Geography by wuyunyi

VIEWS: 21 PAGES: 67

									Geography
                About the Course
• This semester-long course provides instruction and measurement of
  student learning in high school-level geography. The Delaware high
  school Geography benchmarks may be found online at
  www.doe.k12.de.us/ss and are also referenced below in the
  syllabus. The context for this course is contemporary and practical,
  drawing from problems encountered and solutions reached in local
  communities.
• The course is divided into four main sections, each based on one of
  the overarching Geography Standards. Each week of the course is
  divided into lessons. Several lessons are based on The Delaware
  Geography Health Initiative, a set of instructional tools aligned to
  Delaware Geography Standards in grades 9-12. In this course,
  students apply the knowledge, skills and perspectives of geography.
  They research problems, analyze data, and suggest solutions using
  a GIS-based approach.
GIS and Remote Sensing




                  Houston, TX; Landsat-7




  Delaware Geographic Alliance
     University of Delaware
                What is a GIS?

• GIS stands for
  Geographic Information
  System

• A tool people can use to
  map and analyze
  geographic data

• Organizes data by where
  it occurs
    Why is Geography Important?

• Our activities and decisions involve location in
  some way

• Examples:
   – Where to buy bread on the way home from
     work
   – Where to build new roads or hospitals
           What is Remote Sensing?

• Geographers use pictures
  taken from satellites and
  sensors to help solve
  everyday problems.

• Examples include aerial
  imagery, infrared (IR) and
  microwave sensors, and
  sonar, but there are many
  more!

• This is known as remote
  sensing
    How can we use remote sensing?
Some of the ways (but not all!)
  we can use remote sensing:

• Weather
• Land use
• Populations of organisms in
  the ocean
• Monitoring sea ice
         What agencies might use remote
                   sensing?

•   Weather forecasters
•   Foresters
•   Agriculture
•   Ocean researchers
•   Biologists
•   Polar researchers


                          Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space
                                       Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE
             An example

• One way that remote sensing can be used
  is in tracking land use changes through
  time.
This is an aerial picture
of the Christiana Mall as
it looks today. But it
didn’t always look that
way!
This is the mall in 2007.
   Can you spot any
changes between 2007
        and 2011?
             1997




Here is a picture of the mall from 1997.
 The changes between 2007 and 2011
 may be hard to spot, but changes are
  easily seen when comparing 1997.
                                                      LANDSAT ETM+ IR
• Remote sensing can                                 composite image of
                                                    Delaware Inland Bays
  also be used to detect
  vegetation and land
  types and even
  natural disasters.
• When using an
  infrared (IR) sensor,
  vegetation appears
  bright red and is easy
  to spot.
• IR sensors also allow
  tornado tracks to be
  easily seen.
                           Photo from NASA Science News; ASTER sensor
    Remote sensing and GIS together
• We can combine
  remote sensing
  and GIS together
  for analysis

• Example:
   – Looking at
     bicycle and
     pedestrian
     safety in
     Newark
            Think About It
• Where do you think the camera was
  positioned to take aerial shots of
  Christiana Mall in 2007? In 1997?
• What is the best source for aerial photos
  and remote sensing images of our local
  area?
• Where can we access aerial images of
  other areas of the US and the world?
Geography
 Pre-Test
       No Talking
Write on your own paper
               June Bugs
• Lesson Essential Question –
  – What geographic patterns emerge when you
    map data?
  – What can analyzing the data tell about the
    map?
• Vocabulary
Accessibility
Geographically
                    June Bugs
• Geography High School Standard Benchmark
  Addressed
  – Standard One: MAPS. 9-12a. Students will identify geographic
    patterns which emerge when data is mapped, and analyze mapped
    patterns…..

• Learning objectives
  – Learn how to organize data into categories
    and then use those data to produce a
    thematic map.
  – Ways to analyze a thematic map.
                  June Bugs
• Lesson Scenario and Problem
  – The purpose of this lesson is for students to
    understand how tabular data can be expressed in
    map form. This understanding is not intuitive and for
    students to use the unit lessons in this curriculum
    project, they must see how data lie behind maps and
    how cartographic manipulation allows a wide variety
    of different graphic images, or geographic patterns,
    from the same data source.
  – Scenario: A group of students are spending their
    vacation at Dewey Beach, Delaware. Two of them
    become ill and need to find a doctor. They look in the
    phone book (Yellow Pages) and find a large number
    of doctors but none in Dewey Beach. They have to
    decide what type of doctor they need and where they
    should go.
             June Bugs
1. Read – Looking for Summer Fun
          June Bugs Step 1
• First, check the Yellow Pages and see if
  you can find the names of any doctors in
  Dewey Beach. If you cannot, then make a
  chart like the one below, listing the ten
  doctors you think will be most likely to help
  your fellow students, and give the reason
  why they were the doctors you chose.
        June Bugs Step 1
      Doc Picks       Why Chosen?
1.



2.



3.



4.



5.



6.



7.



8.



9.



10.
           June Bugs Step 2
• Now read "June Bugs: Looking for the
  Way"
• Consider the following question:
  – Which doctor would be your best choice? If
    that doctor wasn't available, which one would
    be your next best choice? Explain.
  – Put the full list of doctors in priority order and
    write in your research notebook what
    information you used to decide on the order
             June Bugs 2
Top List of Doctors
         June Bugs Step 3
• Now examine a map of the Sussex County
  road system.
• On a copy of the map, locate the office of
  each doctor on your list and place a solid
  dot on the appropriate point on the map
          June Bugs Step 3
• Now you are able to examine the problem
  of choosing a doctor geographically. This
  means you must look at the spatial
  (geographical) distribution of the dots and
  the relative location of Dewey Beach to the
  doctors.

• DART MAP/TAXI LIST
              June Bugs 3
• What other factors besides straight line-
  distance should you consider?




• What other information might you need?
              June Bugs 3
• Based on your analysis, compile a final list
  of doctors that you should contact in
  priority order, and write the reasons for the
  order of your list in your research
  notebook.
            June Bugs Step 4
• Review:
  – Read the information on mapping data "FYI Mapping
    Data"
  – Make a list of data that CANNOT be mapped (i.e.
    data that is non-geographical).
  – Now provide some examples of data that are more
    meaningful (useful) when converted from non-
    geographical to a geographical, or mapped, format.
     • What specific information is needed to turn each example
       into a map?
              Exit Ticket
• Think of some non-geographical data that
  could be mapped relating to Christiana
  High School.
• Create a plan in which you could collect
  that data and map it out.
    Can We Get to a Doctor?
• Lesson Essential Question –
  – What geographic patterns emerge when you
    map data?
  – What can analyzing the data tell about the
    map?
• Vocabulary
  – Accessibility
  – Geographically
     Can We Get to a Doctor?
• Geography High School Standard
  Benchmark Addressed
  – Standard One: MAPS. 9-12a. Students will identify
    geographic patterns which emerge when data is
    mapped, and analyze mapped patterns…..
• Learning objectives
  – Learn how to organize data into categories and
    then use those data to produce a thematic map.
  – Learn ways to analyze a thematic map using a
    GIS.
     Can We Get to a Doctor?
• Lesson Scenario and Problem
  – After completing Lesson I students should have a better idea of
    some of the difficulties involved in getting to a doctor, especially
    if private auto transport is unavailable. Alex and Chris were
    surprised and wondered whether reaching a doctor varied
    across the whole of Sussex County. They decided to explore this
    question geographically, using a Geographic Information System
    (GIS) approach. Students take the role of Alex and Chris again
    and follow in their footsteps.
  – This lesson introduces students to Geographic Information
    Systems analysis. It is not designed to teach students how to
    conduct GIS programming. Rather, the nature of a GIS is first
    introduced followed by a demonstration of how it can be used to
    analyze geographic patterns. This knowledge is a necessary part
    of all the unit lessons that follow.
 Can We Get to a Doctor? Step 1
1. Cornell Notes – GIS Intro
  Can We Get to a Doctor? Step 2
Take out the map of Sussex County you made of
  the location of the ten doctors in Lesson I. Then
  look at a larger list of doctors compiled from the
  Yellow Pages. This time the list contains just the
  doctors who practice family medicine or who are
  internists (doctors who deal with all aspects of
  the body). They are the doctors people are most
  likely to visit on a regular basis. Using this list,
  add dots for each doctor’s location to your map.
  YELLOW PAGES FAMILY, GENERAL PRACTICE, AND INTERNIST
                        PHYSICIANS
       WITHIN 40 MILES OF DEWEY BEACH, DELAWARE
Beachview Family Health And Laser Center 550 Atlantic Ave, Millville, DE
19967
75th St Medical Center 7408 Coastal Hwy, Ocean City, MD 21842
Girgis Family Practice S 550 Dupont Hwy, Milford, DE 19963
Borodulia Nicholas N MD 1209 Coastal Highway, Ocean View, DE 19970
Martin Lisa A DO Millsboro, DE 19966
Pa-C Sue Isaacs Millsboro, DE 19966
Peninsula Regional Medical Center - Primary Care Dagsboro, DE 19939
Squires Nancy MD Routes 113 & 26, Dagsboro, DE 19939
Dagsboro Family Practice 29475 Vines Creek Road, Dagsboro, DE 19939
Prentiss W. Adkins Sr., DO 29475 Vines Creek Road, Dagsboro, DE 19939
Haldar Maria Valenzuela MD 524 Union Street, Milton, DE 19968
Holmon Julie MD 424 Mulberry Street, Milton, DE 19968
Milton Health Center Committed to Healthy Community 524 Union Street,
Milton, DE 19968
Wagner Charles G MD 424 Mulberry Street, Milton, DE 19968
Wagner Patricia RN 424 Mulberry Street, Milton, DE 19968 (302) 684-2000
 YELLOW PAGES FAMILY, GENERAL PRACTICE, AND INTERNIST
                          PHYSICIANS
        WITHIN 40 MILES OF DEWEY BEACH, DELAWARE
• Nanticoke's Family Practice Center 351 North Dual Highway,
   Laurel, DE 19956
• Stout Joyce MD 351 North Dual Highway, Laurel, DE 19956
• Glover Dennis MD 30668 Sussex Highway, Laurel, DE 19956
• Jerome Alex MD 30668 Sussex Highway, Laurel, DE 19956
• Peninsula Regional Medical Center - Primary Care Network
   Administration, Family Medicine, Laurel 30668 Sussex Highway,
   Laurel, DE 19956
• Aguillon H Paul MD 401 Concord Road, Seaford, DE 19973
• Lobo Vincent DO 203-205 Shaw Avenue, Harrington, DE 19952
• Parasher Vinod K PA 1451 Kings Highway, Lewes, DE 19958
• Haldar Maria Valenzuela MD 524 Union Street, Milton, DE 19968
• Davis Eilleen DO 25 Bridgeville Road, Georgetown, DE 19947
• Halko Nadine MD RR 14, Bridgeville, DE 19933
• Kundu Moushimi MD RR 14, Bridgeville, DE 19933
• Lynn Romano MD RR 14, Bridgeville, DE 19933
• Smith Kenneth MD RR 14, Bridgeville, DE 19933
• Cargo Jon D MD 30613 Sussex Highway, Laurel, DE 19956
  Can We Get to a Doctor? Step 2
• Examine the pattern of dots.
  – What can you conclude about the distribution
    of doctors in Sussex County?
  – What additional information is needed to see
    whether everyone in Sussex County has
    equal access to a doctor?
  – Write a list in your research notebook of what
    other types of map layers you would like to
    see.
Can We Get to a Doctor Step 3
• One item on your list should be that you would
  like to know where people live in Sussex County.
  With that information, you can see whether more
  doctors are found where people live.
• You will find a blank outline map of Sussex
  County zip code areas and a list of the number
  of people in each zip code at the time of the
  2000 Census. Notice that the data have been
  arranged from the largest to the smallest
  population. Divide the data into five groups and
  give each group a different color. Then color the
  corresponding zip code area.
                    Sussex County Pop Chart

Population     Zip Code   PLACE         4900   19940   Delmar

      21416      19973    Seaford
                                        4808   19960   Lincoln
      17768      19966    Millsboro
                                        4663   19939   Dagsboro
      15525      19947    Georgetown
                                        4481   19970   Ocean View
      15232      19963    Milford
                                        3322   19946   Frederica
      13949      19958    Lewes

      13451      19956    Laurel        2673   19930   Bethany Beach

      10085      19971    Rehoboth      2137   19941   Ellendale

        9715     19943    Felton
                                        1504   19954   Houston
        8343     19952    Harrington
                                         973   19951   Harbeson
        6694     19933    Bridgeville
                                         462   19967   Millville
        6552     19968    Milton
                                         342   19944   Fenwick Isl
        6408     19975    Selbyville

        5700     19945    Frankford      235   19931   Bethel

        5388     19950    Greenwood       75   19942   Farmington
Can We Get to a Doctor Step 3
• Now you have two map layers, one of doctors
  and one of population. Compare the two layers
  and you are doing GIS analysis.
  – Are doctors fairly distributed among the population so
    that everyone has equal access to medical care?
  – Are there some areas that are better served than
    others? Some areas that are not as well served?
  – Write your answers to these questions in your
    research notebook.
 Can We Get to a Doctor Step 4
• One of the advantages of using a GIS is the ability to
  measure the information being mapped because it is
  stored digitally. Let’s see how this might help our
  analysis. We have prepared another version of the maps
  you just made. This time, we have used our GIS to lay
  the distribution of doctors over the zip code areas of
  population, and we have classified the population into
  ten instead of just five categories.
• Review the responses you wrote in your notebook to the
  questions posed in step three above. Do you wish to
  change or enlarge on any observations you made?
Can We Get to a Doctor Step 4
• Now let’s explore another aspect of our
  analysis.
  – Who are the people in Sussex county who
    have to travel the farthest to reach a doctor?
  – We can use the measuring ability of our GIS
    to produce a map that shows how far each zip
    code area is away from a doctor
  – Write your answer to this question in your
    research notebook.
Can We Get to a Doctor Step 5
• What would you like to know about the
  people who have better or worse ability to
  get to a doctor in the county?
• Make a list of the criteria you could use as
  the basis for another map layer.
               Class Work
• Write a letter to the local newspaper, with
  your opinion of an article the newspaper
  published recently with the headline:
  “GETTING TO THE DOC. TOUGHER
  FOR THE POOR” Use the information you
  have gathered from your research to
  justify the position you take in your letter.
Exit Ticket
Who are the
Planners?
          Think/Pair/Share

• Do you like to plan ahead?

• What are some of the pros and cons of
  planning?
                Citizen Planners




• All over the state, citizens contribute to comprehensive plans
  for the space where they live and work.
Planning a community that works
     for everyone involves
               • Geographic
                 knowledge and
                 perspectives
               • Skillful use of
                 geographic tools
               • Teamwork among
                 citizens and with
                 government groups
Geography and DOE
•   This map of a part of Maryland
    shows how much water has been
    removed from an aquifer. Water
    levels measurements (also know
    as head measurements) are shown
    by the black contours and are
    critical when calculating water loss
    from an aquifer.
•   In the area located near the red
    arrow you can see that the water
    levels have been measured at -80
    feet below sea-level. The ‘bullseye’
    you see is called a cone of
    depression and indicates a decline
    in water levels due to pumpage.
    You can see from the map that this
    decline covers a large area and
    has regional impacts.
•   A regional planner could use this
    type of map to locate a new
    community or an industrial facility
    that uses lots of water. (such as a
    thermo electric plant or paper mill).
Geography and Transportation
      Geography and Traffic Collisions
•This map shows collisions
that occurred within specific
census areas within the City of
Wilmington.

•The data was gathered with
collaboration from the
Wilmington Police Department,
the Delaware State Police and
a from the Department of
Planning.

•This data will appear in the
Area Community Notebook
that is distributed annually by
the city.
            Class work
• Geography Worksheets
              Home work
• Read – Student Reading Standard One
  – Answer Questions
Exit Ticket

								
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