Worksheet: Acids, Bases, and Salts Name: ___________________________ BASES:
Bases tend to taste ____________ and feel ____________.
What are Acids, Bases, and Salts? Like acids, aqueous basic solutions conduct ____________, and are identified as
The Swedish chemist, Svante Arrhenius introduced the theory of ionization and used this Bases react with _____________ to produce a salt and ______________.
theory to explain much about the behavior of acids and bases. Bases turn ______________ different colors.
An Arrhenius acid is defined as any compound that dissociates in aqueous Naming Acids, Bases, and Salts
solution to form __________ ions.
HNO3 (aq) H3O+ + NO3 – (aq) Since bases and salts are __________ compounds, they are named in the usual way:
KNO3 _________________ NH4OH ______________
HCl (aq) ________________________________________ KNO2 _________________ Al(OH)3 _____________
An Arrhenius base is defined as any compound that dissociates in aqueous Binary acids consist of __________ element, the first being ____________.
solution to form ________________ ions. Binary acids are named using the format:
KOH(aq) K+ (aq) + OH- (aq) Hydro_(root word of second element) __ ic acid
NaOH (aq) ______________________________________ Ternary acids consist of _____________ elements. Do NOT use a prefix.
Simply change the ending of the polyatomic ion’s name and add the word
Salts are compounds that dissociate in aqueous solution releasing neither “acid”:
______________ ions nor ____________ ions. -ate becomes ________ and –ite becomes _________
KCl (aq) K+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)
Name the following acids:
Using the Arrhenius definition, classify the following examples as acids, bases, or salts: H3PO3 _________________ HC2H3O2 ___________________
H2CO3_________________ HClO ________________
HBr __________ KCl __________ HF _________________ H2SO3 ___________________
Mg(OH)2 __________ H3PO4 __________
HCl __________ HClO __________
KNO2 __________ Al(OH)3 __________ Acids & Bases Properties
HFO4 __________ KC2H3O2 __________
Ba(OH)2 __________ NaCl __________ 1. What are five general properties of acids?
a. ________________ b. ________________
Acids and bases can also be identified using an operational definition. Operational c. ________________ d. ________________
definitions are simply a list of properties. e. ________________
2. Name 4 common substances that have one or more of these properties.
ACIDS: a. ________________ b. ________________
A ___________ taste is a characteristic property of all acids in aqueous solution. c. ________________ d. ________________
Acids react with some metals to produce _________ gas.
Because aqueous acid solutions conduct electricity, they are identified as 3. Name the following acids:
Acids react with bases to produce a _________ and water. a. HBrO _________________________________
Acids turn ____________ different colors.
b. HBrO3 _________________________________
4. Write formulas for the following compounds: 1. CaCl2
a. chlorous acid ____________________________
b. hydrofluoric acid __________________________ 2. BaSO4
5. What are five general properties of bases?
a. ________________ b. ________________
c. ________________ d. ________________
6. Name 4 common substances that have one or more of these properties.
a. ________________ b. ________________ 5. KBr
c. ________________ d. ________________
7. Why are strong acids also strong electrolytes? Note Taking Guide: Episode 1102
8. List all of the strong acids… Acid/Base indicator: ______________ that changes __________ in the
presence of an _________ or a __________.
9. What does it mean if an acid is weak?
Solution Litmus paper Phenolphtalein Bromothymol Cabbage Juice
(RB, BR, (color or NC) Blue (color or NC)
Neutralization Reactions or NC (color or NC)
Complete the following neutralization reactions. Indicate the acid, base, and salt.
1. HCl + NaOH → __________ + _________ KOH
2. HNO3 + KOH → __________ + _________
3. Ca(OH)2 + HNO3 → __________ + _________ 1. Litmus turns _______________ in an acid and _______________ in a base.
2. Phenolphthalein (phth) turns _____________ in an acid and ______________
in a base.
3. Bromothymol blue turns ______________ in an acid and _______________
4. Mg(OH)2 + HCl → __________ + _________
in a base.
4. Cabbage juice turns ____________ in an acid and ____________ in a base.
Strong Acids: dissociate ________________ in _________ (ex: _________ )
5. KOH + HCl → __________ + _________ Weak Acids: dissociate ________________ in _________
(ex: _________or ____________)
Strong Bases: dissociate ________________in _________ (ex: _________ )
Write the formula equation for a neutralization reaction that would form each of the Weak Bases: dissociate ________________in _________
following salts: (ex: _________or ____________)
pH = ________________ [H+] and [OH-]
0_______________7_______________14 1. Calculate [H+] of a solution whose [OH-] = 1 x 10-5 M
2. Calculate [OH-] of a solution whose [H+] = 1 x 10-2 M
3. Calculate [H+] of a solution whose [OH-] = 2.5 x 10-4 M
Determine the pH of a solution of HCl that has a molarity of 1 X 10 -4 M. 4. Calculate [OH-] of a solution whose [H+] = 0.00375 M
[H+] and pH
1. Calculate the pH of a solution whose [H+] = 1 x 10-6 M
Calculate the pH for a solution of HNO3 with a molarity of ______________. 2. Calculate the pH of a solution whose [H+] = 9.65 x 10-3 M
3. Calculate the [H+] of a solution whose pH = 2.68
4. Calculate the [H+] of a solution whose pH = 11.93
Calculate the pH for a solution of H2SO4 with a molarity of ______________. [OH-] and pOH
1. Calculate the pOH of a solution whose [OH-] = 1 x 10-11 M
2. Calculate the pOH of a solution whose [OH-] = 7.24 x 10-3 M
[H+][OH-] = _____________ 3. Calculate the [OH-] of a solution whose pOH = 4.00
4. Calculate the [OH-] of a solution whose pOH = 1.14
Calculate the pH of a solution of NaOH with a molarity of 3.0 X 10 -2 M.
pH and pOH
1. Calculate the pOH of a solution whose pH = 6.00
2. Calculate the pOH of a solution whose pH = 9.78
Find the pH for a solution of Ca(OH)2 with a molarity of ______________. 3. Calculate the pH of a solution whose pOH = 12.00
4. Calculate the pH of a solution whose pOH = 3.88
pH and [OH-]
Calculate both the hydrogen ion concentration and the hydroxide ion 1. Calculate the pH of a solution whose [OH-] = 1 x 10-11 M
concentration for an aqueous solution that has a pH of _____. 2. Calculate the pH of a solution whose [OH-] = 0.0000046 M
3. Calculate the [OH-] of a solution whose pH = 3.00
4. Calculate the [OH-] of a solution whose pH = 10.62
To a small but measurable degree, water undergoes self-ionization: pOH and [H+]
H20(l) + H20(l) H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq) 1. Calculate the pOH of a solution whose [H +] = 1 x 10-1 M
The use of brackets is a way of abbreviating “molar concentration.” Thus, [H +] can be 2. Calculate the pOH of a solution whose [H ] = 5.55 x 10 M
read, “the concentration of hydrogen ion in moles per liter. [OH-] can be read, “the 3. Calculate the [H ] of a solution whose pOH = 8.00
concentration of hydroxide ion in moles per liter. 4. Calculate the [H+] of a solution whose pOH = 9.87
At 25°C, [H+] = 1.0 x 10-7 moles H+ per liter of solution
[OH-] = 1.0 x 10-7 moles OH- per liter of solution
Ionization Constant for Water (KW) Calculating pH & Concentration
1. KW = [H+][OH-] = (1.0 x 10-7)(1.0 x 10-7) = 1.0 x 10-14
2. KW is a constant at ordinary ranges of room temperatures I. Determine the hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations from the following
pH is the negative of the common logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration 1. 1x10-4 M HCl
pH = - log [H+]
pOH is the negative of the common logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration
pOH = - log [OH-]
pH + pOH = 14.0 2. 1x10-3 M HNO3
3. 3x10-2 M NaOH
4. 1x10-4 M Ca(OH)2 4. 3.67
II. Determine the pH of the following solutions:
1. 1x10-3 M HCl V. A solution contains 4.5x10-3 HCl. Determine the following:
Note Taking Guide: Episode 1103
2. 1x10-5 M HNO3 A _______________ reaction is the reaction between an _______________ and
a _______________ to produce a _______________ plus _______________.
A _______________ is any compound containing the _______________ from a
base and the _______________ from an acid.
3. 1x10 M NaOH
Write the neutralization reaction when H2SO4 reacts with KOH. Label the acid,
the base, and the salt.
4. 1x10-2 M KOH H2SO4 + KOH
Write the neutralization reaction when ________________ acid reacts with
5. 2.5x10-6 M HNO3 _______________ hydroxide.
• A _______________ is a laboratory method used to determine the
_______________ of an acid or base in _____________ by performing a
6. 2x10-2 M Sr(OH)2 _____________ reaction with a ______________ solution.
• In a _______________ solution, the _____________ of _____________
ions must equal the _______________ of _______________ ions.
III. Determine the pH if the hydronium ion concentration [H3O+] is:
1. 6.7x10-4 M Moles __ = moles __
2. 2.5x10-2 M Moles __ = moles __
IV. Determine the [H3O+] from the following pH:
1. 5 moles __
(MA)(VA) = moles __
1 moleA 1 moleB
Example Titration Problem: 5. In a titration of HCl with NaOH, 100.0 mL of the base was required to
Find the molarity of this sample of hydrochloric acid (HCl) by neutralizing it with 0.5 M neutralize 20.0 mL of 5.0 M HCl. What is the molarity of the NaOH? (Be sure
sodium hydroxide (NaOH). to write the neutralization reaction.)
Volume of HCl Volume of NaOH
6. In a titration of H2SO4 with NaOH, 60.0 mL of 0.020 M NaOH was needed to
• The _______________ of a titration is the point at which the indicator neutralize 15.0 mL of H2SO4. What is the molarity of the acid? (Be sure to
changes _______________ indicating that _______________ has been write the neutralization reaction.)
reached so the _______________ of ______________ ions and the
_______________ of _______________ ions are _______________.
moles H+ moles OH-
(MA)(VA) = (MB)(VB) 7. If 10.0 mL of 0.300 M KOH are required to neutralize 30.0 mL of gastric juice
1 moleA 1 moleB (HCl), what is the molarity of the gastric juice?
Homework: Complete the following acid base reactions….
In a titration of _______________ with _______________,
_______________mL of the base were required to neutralize 10.0 mL of a 1. HCl + Mg(OH) 2
_______________M _______________. What is the molarity of the KOH?
2. HBr + LiOH
3. HF + Al(OH) 3
4. Ba(OH) 2 + HI
60.0 mL of _______________ molar _______________ were needed to 5. H2SO4 + Pb(OH)4
neutralize 30.0 mL of _______________. What is the molarity of the acid?
6. Hg(OH)2 + H3PO4
7. HNO3 + Cu(OH) 2
Worksheet: Neutralization and Titration 8. Zn(OH)2 + H3PO4
1. Give the word equation for the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
9. H2SO3 + Mn(OH)4
10. NaOH + HC2H3O2
2. Complete these equations:
HCl + LiOH
11. In a titration, 25.9 mL of 3.4 x 10-3 M Ba(OH)2 neutralized 16.6 mL of HCl
HC2H3O2 + Mg(OH)2
solution. What is the molarity of the solution?
3. A _______________ is a laboratory method used to determine the
concentration of an acid or a _______________ in solution by performing a
_______________ reaction with a standard solution.
4. At the ______________ of the titration, the indicator changes color, which 12. Find the molarity of a Ca(OH)2 solutions, given that 428 mL of it is neutralized
indicates neutralization. Once neutralized, moles of _______________ and
moles of _______________ are equal. in a titration by 115 mL of 6.7 x 10-3 M HNO3.
13. Suppose that 10.1 mL of HNO3 is neutralized by 71.4 mL of a 4.2 x 10-3 M solution
of KOH in a titration. Calculate the concentration of the HNO3 solution.