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									                                                         Precipitation Changes in Northeast Ohio Inferred from Tree Ring Widths,
                                                                                                          Kline Farm, Holmes County, Ohio
                                                                                                                  The College of Wooster, Geology
                                                                                                                          Climate Change Class 2006

                                                       Background                                                                                                Methods                                                                                                                                                                                             Results
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The strongest climatic relationship between tends to occur in June based on increase in tree growth.
   Mean monthly temperature and precipitation of Wooster, Ohio has been recorded                             At Organic Valley Farm, samples were obtained by extracting three cylindrical cores from nine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The cause of the exhibited increase in tree growth is undetermined at present, but hypotheses that are
   continuously since 1888 by the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center                          different trees. For each tree a GPS Location was taken and the circumference (Fig. 8) of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    currently being tested include increased precipitation, increased carbon dioxide fertilization and nitrogen
   (OARDC). These data are presented here to characterize the climate of the region and                      tree was measured.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    fertilization.
   to compare with the tree-ring records generated from the white oak stand at Kline                                                                                                                                                                                                          Average Precipitation                   Standard Deviation                                                                                                                        Average Temperature                 Standard Deviation
   Farm.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Average Monthly Precipitation and Standard Deviation                                                                                                                            Mean Monthly Temperature Values and Standard Deviation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1100                                                                         550                                                                                                       25                                                                   3.5
                                                      Mean Monthly Temperature
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1000                                                                         500                                                                                                       20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Average Temperature
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Average Precipitation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               900                                                                         450                                                                                                       15




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Standard Deviation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Standard Deviation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2.5
                                                30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               800                                                                         400                                                                                                       10
                                  Degrees (C)




                                                20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               700                                                                         350                                                                                                        5
                                                10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               600                                                                         300                                                                                                        0
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Feb     April    June          Aug      Oct      Dec
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Feb        April    June           Aug      Oct       Dec

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Month
                                                                   Month                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Month


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Figure 10. Standard deviation and average                                                                                                                                             Figure 11. Standard deviation and average
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                monthly precipitation values. Note the highest                                                                                                                                        monthly temperatures and shows variation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                variability occurs in summer.                                                                                                                                                         around the mean (red line).

                  Figure 1. Mean monthly temperature since 1888. As expected, summer months have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     June Monthly Mean Temperature                             KF Standardized. Index                                                                                                        KF Raw Data                      KF Standardized Index
                  the highest values with a maximum for June.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              June Mean Monthly Temperature and KF Standardized Index vs. Year                                                                                                                            KF Raw Data and KF Standarized Index vs. Year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     16                                                                          1.4                                                                                            3                                                                         1.8




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                June Monthly Mean Temperature (degrees C)
                                                      Mean Monthly Precipitation                                                                                                                                                                                                     17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.4




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  KF Standardized. Index




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    KF Standardized Index
                                    1200                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           KF Raw Data
                                    1000                                                                         Figures 4-7. Climate Change class and David Kline coring and measuring white oaks at the Kline Family Farm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.2
                    Precip (mm)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     20                                                                                                                                                                        1.5
                                          800                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0.8                                                                                                                                                                      1
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                                          600                                                                Upon returning to the College of Wooster, cores were prepared and mark for dendroclimatic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   0.8
                                          400                                                                analysis. Ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm. Crossdating was done with the                                                                                                                                                          0.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0.5
                                          200                                                                aid of the computer program COFECHA (Fig. 9). The Kline Farm cores were compared with a                                                                                 23                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   0.6


                                                0                                                            regional master tree-ring series from Northeast Ohio to check the .                                                                                                     24                                                                        0.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0                                                                         0.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1900        1920           1940          1960       1980       2000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1700     1750     1800     1850          1900       1950      2000
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Correlation=-0.39
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                                                                    Month                                                                                                                                                                                                   Figure 12. June Mean Monthly Temperature has the
                                                                                                                                                         Age of Trees at Kline Farm, Wooster, Ohio                                                                          highest correlation to the KF Standardized Index, with                                                                                                                             Figure 13. The decrease in the monotonic rise after
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            summer correlations in general being higher than other                                                                                                                             standardization of the raw data is apparent in their
                  Figure 2. Mean monthly precipitation since 1888. Summer months have the highest                                             330                                                                                                                           seasonal correlations of temperature. The clear correlation                                                                                                                        juxtaposition. The removal of this trend, which may be due
                  average precipitation values. Note that the is a summer maximum and a secondary                                             310                                                                                                                           between the two curves, numerically calculated as -0.39,                                                                                                                           to anthropogenic addition of nutrients into the climate
                  maximum in January.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       indicates the plausibility of causality between temperature                                                                                                                        system and terrain changes, should accentuate trends
                                                                                                                                              290
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and ring growth.                                                                                                                                                                   indicating a variation in climatatic factors.
                                                                                                                                              270
                                                                                                                                  Age (yrs)




                                                                                                                                              250
The Kline Farm is an Amish farm owned and operated by David Kline. It is located in                                                           230
Holmes County, Ohio and has old growth white oak (Quercus alba) trees. The 2006 Climate                                                       210                                                                                                                                                  June Precipitation                  KF Standardized Index
                                                                                                                                              190
Change class from the College of Wooster collected a number of tree core samples of white                                                     170                                                                                                                                         June Precipitation and KF Standardized Index vs. Year
oak from this area to study the ages of these trees. Nine trees were cored for this project.                                                  150                                                                                                                               3000                                                                             1.4

                                                                                                                                                    80    90        100        110        120        130   140
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2500
                                                                                                                                                                       Circumference (in)                                                                                                                                                                        1.2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                June Precipitation (mm)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          KF Standardized Index
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1
                                                                                                                                Figure 8. Graph showing age of tree compared with the tree circumference .
                                                                                                                                Note that there is not a clear relationship between tree age and tree size.                                                                     1500

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1000


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 500



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0                                                                        0.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1900         1920          1940          1960       1980       2000

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Year                            Correlation=0.35


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Figure 14. The month of June also proves important                                                                                                         Figure 15. An increase in ring widths in Northeast Ohio over the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              in regards to its precipitation. Here, June                                                                                                                past 400 years, based on trees which began their growth prior
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              precipitation is graphed with the KF Standardized                                                                                                          to 1800. The red line shows variation in sample size, which
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Index. There is a clear correlation between the two                                                                                                        peaks around the year 1800 because that is the age of most
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              curves, numerically calculated as 0.35, indicating the                                                                                                     historical structures dated (for nonliving trees). The blue line
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              plausibility of causality between the precipitation and                                                                                                    shows high frequency, annual variability in ring widths, and the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ring growth.                                                                                                                                               green line shows the low frequency trends in width size.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Acknowledgements: We would like to thank David Kline for allowing us to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              obtain samples from his farm.The OARDC meteorological data was obtained from the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN). Also, thanks to Nigel Brush for arranging
                                                                                                                                Figure 9. Principle of Crossdating. To extend a tree-ring chronology, tree                    our trip to the Kline Farm. Ed Cook (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory) provided
                  Figure 3. Topographic map of Holmes County. Red dot indicates location of Kline Farm.                         rings of living trees can be compared to samples of recently dead trees, which
                                                                                                                                can e compared to long-dead trees.                                                            advice regarding tree-ring processing.

								
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