Chapter 3 by GwW5fS

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									                           Chapter 3, Part B
                          Structure and Function
                                  of Cells

Nucleus
• Functions
  – Contains the genetic information of the cell
  – Controls the cell
• Structural features
  – Double-layered nuclear membrane
  – Nuclear pores
  – Chromosomes/chromatin
  – Nucleolus

Ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
• Two types of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
  – Rough ER
    • Has ribosomes on surface
    • Protein manufacturing, modifications
  – Smooth ER
    • No ribosomes on surface
    • Lipid synthesis
    • Packages the proteins


Golgi Apparatus

Vesicles

Mitochondria



Fat and Glycogen: Sources of Energy
• Fat
  – Triglycerides
  – Long-term energy storage in animals
• Glycogen
  – Carbohydrate storage
  – Short-term energy storage in animals
Cell Structures for Support and Movement

Cells Use and Transform Matter
and Energy
• Anabolism
  – Used in making/assembling large molecules
  – May require energy (ATP)
  – Used in building and assembling cell components

Cells Use and Transform Matter
and Energy
• Catabolism
  – Breakdown of molecules
  – May release energy
  – Used in breaking down nutrients and recycling cell components

Glucose Provides the Cell with Energy
• Glucose provides energy for the cell
• Energy in glucose is used to generate ATP
• In absence of glucose, other carbohydrates, fats, and protein
  can be catabolized to generate ATP
Glucose Provides the Cell with Energy

Glycolysis
Preparatory Step for Citric Acid Cycle

Citric Acid Cycle

Electron Transport System
• Located in inner mitochondrial membrane
• Takes electrons from NADH and FADH2
• Movement of electrons from one electron carrier to the next releases
  energy that is harvested to generate ATP
• Final electron acceptor is O2, which forms water upon receiving electrons
  and hydrogen ions
• ATP generated by ATP synthase enzyme
• Process also known as oxidative phosphorylation

Summary of Energy Production
from Glucose

Additional Energy Sources
• Glycogen
• Fats
  – Triglycerides have twice the energy of carbohydrates
• Proteins
  – Have the same energy as carbohydrates

Anaerobic Pathways Make Energy Available without
Oxygen


Review questions
• In the Test Yourself of the 6 th edition
• Multiple choice numbers 1,4 – 13, 15.
Review questions
• Define the following
  – Prokaryotic cell
  – Eukaryotic cell
  – Diffusion
  – Osmosis
  – Passive transport through the membrane
  – Active transport through the membrane
  – ATP
• List the functions of the major organelles of the cell.
    –   Plasma membrane
    –   Nucleus
    –   Nucleolus
    –   Rough ER
    –   Smooth ER
    –   Golgi
    –   Vesicles
    –   Mitochondria
    –   Cytoskeleton


• Why are cells usually microscopic in size?
• What are the tenets of the cell doctrine?
• Define passive transport.
• Name the three passive transport methods and give an example
  of each.
• What is the purpose of exocytosis and endocytosis?
• What is a vesicle? What is the purpose of a lysosome? A
  peroxisome?


• What is active transport? Give an example.
• What catabolic cellular process is used to make ATP from
  glucose and other energy sources? __________________
• In what organelle does most of this process occur?
  _____________


• Match the following statements with the stage in cell respiration where it
  occurs.
• A) glycolysis B) citric acid cycle C) electron transport chain
• 1. 34 ATP are formed. _____
• 2. acetyl enters and 2 ATP, NADH, and FADH2 are formed.
• 3. glucose enters and pyruvate and 2 ATP are formed.
• 4. Water is a waste product. ____
• 5. Carbon dioxide is a waste product. ____
Which of the following is a FALSE statement about anaerobic
respiration?
• If oxygen is not present for cellular respiration,
• A. lactic acid is produced.
• B. only 2 ATP are produced per molecule of glucose
  catabolized (broken down).
• C. no energy is produced at all


True or False?
• 1. Energy can only be derived from molecules of carbohydrates
  in food, and not lipids or proteins. _____
• 2. There is almost twice as much energy in a gram of fat as a
  gram of carbohydrate or protein. ___
• 3. The presence of oxygen lets your cells get more energy out
  of carbohydrates. ___
• 4. ATP is generated mostly in the mitochondria of the cell. ____

								
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