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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) is an online Journal in English published bimonthly for scientists, Engineers and Research Scholars involved in computer science, Information Technology and its applications to publish high quality and refereed papers. Papers reporting original research and innovative applications from all parts of the world are welcome. Papers for publication in the IJETTCS are selected through rigid peer review to ensure originality, timeliness, relevance and readability. The aim of IJETTCS is to publish peer reviewed research and review articles in rapidly developing field of computer science engineering and technology. This journal is an online journal having full access to the research and review paper. The journal also seeks clearly written survey and review articles from experts in the field, to promote intuitive understanding of the state-of-the-art and application trends. The journal aims to cover the latest outstanding developments in the field of Computer Science and engineering Technology.
International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Volume 1, Issue 2, July – August 2012 ISSN 2278-6856 Gradational conception in Cleanroom Software Development Anshu Sharma1 and Shilpa Sharma2 1 DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kabir Nagar, Jalandhar, India 2 Lovely Professional University, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jalandhar, India Abstract: The aim of this paper is to lay down the idea and practical application of gradational conception in cleanroom software engineering process. Gradational development is based on the mathematical principle of referential transparency. Cleanroom software engineering process makes use of gradients or increments to develop the software product in sequence or series of additive subsets of user functions. The gradients are aggregated in the top down manner into the final product in the conception and the certification pipeline. The various factors that must be considered for the development of gradients understand of the requirements, complexity, reliability, requirement for sub system, clarity of user functions, dependencies between functions and reusability. Keywords: Gradient conception, cleanroom software engineering, software life cycle, referential transparency. 1. INTRODUCTION The main purpose of using cleanroom software engineering is to transform from individual craftsmanship to peered review engineering, sequential development to gradational development, individual unit testing to team correctness verification, unmeasured reliability to measured reliability. The central fundamental of Figure 1 Cleanroom Software Engineering Process  cleanroom software process is the software development based on formal methods and control implementation There are basically three teams to perform the various under statistical quality measurement. activities and they are: 1. Specification Team: It deals with the hardware/ The cleanroom software engineering process deals with software requirement definitions, design and various methods of software specification, design or implementation of the software gradients. verification/validation testing and finally to get quality 2. Certification Team: it deals with the quality certification. It starts up with small unit and end up with assurance by using various methods. fully integrated product by using top-down methodology. 3. Development Team: This team is responsible for The cleanroom strategy contains four parts i.e Part1 developing and verifying the software. The code consists of incremental planning, requirement gathering, inspection is performed for the correctness. and box structure specification. Part2 consists of formal design and correctness verification. Part3 consists of code 2. EASE OF USE generation, inspection, verification and statistical testing 1. Proper Control on Each Process: This and part4 contains statistical use testing and certification. technique gives the proper control over gradation development of software through the properties of referential transparencies. It also deals with the state date and responses based on stimuli Volume 1, Issue 2 July-August 2012 Page 150 International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Volume 1, Issue 2, July – August 2012 ISSN 2278-6856 histories. By verifying the result with the 3. PROPOSED WORK previous result one can improve or control on The overall objective of the gradational development is to each and every process. It combines many of grow a system with each new gradient as an elaboration formal methods and software quality methods to of the functions implemented in previous gradients. The get better decision and help in developing the new function in gradient should be plug-in to the previous error free products. gradient at predefined point in its structure and should satisfy the sub specifications associated with the processing requirements at those points. This process of function allocation is the practical implementation of referential transparency to gradational conception planning. Thus, logical allocation of functions to gradients based on relationship among functions and intrinsic functional dependencies will predominate in the definition of gradient content. In a database system, for example, functions to add data would typically precede functions to delete data. In a statistical system, functions to collect and enter data would ordinarily precede functions to analyze data and report results. Figure 2 Control Process It also enables cleanroom team to perform 3.1 Cleanroom Software Engineering various activities simultaneously. The product will undergo well proved increments and get the Cleanroom defines formal methods of requirement and feedback. Many specifications and models help design with statistical usage testing to produce software keep a product longer periods of time. with nearly none or zero defects. Software engineering 2. Zero failure in the field: this is the main emphasizes following a process model that separates objective of this paper. It gives less than five requirements, design, coding, testing and the other steps. failures per KLOC. New teams should The cleanroom process embeds software development and experience a productivity increase in their first testing within a statistical quality control framework. project and continue the increase. Mathematically based software development processes are Correctness questions are asked and answered employed to create software that is correct by design and then formal mathematical verification is done. statistical usage testing processes are employed to provide 3. Implemented gradually with higher quality: inferences about software reliability. This systematic The significant advantage of cleanroom software process of accessing and controlling software quality engineering is that it can be developed gradually. during development permits the certification of software While the activities involved in cleanroom software engineering is very strict so it attain a fitness for use at delivery. higher quality. It deals with the deeper Cleanroom management is based on development and understanding of the requirements, design and certification of pipeline of user function gradients that code by all verifiers involved. execute in a system environment and accumulate top 4. Deals with formal design: It works on the down into the final product. specifications that are iteratively refined to Cleanroom teams interact with the variety of peer become the architectural designs and component organizations depending on organizational and project level designs. Cleanroom software engineering context. System engineering and system test uses the box structure specification to define the organizations may be involved in embedded software products. projects, standards, procurement and quality assurance. Organizations may be involved in large projects, configuration management, documentation and organizational software engineering process. The customer is part of cleanroom team as well. The term customer may mean external institutional sponsor, internal organizational sponsor, end user or any other Figure 3 Formal Design party that is appropriate for defining requirement and Once the requirements are fixed then functional and evaluating the evolving system. behavior of each gradation must be defined. At the end of each process the teams should have design resembling 3.2 Key ideas in Gradational Conception structure programming of their language of choice . The purpose of Gradient Planning Process is to: Allocate customer requirements defined in function Volume 1, Issue 2 July-August 2012 Page 151 International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Volume 1, Issue 2, July – August 2012 ISSN 2278-6856 specification to a series of software gradients that operations similar to an object, the stimuli (inputs) and satisfies software architecture. response (output) are represented, the information must Define schedule and resource allocation for gradient be fetched between transitions. The state is the development and certification. encapsulation of the stimulus history. Obtain agreement with the customer on the gradient SH * SD → R * SD plan. Stimulus history * State Data → Response * State Data Increments are designed and implemented as usage Clear box contains the algorithm design of state box hierarchies through box structure decomposition. This similar to the structure programming. It gives both data process preserves referential transparency between flow and control flow. It also allows updating the state successive decomposition to maintain intellectual control. data and response . Increments designs can be expressed in object, functions or any other form. Each increment is based on a prior 5. THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF specification. Increment specifications are expressed in GRADATIONAL CONCEPTION stimulus history based black box and state based state box Cleanroom software development is based upon the forms. Increment designs and implementations are mathematical principle of referential transparency. expressed in procedure based clear box forms that can Referential transparency in box structure hierarchies introduce new black boxes for further decomposition. requires that the black box specifications embedded in Reused or reengineered components are incorporated as clear boxes at each level of decomposition precisely planned. define the required functional behavior of their Team reviews during the increment design process focus subsequent decompositions into state and clear boxes. on issues such as clarity, maintainability, reuse and With referential transparency, intellectual control is conformance to style. In the companion correctness maintained and independent work at lower levels can verification process, the team focuses exclusively on proceed without concern for functional interactions at correctness. Specifications, designs and implementation higher levels. evolve during the increment design process and intended Referential transparency is the special property of functions are embedded in clear box procedure arithmetic mathematics that computes large and complex decomposition to permit effective correctness verification. expressions at one goes and gives the correct answer. It The team performs correctness verification as the last deals with the concept that operands value matters a lot in intellectual pass through the work. the equation its operands can be changed with other but The development team does not execute the increment same in value within a specific range. implementation. First execution is performed by the Table 1: Referential transparency in various systems certification team in the statistical testing and certification process after the development team has completed verification in the correctness verification process. Cleanroom minimizes the risk of integration faults through development based on the mathematical principle of referential transparency. Referential transparency in box structure hierarchies requires that the black box Once referential transparency has been established for a specifications embedded in clear boxes at each level of particular system or for a particular programming decomposition into state and clear boxes. With referential language, cleanroom incremental development and transparency, intellectual control is maintained and verification techniques are guaranteed to work for any independent work at lower levels can proceed without application that is developed in that language. In concern for functional interactions at higher level. applying cleanroom to object oriented development, the functional description of objects and their methods must 4. EQUATIONS be enhanced to establish referential transparency . Referential transparency can be applied in a formal way The black box gives the transition rules that specify the to full scale system development projects. product behavior as response to particular stimuli by using the concept of OO inheritance concept. SH (Stimulus History) →R (response) 6. PROCESS MODEL It specifies the system properties and functions by The gradational conception or we can say incremental mapping all possible stimulus histories to all possible development is the life cycle process model. It is the response. standardized format of planning, organizing and running State box encapsulates the information (state Data) and the new development products. Cleanroom software Volume 1, Issue 2 July-August 2012 Page 152 International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Volume 1, Issue 2, July – August 2012 ISSN 2278-6856 development products usually deal with the fixed use best strategies to remove risk factors. The spiral is financial budget, time constraints and other product visualized as a process passing through some number of constraints. iterations, with the four quadrants that represents the following activities: A. Formulate plans to identify software targets selected to implement the program, clarify the project development restrictions. B. Risk analysis that is an analytical assessment of selected programs to consider how to identify and eliminate risk. C. The implementation of the project for the development and verification. Risk driven spiral model emphasizing the conditions of options and constraints in order to support software Figure 4 Project Constraints reuse, software quality can help as a special goal of integration into the product development. There are hundreds of life cycle models like waterfall 6.3 Incremental Life Cycle Model model, spiral model, iterative model and many more. By It is also known as loop approach. In 1988 Boehm changing the life cycle model, we can improve or tradeoff developed the iterative model which includes risk analysis product quality, product visibility, development time, risk and risk management. It takes the core part and adds the reduction etc. functionality after every successful iteration. The incremental model is an intuitive approach to the waterfall model. Multiple development cycles take place making a life cycle as “multi waterfall cycle” cycles are divided up into smaller, more easily managed iterations. Each iteration passes through the requirements, design, implementation and testing phases. The working version of the software is produced during the first iteration, so one can have working software early on during the software life cycle. Subsequent iterations build on the initial software produced during the first iterations. 7. CONCLUSION Figure 5 Software Development Life Cycle Cleanroom software engineering is an engineering and managerial process for the development of high quality The various models that can be used for the gradational software with certified reliability. The main aim is to conception in cleanroom software development are as prevent the software errors as they occur. Testing should follows: not be the only place where the errors must be caught, but 6.1 Waterfall Model the design phase as well. One of the main components of It is easy to understand and work well matured products the cleanroom software engineering is gradational and weak team but it does not match real world. It is the development. theoretical model to understand the product properly. In gradational conception process of cleanroom software In a strict waterfall model, after each phase is finished, it engineering, each gradient is developed separately and proceeds to the next one. Reviews may occur before tested in a simulated production environment. This way moving to the next phase which allows for the possibility the test result will speak about the quality of sub system. of changes. Reviews may also be employed to ensure that If the gradient adheres to the pre defined quality the phase is indeed complete. The phase completion standards, then the next gradient development process is criteria are often referred to as a “gate” that the project started. If not then development is stopped and the must pass through to move to the next phase. Waterfall process is fixed. The results of the gradients can use in discourages revisiting and revising any prior phase once the improvement of the quality of the next gradient. it’s complete. Gradient prototyping and spiral life cycle model are 6.2 Spiral Life Cycle Model useful to manage the risks. Each gradient is a complete Since end user requirements are hard to obtain, it is iteration in the life cycle. This makes the process more natural to develop software in an experimental way and Volume 1, Issue 2 July-August 2012 Page 153 International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Volume 1, Issue 2, July – August 2012 ISSN 2278-6856 successful. The mathematical principle of referential transparency proved to be very useful in defining gradients that can be implemented as a sub system. References  Stacy J. Powell, Carmen J. Trammell, Richard C. Linger, Jessy H. Poore, “Cleanroom software engineering: technology and process”.  Carmen J. Trammell, Richard C. Linger, “Cleanroom software engineering” version 1 November 1996.  Carmen J. Trammell, Mark G. Pleszkoch, Richard C. Linger, Allan R. Hevner “The Incremental Development Process in Software Engineering” in Decision Support System 17 (1996) 55-71.  Richard C. Linger, Carmen J. Trammel “ technical Report on cleanroom software engineering reference model” November 1996  Chaelynne M. Wolak, “Taking the art out of Software Development an In-Depth Review of Cleanroom Software Engineering” 2001. AUTHOR Anshu Sharma received the B.E degree in Computer Science and Engineering from Lovely Institute of technology in 2009. And currently perusing M.S. degrees in Computer Science and Engineering from DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jalandhar. Shilpa Sharma received the B.E degree in Computer Science and Engineering from Lovely Institute of technology in 2009. And currently perusing M.S. degrees in Computer Science and Engineering from DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jalandhar. Volume 1, Issue 2 July-August 2012 Page 154
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