 2.5 1.2 18 1.4 KF Standardized. Index KF Standardized Index 1200 19 2 1 KF Raw Data 1000 Figures 4-7. Climate Change class and David Kline coring and measuring white oaks at the Kline Family Farm 1.2 Precip (mm) 20 1.5 800 0.8 1 21 600 Upon returning to the College of Wooster, cores were prepared and mark for dendroclimatic 1 22 0.8 400 analysis. Ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm. Crossdating was done with the 0.6 0.5 200 aid of the computer program COFECHA (Fig. 9). The Kline Farm cores were compared with a 23 0.6 0 regional master tree-ring series from Northeast Ohio to check the . 24 0.4 0 0.4 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 v n ne c ly g ril pt ar b ct ay Year No Ja De Au Correlation=-0.39 Fe Ju Ap Se O Year M Ju M Month Figure 12. June Mean Monthly Temperature has the Age of Trees at Kline Farm, Wooster, Ohio highest correlation to the KF Standardized Index, with Figure 13. The decrease in the monotonic rise after summer correlations in general being higher than other standardization of the raw data is apparent in their Figure 2. Mean monthly precipitation since 1888. Summer months have the highest 330 seasonal correlations of temperature. The clear correlation juxtaposition. The removal of this trend, which may be due average precipitation values. Note that the is a summer maximum and a secondary 310 between the two curves, numerically calculated as -0.39, to anthropogenic addition of nutrients into the climate maximum in January. indicates the plausibility of causality between temperature system and terrain changes, should accentuate trends 290 and ring growth. indicating a variation in climatatic factors. 270 Age (yrs) 250 The Kline Farm is an Amish farm owned and operated by David Kline. It is located in 230 Holmes County, Ohio and has old growth white oak (Quercus alba) trees. The 2006 Climate 210 June Precipitation KF Standardized Index 190 Change class from the College of Wooster collected a number of tree core samples of white 170 June Precipitation and KF Standardized Index vs. Year oak from this area to study the ages of these trees. Nine trees were cored for this project. 150 3000 1.4 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 2500 Circumference (in) 1.2 June Precipitation (mm) KF Standardized Index 2000 1 Figure 8. Graph showing age of tree compared with the tree circumference . Note that there is not a clear relationship between tree age and tree size. 1500 0.8 1000 0.6 500 0 0.4 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Year Correlation=0.35 Figure 14. The month of June also proves important Figure 15. An increase in ring widths in Northeast Ohio over the in regards to its precipitation. Here, June past 400 years, based on trees which began their growth prior precipitation is graphed with the KF Standardized to 1800. The red line shows variation in sample size, which Index. There is a clear correlation between the two peaks around the year 1800 because that is the age of most curves, numerically calculated as 0.35, indicating the historical structures dated (for nonliving trees). The blue line plausibility of causality between the precipitation and shows high frequency, annual variability in ring widths, and the ring growth. green line shows the low frequency trends in width size. Acknowledgements: We would like to thank David Kline for allowing us to obtain samples from his farm.The OARDC meteorological data was obtained from the Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN). Also, thanks to Nigel Brush for arranging Figure 9. Principle of Crossdating. To extend a tree-ring chronology, tree our trip to the Kline Farm. Ed Cook (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory) provided Figure 3. Topographic map of Holmes County. Red dot indicates location of Kline Farm. rings of living trees can be compared to samples of recently dead trees, which can e compared to long-dead trees. advice regarding tree-ring processing.
Pages to are hidden for
"ccposter2006"Please download to view full document