VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 5 CATEGORY: Emerging Technologies POSTED ON: 9/29/2012
International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) is an online Journal in English published bimonthly for scientists, Engineers and Research Scholars involved in computer science, Information Technology and its applications to publish high quality and refereed papers. Papers reporting original research and innovative applications from all parts of the world are welcome. Papers for publication in the IJETTCS are selected through rigid peer review to ensure originality, timeliness, relevance and readability. The aim of IJETTCS is to publish peer reviewed research and review articles in rapidly developing field of computer science engineering and technology. This journal is an online journal having full access to the research and review paper. The journal also seeks clearly written survey and review articles from experts in the field, to promote intuitive understanding of the state-of-the-art and application trends. The journal aims to cover the latest outstanding developments in the field of Computer Science and engineering Technology.
International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org Volume 1, Issue 2, July – August 2012 ISSN 2278-6856 Performance Evaluation of USB WiFi Bridge Based On Embedded System 1 Deepali Javale, 2Neelam Joshi, 3Supriya Pansare 1,2,3 University of Pune, Computer Department, MITCOE, Pune Abstract: Data transfer between two devices, one with USB The basic idea of the product is to transfer the data port but no WiFi connectivity and another device with WiFi between a USB device and a WiFi device (the devices are connectivity but no USB port, is not possible as two devices not compatible) through the embedded kit. This will cannot be connected directly. Our aim is to transfer data from reduce a 3 step process in 1 step process. Thereby, the USB device to the WiFi device or vice-versa. To overcome reducing the efforts for data transfer and making the this shortcoming, we program an embedded system using transmission between two non-compatible devices S3C2440A ARM9 processor acts as a bridge between the two possible. devices enabling the transmission of data between the two. Results were generated for after the analysis was done to 1.2 SPECIFIC REQUIREMENT check the factors that would affect the speed of transmission 1.2.1 User Interfaces of files. Four factors were considered File Size, File Format, GUI is designed using java and installed on both the Network Strength and Distance devices or at least on the device at the receiving end. The Keywords: Real Time System, Wireless networking, role of the interface is to display the list of files of the ARM9 processor, S3C2440 sending device on to the device at receiving end. The user is required to select the files to be transferred.The interface provides additional options to select the type of 1. INTRODUCTION file to be transmitted, the listing of file is provided and filtered on the basis of the size, extension, etc. Many times we feel a need to transfer data from one 1.2.2 Hardware Interfaces device to another which have different connection Hardware interfaces included in the project are the usb mechanisms, making them incompatible. It seems to be interface, wifi interface, the embedded kit to be used as impossible to transfer data between two non-compatible the bridge. devices. Like a device has a WiFi interface but not the 1.2.3 Software Interfaces USB interface, and another device has USB but not WiFi. The software interfaces included in the project are the So how will you transmit data between these two devices? USB and WiFi drivers installed on the kit as well as the The data could be transmitted through a third device (like devices. The operating system on the kit, that is, Linux. laptop) which has both WiFi as well as USB connectivity. 1.2.4 Communications Protocols But the task becomes lengthy, as you first have to copy The wireless transmission protocols are used for the data from USB to your laptop and then transfer if to the transfer of data between the bridge and the WiFi device. other device through WiFi. TCP/IP is used for the transmission of data over the USB For latest development in the direction of embedded interface. system and wireless network, this technology proposes a new idea in which data can be transferred from a USB 1.3 Product Features device to a WiFi enabled device through an embedded kit. 1.3.1 Product perspective Hence a 3-step process is optimized to a 1-step process. The software being developed is an independent and self- Due to the USB device having no WiFi connectivity and contained one. It is not a stand-alone application. The WiFi device having no USB port, the embedded system is presence of two terminal devices is mandatory for the used to bridge the devices and transfer the data between execution. In this process, it will make use of several the two. The Linux operating system can load the drivers modules, such as the terminal devices with WiFi and USB of WiFi and USB. Based on this model, we can interfaces, the embedded kit with required interfaces and implement this USB WiFi Bridge. a reliable buffer used for data storage. 1.1 Product Overview 1.3.2 User characteristics This USB-to-wireless bridge transfers USB data User is not required to have much knowledge about how wirelessly back and forth, and it can enable the wireless the data is being transmitted. He is required to have communication of the WiFi device and the embedded kit. knowledge of computer system at a very basic level. He This application is based on ARM9 processor, a product should be able to attach the USB to the kit and establish that provides a full/low-speed USB OTG module. WiFi connection. He should be aware of what he has to transmit as he has to select the file from the given list. Volume 1, Issue 2 July-August 2012 Page 62 International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org Volume 1, Issue 2, July – August 2012 ISSN 2278-6856 wireless card and USB camera through the USB Hub. 1.3.3 Constraints USB camera captures images and USB wireless card The proper execution of the product depends on various sends images. constraints like: transmission speed, size of file to be The other side is the PC which is responsible for transmitted, range of transmission. receiving images under the Redhat9.0 operating system. As they have used UDP, it abolishes the rechecking and 1.3.4 Assumptions & dependencies re-sending process. Hence, there will be some dropped We are assuming that the user has adequate frames. And the use of TCP will slow down the understanding of the connection establishment. It is transmission. assumed the proper bandwidth is available for the Ni and Liu have proposed a system for Image transmission of data over the wireless media. The noise acquirement in embedded Linux. The file is transmitted interference is negligible. between embedded Linux platform and Bluetooth mobile It is fully dependent on the kit. The kit has to perform phone by Bluetooth OBEX protocol and Object PUSH efficiently throughout the transmission process. service . They have made use of the Bluetooth. The Bluetooth has its limitations like, range of transmission, 1.4 System Attributes speed of transmission, etc. 1.4.1 Reliability Thus, all the above techniques were based on different The system has to be very reliable due to the importance approaches of transfer of images on Embedded System. of data and the damages incorrect or incomplete data can But they all have their own limitations. In this proposed do. work the main focus is on transfer of any type of file on 1.4.2 Availability an embedded system and the technology used here is Wi- The system has to be available throughout the Fi as it has an upper hand over the other technologies. transmission process. As the data is to be transmitted through 3 phases USB buffer WiFi, the 3. EMBEDDED SYSTEM FOR USB WI-FI transmission is time consuming. Therefore, the device BRIDGE should be available throughout the transmission. 1.4.3 Security The data is required to be transmitted securely. As the 3.1 IEEE 802.11g 2003 data is transmitted over the wireless connection, the IEEE 802.11g is an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 possibility of connection with an unauthorized device is specification that extended throughput to up to 54 Mbit/s more. Hence, the devices should be connected by the using the same 2.4 GHz band as 802.11b. This proper identification of the node. specification under the marketing name of Wi-Fi has been 1.4.4 Maintainability implemented all over the world. The 802.11g protocol is The system is easily maintainable as there is no database now Clause 19 of the published IEEE 802.11-2007 to be maintained or modified frequently. The only standard maintenance required to check the buffer at the time of transmission. Proper functioning of the buffer is 3.2 Proposed System necessary. - USB Device : It is the device on one end with the 1.4.5 Portability USB interface and without WiFi interface. The system is portable since the size of the bridge is small. Hence it can be carried or installed on mobile -USB Connector : It is the hardware port in the kit locations. through which the USB device is attached to the 1.4.6 Performance embedded kit. Performance depends on following factors: - Size of data to be transmitted Embedded System: - Noise in the wireless connection - Speed of transmission USB Driver: It is the USB driver installed on the device which passes the data to the buffer. 2. LITERATURE SURVEY Huo and Liu have proposed the system for wireless image Buffer: It is the data storage area which collects the data transmission based on the embedded system in . The from one end and transfers to the other end. system is using the wireless network card with the transmission rate of 54Mbps that will greatly increase the WiFi Driver: It is the WiFi driver which establishes the access capacity of the embedded system and make the wireless connection with the WiFi device and transfers system more competitive. system is divided into the data. embedded system and the PC connected wireless card. Hardware development board connects external USB Volume 1, Issue 2 July-August 2012 Page 63 International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org Volume 1, Issue 2, July – August 2012 ISSN 2278-6856 WiFi Device: It is the device on the other end with the the Wi-Fi end, the driver will take the data from buffer WiFi connectivity. It doesn’t have the USB connectivity. and will send it to the destination device after verifying the Wi-Fi device is present and connection is established. On the receiving end device, a User Interface is present which will actually initialize the connection and prompt user to select the files to be transmitted. This transmission is from USB to Wi-Fi end. Similarly transmission in opposite direction will take place, each entity playing its role in reverse order. After the transmission of a file, an acknowledgement will be sent prompting the driver to empty the buffer for next transmission. 4. RESULT An analysis was done to check the factors that would affect the speed of transmission of files. The following Four factors were considered: 1. File Size 2. File Format Figure 1: Block Diagram of the Proposed System 3. Network Strength 4. Distance 3.3 Hardware Description The proposed system is to be implemented on a Single The following graphs give a detailed analysis based on Board Computer (SBC) having the features like WiFi the above factors. adapter and USB ports like Technologic systems’ TS- 1. Here, we have considered different files with 7553board. Along with it, we will need a ARM9 CPU for different sizes. embedding the drivers which we are coding, on the SBC. The TS-7553 features a 250MHz Cavium ARM9 CPU and a 5000 LUT Lattice FPGA. With 64MB RAM and a bootable 256MB on-board flash drive with our new .jpg files XNAND technology, the TS-7553 is a powerful and 500 extremely reliable embedded solution. External devices 0 Speed (kbps) can connect to the TS-7553 via Ethernet, 802.11g WiFi, 111.5 kb34.1 kb 53.1 kb 3 1463.9 kb XBee radio socket (point to point), USB host, USB device, or I2C ports, as well as DIO, UARTs, CAN Bus, Size (kb) DMX, and SPI which are implemented in the standard FPGA load. Figure2: Speed Graph for jpg files ARM is a 32-bit reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) Table 1: Speed in kbps for jpg files developed by ARM Holdings. It was known as the Advanced RISC Machine. ARM9 is an ARM SIZE [kb] TIME [ms] SPEED [kbps] architecture 32-bit RISC CPU family. With this design 53.1 396 134.11 generation, ARM moved from a von Neumann 111.5 598 186.53 architecture (Princeton architecture) to a Harvard 334.1 1936 204.22 architecture with separate instruction and data buses (and caches), significantly increasing its potential speed. Most 1463.9 5996 244.15 silicon chips integrating these cores will package them as modified Harvard architecture chips, combining the AVERAGE SPEED: 192.25 kbps two address buses on the other side of separated CPU caches and tightly coupled memories. 3.4 Software Description The entire system is composed in three parts. First is, we .jpg files will need a software to extract data from the USB device 500 at the USB end. This will mount the USB device onto the 0 Speed (kbps) board, get the files and pass the reference to the next 111.5 kb34.1 kb 53.1 kb 3 1463.9 kb software. When the connection establishment and files to be transmitted has completed, the same software will Size (kb) transfer the files to the buffer memory for the Wi-Fi driver to pick up the data. Secondly, inside the bridge, at Figure 3: Speed Graph for png files Volume 1, Issue 2 July-August 2012 Page 64 International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org Volume 1, Issue 2, July – August 2012 ISSN 2278-6856 Table 2: Speed in kbps for png files Table 5: Speed and time for different file sizes with SIZE and without packet loss TIME [ms] SPEED [kbps] [kb] 50.4 336 150 WITH PACKET WITHOUT 403.7 2548 158.46 SIZE [kb] LOSS [30-50%] PACKET LOSS 947.8 4281 221.40 TIME SPEED TIME SPEED 1471.9 6489 226.83 53.1 1060 50.1 396 134.11 AVERAGE SPEED: 189.17 kbps 111.5 2161 51.61 598 186.53 2. Here, we have considered files of different format 334.1 5711 58.51 1636 204.22 but with approximately same size. 1463.9 18508 79.16 5996 244.15 Comparison based AVERAGE SPEED [WITH PACKET LOSS] : 59.84 kbps on diff. file formats AVERAGE SPEED[WITHOUT PACKET LOSS] : 192 kbps 4. Here, we have considered the transmission of same 0 500 file and varying the distances between the terminal Speed (kbps) devices. Type and Size (kb) Comparison based on distance Figure4: Comparison of Speed for different file formats [.mp3 ] 300 size = 6173.5 kb Speed (kbps) Table 3: Speed in kbps for different file formats with 200 approximate same file size TIME SPEED 100 TYPE SIZE [kb] [ms] [kbps] .jpg 1463.9 5996 244.15 0 .mp3 1713.8 7639 224.35 .pdf 1471.9 6489 226.83 1-2 m Distances m 5-6 m 10-12(m) .doc 1030.8 3693 279.12 Figure 6: Comparison of Speed for same file with varying distance between terminals 3. Here, we have considered the transmission of the same files under two conditions : 5. CONCLUSION Without packet loss There are various methods to transfer the information With packet loss(30-50%) between two different independent connections like USB Table 4: Speed for same file with Varying distance and Wi-Fi. Because the system adopts high- powered between terminals ARM9 processor and Linux operation system, it has DISTANCE expansibility. The system has characteristics such as TIME [ms] SPEED [kbps] [m] strong function, high reliability, good stability and 1-2 34230 180.35 expansibility. The device is built using embedded arm 5-6 21884 282.12 processor and single board computer for initial deployment. However for mass production the entire kit 10-12 29298 210.71 can be replaced by hardware developed solely for this purpose. The results show, that the file size, file format 500 and the distance between the terminal devices do not play Comparison based on witho an important role in deciding the quality of transmission. ut Whereas, the network strength is has strong impact on network strength Speed (kbps) pack the speed of transmission. et loss 0 References Size (kb)  Wireless image transmission based on the 53.1 kb 111.5 kb 334.1 kb1463.9 kb Embedded System by Huo Chunbao, Gao Liduo, Figure 5: Comparison of Speed for different files with Liu Yuwei and without packet loss  Image Acquirement with Bluetooth Technique under Embedded Linux Environment by Yuanping Volume 1, Issue 2 July-August 2012 Page 65 International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org Volume 1, Issue 2, July – August 2012 ISSN 2278-6856 Ni, Jing Liu in 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics (BMEI 2010)  Evaluation of Wireless Home Automation Technologies by A. J. Dinusha Rathnayaka, Vidyasagar M. Potdar, Samitha J. Kuruppu in 5th IEEE International Conference on Digital Ecosystems and Technologies (IEEE DEST 2011), 31 May -3 June 2011, Daejeon, Korea.  Embedded USB Homecare Internet System, Circuits and Systems (APCCAS), 2010 IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on 6-9 Dec. 2010  An embedded converter from RS232 to Universal Serial Bus, Integrated Circuits and Systems Design, 2001, 14th Symposium, 2001  Evolutionary trends of embedded systems, Industrial Technology, 2003 IEEE International Conference on 10-12 Dec. 2003  WiFi: What's Next? Communications Magazine, IEEE, Dec 2002  Robust video broadcasting over 802.11a/g in time- correlated fading channels, Consumer Electronics, 2009. ICCE'09. Digest of Technical Papers International Conference on 10-14 Jan. 2009  Connection Time for Strange Devices, Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, 2006. WMCSA '06 proceedings. 7th IEEE Workshop on 1-1 Aug. 2005. Prof. Deepali Javale, Assistant Professor, MIT College of Engineering, holds Bachelors Degree in Computer Engg. and recently Pursuing Master of Information Technology from Pune University. She is having 6 years of teaching experience. Her expertise is in the field of Embedded Systems and Data Mining Mrs. Neelam Joshi, holds Bachelors Degree in Electronics Engg. and recently Pursuing Master of Electronics and Tele-communication from Pune University. She is having 4 years of Industrial experience. Her expertise is in the field of Embedded Systems and Signal Processing. Volume 1, Issue 2 July-August 2012 Page 66
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