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Simulation of an Infectious Disease Brief Description An instructor leads a group of baccalaureate nursing students through a simulation of a man hospitalized with fever and chills. Students begin with preparation for the simulation through a brief description of the patient. Students then choose roles to play in the simulation and are prepared by the facilitator to assume the role. They interact with the simulated manikin to identify priorities of care. During the simulation, students learn that the patient has malaria. Following the event, students debrief about what they learned. The “Video Only” version is intended for students to review with an assignment from one of the suggested curriculum insertion points listed below. The “Video Only” version could also be viewed by graduate level nurse educator students or skills lab faculty to reflect on the pedagogical approach utilized, before reviewing the “Video with Teaching Techniques” version. The “Video with Teaching Techniques” version is intended for faculty and nurse educator students to review, to learn the role of facilitating a simulation event. Time 42 minute video-stream. Suggested Curriculum Insertion Points: Basic Skills Laboratory 1. Review the simulation to familiarize self with how a simulation event is run. 2. Identify precautions taken to prevent the transmission of an unknown pathogen. 3. Critique the application and removal of protective clothing and hand hygiene practice. 4. Identify signs and symptoms suggestive of an infectious disease. a. State one physical sign that the students missed in their examination of the patient (mosquito bites). b. Describe how students ruled out the cut on the foot as a potential source for the fever. 5. Explain to the patient the rationale for administering acetaminophen for a fever. 6. Discuss the importance of checking a medication dose prior to administration; identify how the student demonstrated accountability for administering the acetaminophen. Leadership 1. Select an approach to prevent the spread of a possible infection for a situation where the source of transmission and infectious nature of the pathogen is initially unknown. 2. Analyze the role of the nurse in revealing and explaining a diagnosis to a patient. 3. Describe how the team worked together for the benefit of the patient and family. 4. Give examples of how the lead nurse directed the patient’s care. 5. Identify resources available in the clinical setting to facilitate learning about infectious disease-related issues. Medical-Surgical Nursing 1. Differentiate between the information obtained from thick and thin blood smears for malaria. 2. Describe the life cycle of a plasmodium inside of a human. a. Explain why patients experience recurrent, cyclic signs and symptoms. b. Explain the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved with chills. 3. Propose a nursing diagnosis regarding the patient’s body temperature 4. Develop a plan of care to manage a patient with malaria. 5. Describe a culturally sensitive approach to providing care for a patient who is from Costa Rica. 6. Identify outcomes to measure the fluid management of a patient with malaria. 7. Develop a plan to teach a patient about how to protect self from malaria while traveling or outdoors. Readings College of Nurses of Ontario. (2005). Practice guideline: Culturally sensitive care. Publication Number 41040. Available through College of Nurses Ontario, 1-800- 387-5526. Griffith, K.S., Lewis, L.S., Mali, S., & Parise, M.E. (2007). Treatment of malaria in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 297: 2264-2277.
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