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									That Nation of Shopkeepers!
            -- Napoleon Bonaparte
Late 18c: French Economic
 V Napoleonic Code= uniform laws
 V French communal law.
     )   Free contracts
     )   Open markets
     )   Uniform & clear commercial
 V Standards weights & measures.
 V Established technical schools.
 V The government encouraged &
   inventors & inventions.
 V Bank of France  European model
   providing a reliable currency.
       French Economic
V Years of war
   )   Seven Years/French & Indian War
   )   Supported the American Revolution.
   )   French Revolution.
   )   Early 19c  Napoleonic Wars
   )   Revolutions of 1830s & 1848
V Heavy debts.
V High unemployment  soldiers
  returning from the battlefronts.
V French businessmen were afraid to
  take risks.
Ch 9 Section 1
      Agricultural Revolution
Wealthy Farmers began to buy up small plots making
   – Large landowners dramatically improved farming method out
     of necessity to make these large farmer profitable
• Wealthy Land Owners used ENCLOSURES
   – ENLCOSED their land with fences or hedges to protect their
     larger growing fields. Disallowing other to use the land for grazing
   – Experimented to discover more productive farming methods
     to increase crop yields (new methods cost $$)
           – Jethro Tull = discovered new way to sow seeds by inventing the
             SEED DRILL in 1701
       • Forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or pushed them
         out of farming & into the cities
• Farming Innovation
   – Seed drill- more germination for less Money
   – Crop Rotation- better & bigger crops
• Livestock – better & bigger livestock
       • Robert Bakewell increased yield thru selective breeding

           – Increasing size and health of the livestock
The Enclosure Movement
“Enclosed” Lands Today
   What is Necessary for an
Industrial Revolution to Occur?
Factors of Production
• Natural Resources
   – Land, Labor, Ore, Coal, Waterways, Rivers,
     Canals, etc.
• Labor-
  – population increased dramatically due to the
    Agricultural Revolution
• Capital: (Extra Money to invest)
  – Machinery
  – factories
• Market
   – people with $$$ to buy goods & services
Metals, Woolens, & Canals
Early Canals

           Britain’s Earliest
Coalfields & Industrial
Coal Mining in Britain:

1800   1 ton of coal      50, 000 miners

1850   30 tons            200, 000 miners

1880   300 million tons   500, 000 miners

1914   250 million tons   1, 200, 000 miners
British Pig Iron
Mine & Forge [1840-1880]

ù More powerful than water is coal.

ù More powerful than wood is iron.

ù Innovations make steel feasible.
    “Puddling” [1820] – “pig iron.”
    “Hot blast” [1829] – cheaper, purer steel.
    Bessemer process [1856] – strong, flexible
     Britain’s Advantages
• Large Population to work due to the Agricultural
  Revolution= Large excess labor force
• Abundant Natural Resources
   – Water power, rivers, harbors: transportation to & from
     factories & source of resources
   – coal, iron ore: to build machines & tools
• Highly developed banking system
   – Provided investment Capital – loan for machines
• Expanding Economy = Capital
   – People could invest in manufacturing
• Growing overseas trade
   – Mercantilism & colonialism= markets & resources
• Political stability
   – No wars on British soil
   – Parliament passed laws protecting businesses (mercantilism)
• Military and Political Success
   – Positive attitude in Britain & a general “climate of Prosperity
John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”

  1733- Doubled the work a weaver could do
 Inventions & New Technology
• Spinning Wheel- James Hargreaves 1764
   – 1 spinner could work 8 threads 1764, then 25 then 50, etc.
• Water Frame- Richard Arkwright 1769
• Spinning Mule- Samuel Crompton 1779
   – combo spinning Jenny & Water frame
• Power Loom- Edmund Cartwright
   – sped up weaving & used water power
• Steam Engine- James Watt 1765
   – Faster more efficient (burned less fuel)
• Transportation Improvements
                  = decrease cost of production
   – Robert Fulton: steamboat 1807
   – Canals system John Mc Adam: layered stone roads=drainage
   – Trevithick & Stephenson: locomotive
       • Improved all kinds of transportation and machines
   Power Loom:
Edmund Cartwright

 Sped up weaving!
Richard Arkwright:


              Used water power
              from steam
              engines to drive
              spinning wheels
The Power Loom
James Watt’s Steam Engine

 Faster more efficient…. Burned LESS fuel
Steam Tractor

Improved farming capacity
              Steam Ship

Allowed travel UP and DOWN a water way regardless of water
An Early Steam

Improved overland transport…

Factories No longer need to be near water
The Impact of the Railroad
     Richard Arkwright:
“Pioneer of the Factory System”

                 The “Water Frame”
    Factory Production
) Concentrates production in one place
   [materials, labor].

) Located near sources of power
   [rather than labor or markets].

) Requires a lot of capital [extra money]
   investment [factory, machines, etc.] more
   than skilled labor.

) Only 10% of English industry in 1850.
  Textile Factory
 Workers in England
1813      2400 looms     150, 000 workers

1833    85, 000 looms    200, 000 workers

1850   224, 000 looms   >1 million workers
      Factory Workers

Factory owners wanted to keep
their machines running for as many
hours a day as possible SO….
 workers were forced to work long hours
  for starvation wages, often under
  dangerous & unhealthy conditions;

LATER, working conditions & the standard
 of living would improve.
The Factory System

  Rigid schedule.

  12-14 hour day.

  Dangerous & unhealthy conditions.

  Mind-numbing monotony.
 Textile Factory
Workers in England
Young “Bobbin-Doffers”
 Child Labor in the Mines


Average life
  of mine
 workers :
 8yrs old
Young Coal Miners

 Most dangerous job!
• Children as young as 6 began to work
  in factories with their families for long
  hours under brutal conditions
• Children as young as 5 worked in the
  coal mines
• Many children died or were injured
  working in the factories & mines

• Child labor laws later brought some
   a LONG RUN effect

• Educational opportunities expanded
  – In response to a need for skilled &
    professional workers.
  – In response to a need for a place for
    children after child labor laws were
    imposed & a need to create skilled labor
    for the future
                Life Changes during
              the Industrial Revolution

•   ..\Ch 9 downloads\Living_History__Living_During_the_Industrial_Revolution.asf
      Lower Middle Class
factory overseer & skilled worker

• Enjoyed a comfortable standard of living
• Experienced a rise in social status.
      Wealthy Merchants, Factory
          Owners, Shippers
Benefited Greatly from the Industrial Revolution

• gained tremendous wealth & status in society
• joined a growing middle class of skilled
  workers, professionals, business people, & well-
  to-do farmers.
      19c Bourgeoisie:
The Industrial Nouveau Riche
Criticism of the New
Stereotype of the Factory Owner
Large landowners & Aristocrats
• Because some factory owners,
  merchants, & investment bankers grew
  wealthier, the landowners & noble
  aristocracy lost some status, respect,
  and power but continued to look down
  on those who gained wealth in business.

• They called them the “nouveau riche”
       Factory Wages
    in Lancashire, 1830
Age of Worker   Male Wages   Female Wages
  under 11        2s 3d.        2s. 4d.
   11 - 16        4s. 1d.       4s. 3d.
   17 - 21       10s. 2d.       7s. 3d.
  22 - 26        17s. 2d.       8s. 5d.
  27 - 31        20s. 4d.       8s. 7d.
  32 - 36        22s. 8d.       8s. 9d.
  37 - 41        21s. 7d.       9s. 8d.
  42 - 46        20s. 3d.       9s. 3d.
  47 - 51        16s. 7d.      8s. 10d.
  52 - 56        16s. 4d.       8s. 4d.
  57 - 61        13s. 6d.       6s. 4d.
          Working Poor

• Saw little improvement in their living &
  working conditions
    – Some lost their jobs to machines
•   Paid low wages
•   Worked long hours
•   Poor working conditions
•   Lived in unsanitary & overcrowded
    environments at home
Environmental IMPACT:

     • Pollution
     • Resource Depletion
     • Animal extinction
  The Environment:
Problems of Pollution

 The Silent Highwayman - 1858
     Industrial Problem of

• Industrialization leads to Urbanization
  (people moving to the cities for work)
• Urbanization is usually so RAPID that
  the cities growth can not keep pace
  with the migration of people to the cities
• Causing: overcrowding, unsanitary
  conditions, food shortages, disease, etc
  Industrial Staffordshire:
Problems of housing & pollution
The New Industrial City
     Early-19c London
Problems with Overcrowding
Worker Housing in
Factory Workers at Home
Workers Housing in Newcastle
Life of the New Urban Poor:
     A Dickens Nightmare!
Problems with EXTREME Poverty
Private Charities: Soup Kitchens
 Private Charities:
The “Lady Bountifuls”
• WAR !! Especially French Revolution &
  Napoleonic Wars
• Political disunity in Germany
• Geographic Problems (waterways, land
• Social structure (Monarchy/Aristocracy)
Industrialization Spreads
           By 1850:
Zones of Industrialization on the
      European Continent
   ù   Northeast France.
   ù   Belgium.
   ù   The Netherlands.
   ù   Western German states.
   ù   Northern Italy
   ù   East Germany  Saxony
Industrialization By 1850
Railroads on the Continent
   Share in World
Manufacturing Output:
       Industrialization Spreads
          to the United States
                    KEY Points:
•   US government encouraged industrial growth
    with business friendly laws
•   British machinery spawns an American textile
•   RR help American industry expand Rapidly
•   Immigration provided a supply of cheap labor
New Ways of Thinking
   Sparked by the
Industrial Revolution
          Adam Smith
• Scottish Economic Philosophe & Professor

• Big IDEAS:
  – Economic Freedom guaranteed economic
  – government need not interfere in the economy.
    (eg. Laissez faire)
  – Invisible hand
• Capitalism = economic system in which
  money is invested in business ventures with
  the goal of making a PROFIT
• Wrote “Wealth of Nations” in 1776
Thomas Malthus: economist
         Supported Adam Smith’s ideas
         Contributed to the foundation of CAPITALISM
         Wrote: Essay on the Principles of Population
             Population growth will outpace the food
             War, disease, or famine could control
             The poor should have less children.
             Food supply will then keep up with
    David Ricardo: Economist
 Support of Adam Smith’s Ideas         & stock broker
 Took Malthus’ theory one step further when he wrote,
   Principles of Political Economy & Taxation [1817])
     Believed that a permanent underclass would always be
     “Iron Law of Wages.”
        When wages are high,
        workers have more
        More children create a
        large labor surplus that
        depresses wages.
        Thus a vicious cycle of Poverty is inevitable
                 The Utilitarians:
Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill
 The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number.
 One role of government is to intervene in business in order to provide
   some social safety net for workers.
 Believed that wealthy people or the govt must take actions to improve
   people’s lives
Benthem: English Philosopher coined “Utilitarianism” 1700s
Wrote that people should judge the value of things based on their “utility”
   or usefulness
Mill: economist & philosopher lead the Utilitarian movement in 1800s
Pushed for more equal division of profits with workers
Favored cooperative farming, women’s rights & suffrage
Utilitarians also support reforms for education, legal & prison systems
Jeremy Bentham
• Robert Owen: British Factory owner
  –   Improved working conditions for his workers
  –   Built factory housing with low rent
  –   Stopped child labor under 10
  –   Provided free schooling

• 1824: he went to the US where he founded a
  cooperative community in New Harmony
  Indiana (lasted 3 years)
  – He wanted to create a UTOPIA (perfect living
• Charles Fourier & Saint-Simon, French
  reformers wanted to offset the effects of
  industrialization with a new kind of economic
  system :
  – Factors of production are owned by the public &
    operated for the welfare of ALL
  – Argued that the govt should actively plan the
    economy rather than depending on Free-Market
    Capitalism’s invisible hand
  – Wanted govt controlled factories/mines/RR etc. in
    order to end poverty & promote equality

Private ownership just put workers at the mercy
  of greedy employers (Capitalists)
  Karl Marx: German journalist
• Wrote: The Communist Manifesto (1848)
• Introduced a form of RADICAL SOCIALISM
  called MARXISM
  – Argued that society has ALWAYS been “haves &
    have nots”
     • “Have Nots” are called PROLETARIATES
  – Industrial Revolution just made this WORSE
  – Predicted a social class war in which the poor
    majority would rise up against rich minority
    destroying CAPALISM and implementing
    Communism or (complete socialism)
     • “workers of the world, UNITE!”
  – The RESULT: an END to private property
                Communal ownership of the means
                       of production
                All goods & services would be
                       shared equally
  The Socialists:
Utopians & Marxists

  People as a society would operate & own the means of
    production [resources/land, labor, capital] NOT individuals.
  Goal: a society that benefited EVERYONE, not just a rich, well-
    connected few.
  Tried to build perfect communities [utopias].
The Luddites: 1811-1816

     Attacks on the “frames” [power looms].
  Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in
               Sherwood Forest]
The Luddite Triangle
The Luddites
   Peterloo Massacre, 1819
          Fire on
   “Let us die like
 men, and not be
 sold like slaves!”

18 people, including a woman
and a child, died from saber cuts
and trampling. Over 700 men, women
and children injured. All in the name of liberty & freedom from poverty. The Massacre occurred
during a period of immense political tension & mass protests. Fewer than 2% of the population
had the vote, and hunger was rife with the disastrous corn laws making bread unaffordable .
The “Peoples’ Charter”
V Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett.
V Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform
  of the inequalities created by the Reform
  Bill of 1832.
       Votes for all men.
       Equal electoral districts.
       Abolition of the requirement that Members
        of Parliament [MPs] be property owners.
       Salaries for Members of Parliament.
       Annual general elections.
       The secret ballot.
Anti-Corn Law League,

 4 Give manufactures more outlets for their products.
    4More people to sell to
 4 Expand employment.
 4 Lower the price of bread.
 4 Make British agriculture more efficient       &
 4 Expose trade & agriculture to foreign competition.
 4 Promote international peace through trade contact.
      Union Movement
By the 1800s workers were becoming more
  active in politics.
• To press for change they joined together in
  voluntary association called UNIONS
   – spoke for the workers as a group
   – Used Collective Bargaining (negotiation) to
     push for better wages & working conditions
   – Used strikes (work stoppage) to apply

  In GENERAL, govts resisted unions & unionization
  But over time they did make gains and reforms
   Government Response
k Abolition of slavery in the colonies
   in 1832 [to raise wages in Britain].

k Sadler Commission to look into
   working conditions
     Factory Act [1833] – child labor.

k New Poor Law [1834] – indoor relief.
    Poor houses.

k Reform Bill [1832] – broadens the
   vote for the cities.
Bill of
British Reform Bills
Other Reform Movements

 • Women reformers

 • Public Education
            Industrial Revolution:
               That’s a RAP!
• ..\Ch 9 downloads\The_Industrial_Revolution__1750_1915_.asf
   Peterloo Massacre, 1819
      Fire on

   “Let us die
    like men,
   and not be
     sold like
18 people, including a woman
& a child, died from saber cuts & trampling. Over 700 men, women & children injured. All in the name
of liberty & freedom from poverty. The Massacre occurred during a period of immense political
tension & mass protests. Fewer than 2% of the population had the vote, and hunger was rife with the
disastrous corn laws making bread unaffordable.
   Government Fears

• British Parliament feared an
  outbreak of revolution as was
  occurring in Europe (1830-1848)
            The Chartists

                       A female Chartist

A physical force—
Chartists arming for
the fight.
The “Peoples’ Charter”
V Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett.
V Radical campaign for Parliamentary
  reform of the inequalities created by
  the Reform Bill of 1832.
       Votes for all men.
       Equal electoral districts.
       Abolition of the requirement that Members
        of Parliament [MPs] be property owners.
       Salaries for Members of Parliament.
       Annual general elections.
       The secret ballot.
Bill of
British Reform Bills
             Reforms to
         Increase Democracy
•   Middle class males could vote
•   Secret Ballot
•   Pay for Parliament members
•   By 1884 almost all males could vote
•   By 1890 most European countries
    allowed all men the right to vote
    Women’s Suffrage

• 1903- Women’s Social and Political
  Union began a stronger campaign
  for Women’s suffrage in Britain
• Rallies/parades/interrupted
  speeches/burned buildings/hunger
• 1919: Britain give women the right to
• 1920: US gives womet the right to
Women’s Suffrage
       Australia’s Independence
..\Ch 10 Democratic Reform\10.2\Australia's independence WH
                         Ch 10.2.asf
Canada’s Independence
Irish Potato Famine

  • ..\Ch 10 Democratic
    Reform\10.2\Irish Potato Famine
    WH Clip Ch 10 sect 2.asf
Irish Independence

• ..\Ch 10 Democratic
  Independence WH Ch 10
  section 2.asf
Conflict Continued 1972

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