ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

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					ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE:
 A Global Concern, 5th edition


               Vahininarra
              K.Luniversity
         Greenfields,vaddeswaram
            GUNTUR(distric)
      CHAPTER 1

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
   AND ECOLOGICAL
      PRINCIPLES
  What is Environmental Science?
• Environment
• Environmental Science
• History of Environmental Science
  – utilitarian conservation
  – altruistic preservation
       CURRENT CONDITIONS
• Planet Earth
• Environmental Dilemmas
  –   population
  –   food shortages
  –   energy
  –   pollution
        A DIVIDED WORLD
• Rich vs. Poor
• North vs. South
• Developed countries vs. undeveloped
  countries
  – First, Second, Third and Fourth World
    Countries
  HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
• Human Development Index
• Developmental Discrepancies
  – basic social services
       • education
       • health care
  –   agrarian reform
  –   employment
  –   civil rights
  –   sustainable resource use
• Sustainable Development
       ENVIRONMENTAL
        PERSPECTIVES
• Neo-Malthusian
• Technological optimists/Promethean
  environmentalism
• “Cornucopian Fallacy”
• Lessons from the Past
     CHAPTER 2


TOOLS FOR BUILDING A
   BETTER WORLD
Environmental Ethics and Philosophy

• Universal Ethical Principles
  – Relativists
  – Nihilists
  – Utilitarians
• Modernism & Postmodernism
     Values, Rights & Obligations

•   Morals
•   Animal Rights
•   Inherent Value
•   Instrumental Value
         Worldviews and Ethical
              Perspectives
•   Domination
•   Stewardship
•   Biocentrism
•   Ecofeminism
       Environmental Justice
• Environmental racism
• Toxic colonialism
• Is Nature fragile or resilient?
      Science as a Way of Knowing
•   Scientific Method
•   Hypotheses Testing
•   Indirect Scientific Evidence
•   Technology and Progress
•   Appropriate Technology
       CHAPTER 3

MATTER, ENERGY, AND LIFE
             From Atoms to Cells
• Atoms
  – ions
  – atomic number
• Molecules
  – compound
• Organic Compounds
  – carbon
• Cells
    Energy Types and Qualities
• Kinetic Energy
    – heat
    – temperature
•   Potential Energy
•   Chemical Energy
•   Conservation of Matter
•   Thermodynamics
    – 1st law
    – 2nd law
             Energy for Life

• Solar Energy

• Photosynthesis
  – Chlorophyll
  – cellular respiration
      From Species to Ecosystems
• Population
• Communities
  – biological community
• Ecosystems
           Food Chains
• Productivity/biomass
• Food chain/food web
• Trophic level
  – producers
  – consumers
• Organisms
  – herbivores
  – carnivores
  – omnivores
    Material Cycles and Life Processes
•   Carbon Cycle
•   Nitrogen Cycle
•   Phosphorus Cycle
•   Sulfur Cycle
      CHAPTER 4

BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES
AND SPECIES INTERACTION
Critical Factors, Who Lives Where?
•   Temperature
•   Moisture levels
•   Nutrient supply
•   Soil chemistry
•   Water chemistry
• Natural Selection

• Adaptation

• Evolution

• HABITAT
     SPECIES
INTERACTIONS AND
   COMMUNITY
    DYNAMICS
                Predation
• Predators
  – parasites
  – Pathogens
• Prey
             Competition
• Intraspecific competition
• Interspecific competition

• Territoriality
           Symbiosis

• Commensalism
• Mutualism
         Community Properties
•   Productivity
•   Abundance and Diversity
•   Complexity and Connectedness
•   Resilience and Stability
•   Structure
•   Edges and Boundaries
        Ecological Succession
•   Primary Succession
•   Secondary Succession
•   Pioneer Species
•   Ecological Development
•   Climax Community

• Introduced Species and Community Change
    CHAPTER 5

BIOMES, LANDSCAPES,
 RESOTRATION AND
   MANAGEMENT
            Terrestrial Biomes
• Deserts
• Grasslands
    – Prairies
    – Savannas
•   Tundra
•   Conifer Forests
•   Evergreen Forests
•   Tropical Forests
•   Tropical Seasonal Forests
      Aquatic Ecosystems
• Freshwater and Saline Ecosystems
• Estuaries and Wetlands
• Shorelines and Barrier Islands
  – Coral reefs
       Landscape Ecology
• Patchiness & Heterogeneity
• Landscape Dynamics
          Restoration Ecology
•   Rehabilitation
•   Remediation
•   Reclamation
•   Re-creation
•   Nature, self-healing
     CHAPTER 6

POPULATION DYNAMICS
          Population Growth
•   Exponential Growth
•   Geometric Growth
•   Arithmetic Growth
•   J Curve
    Population Oscillations and
        Irruptive Growth

• Dieback
• Overshoot
• Irruptive or Malthusian growth
   Growth to a Stable Population
• Logistic growth
• Environmental resistance
 Strategies of Population Growth

• Malthusian Strategies
• Logistic Strategies
Factors affecting Population

 •   Natality, Fecundity, and Fertility
 •   Immigration
 •   Mortality and survivorship
 •   Age Structure
 •   Emigration
 •   Education
Factors Affecting Birth and Fertility Rates

  •   Education/affluence
  •   Importance of children to family labor force
  •   Urbanization
  •   Cost - raising and educating children
  •   Education & Employment opportunity - women
  •   Infant mortality rate
  •   Average marriage age
  •   Availability - pension
  •   Birth control
  •   Religious beliefs, tradition and culture
Factors Affecting Death Rate

 • Nutrition
 • Fewer infant deaths and increased longevity
 • Health and technology
• Teen Pregnancy in the USA
• Migration
• Immigration
    Population Age Structure

– Ways of classifying
  • Pre-reproductive age
  • Reproductive age
  • Post-reproductive age
Solutions Influencing Population

  – Controlling Migration
  – Reducing Birth Rates
     •   Economic development
     •   Family planning
     •   Economic rewards
     •   Empowering women
  – Population Control Studies
     • India
     • China
  Population Distribution

– Urbanization and Growth
  •   The future is urban
  •   Hyper-urbanization - LDCs
  •   The United States and other MDC’s
  •   Spatial patterns of development
    CHAPTER 7

HUMAN POPULATIONS
          Population Growth

• Birth Rates
• Over-population
• Technology and Ingenuity
    Limits to Population Growth

• Malthusian checks
• Karl Marx
• Neo-Malthusian
  – Technology solutions?
  – Can More people be Beneficial?
            Human Demography

•   Fertility
•   Birthrate
•   Zero population growth
•   Mortality and death rates
•   Population growth rates
•   Life span and life expectancy
    – dependency ratio
• Emigration and Immigration
  Population Growth: Opposition
• Pronatalist/Social Pressures
• Birth Reduction Pressures
  – Education
  – Birth control
  – Economics
      Demographic Transition
•   Improved living conditions
•   Development and Population
•   Optimistic View
•   Pessimistic View
•   Social Justice View
•   Ecojustice View
•   Infant Mortality
•   Women’s Rights
 Family Planning & Fertility Control
• Birth Control
  –   Celibacy
  –   Mechanical barriers
  –   Surgery
  –   Chemicals
  –   Implantation of physical controls
  –   Abortion
CHAPTER 8

ECOLOGICAL
ECONOMICS
             Classical Economics

•   Diminished Returns
•   Demand
•   Supply
•   Market Equilibrium
•   Marginal Costs
•   Price Elasticity
• Neoclassical Economics
  – Karl Marx
  – E. F. Schumacher
• Ecological Economics
  – steady-state economy
 Resources, Capital and Reserves
• Resource Types
  –   Capital
  –   Resource
  –   Nonrenewable resources
  –   Renewable resources
  –   Intangible resources
      Economic Resource Categories
•   Proven resources
•   Known resources
•   Undiscovered resources
•   Recoverable resources
Population, Technology, and Scarcity
• Market Efficiencies
• Increasing Environmental Carrying
  Capacity
• Economic Models
• Why Not Conserve Resources?
     Natural Resource Accounting

•   Gross National Product (GNP)
•   Human Development Index (HDI)
•   Non-market Values
•   Cost/Benefit Ratios
•   Green Business
•   Jobs and the Environment
     Sustainability


Sustainable Development
  CHAPTER 9

ENVIRONMENTAL
  HEALTH AND
  TOXICOLOGY
            Health Hazards
• Infectious Diseases
• Respiratory diseases
  –   pneumonia
  –   tuberculosis
  –   influenza
  –   whooping cough
•Malaria
•Parasitic Mematodes
•Schistosomiasis
•Onchocerciasis (river blindness)
•Trachoma
•STD’s
               Toxic Chemicals
•   Irritants
•   Respiratory fibrotic agents
•   Asphyxiants
•   Allergens
•   Neurotoxins
•   Mutagens
•   Teratogens
•   Carcinogens
• Natural and Synthetic Toxin
• Physical Agents
  – radiation
• Trauma
  – stress
• Diet
Chemical Hazards and Toxicology

  • Dose and response
     – LD5O factor
  • Acute effect
  • Chronic effect
  • Types
     –   toxic substances
     –   hazardous
     –   carcinogens
     –   mutagens
     –   teratogens
       Movement, Distribution and
            Fate of Toxins
•   Solubility
•   Bioaccumulation
•   Biomagnification
•   Persistence
•   Chemical Interactions
       Minimizing Toxic Effects
• Metabolic Degradation
• Excretion
• Repair Mechanisms
              Measuring Toxicity
•   Animal Testing
•   Toxicity Ratings
•   Acute vs. Chronic Doses and Effects
•   Detection Limits
              Assessment
• Risks

• Acceptable risks??
Risk Analysis

  –   Identifying Risks
  –   The Greatest Risks
  –   Problems - Risk Assessment
  –   Risk-Benefit Analysis
  –   Managing Risks
   CHAPTER 10

FOOD, HUNGER AND
   NUTRITION
                   Human Nutrition
• Energy Needs
  – undernourishment
  – over-nourishment
• Nutritional Needs
  –   proteins
  –   carbohydrates
  –   lipids and oils
  –   minerals
  –   vitamins
        World Food Resoureces
• Major Crops
  –   wheat
  –   rice
  –   corn
  –   potatoes
• Meat and Milk
• Croplands
 Increasing Food Production

• Green Revolution
  – Technology
  – Genetic Engineering
  – Increased Farm Output
• New Food Sources
• Blue Revolution
  – Aqua-culture
           Agricultural Economics

•   Food Supplies
•   Food Subsidies
•   Agricultural Aid
•   International Food Trade
•   Cash Crops
• World Hunger
  – Famines
  – Food Shortages
  CHAPTER 11

SOIL RESOURECES
AND SUSTAINABLE
  AGRICULTURE
                What is soil?
• Soil, a renewable resource
• Soil composition
  – humus
• Soil organisms
• Soil profiles
  –   top soil
  –   sub-soil
  –   parent material
  –   bedrock
         Use and Abuse of Soil
• Land Resources

• Land Degradation
                  Erosion
• Types of erosion
  –   sheet erosion
  –   rill erosion
  –   gully erosion
  –   streambank erosion
• Erosion in the United States
• Erosion in other countries
     Agricultural Resources
•   Water
•   Fertilizer
•   Climate
•   Energy
•   Crop Diversity
          Soil Conservation
• Managing Topography
  –   contour plowing
  –   strip-farming
  –   tied ridges
  –   terracing
• Providing Ground Cover
  – cover crops
  – mulch
• Reduced Tillage Systems
 CHAPTER 12


PEST CONTROL
    What are Pest and Pesticides?
• Biological Pests
  – Insects
  – Large animals
• Botanical Pests
  – Weeds
• Pesticides
  – Insecticides
• Herbicides
  – Fungicides
                Pest Controls
• Early Controls
  – Botanical
  – Chemical
• Modern Controls
  – Synthetic chemicals
     • DDT
                   Pesticide Types
• Inorganic pesticides
• Natural organic pesticides
    – botanicals
•   Fumigants
•   Chlorinated hydrocarbons
•   Organophosphates
•   Carbamates
•   Microbial agents
             Pesticide Benefits


• Disease control
• Crop protection
• Increased crop production
            Pesticide Problems

• Effects on Nontarget Species
• Pesticide Resistance/Pest resurgence
• Creation of New Pests
• Persistence and Mobility in the
  Environment
• Human Health Problems
          Alternative Pesticide Uses
• Crop rotation
• Biological controls
  – predatory insects
  – pathogens
• Herbivorous insects
• Genetic and bioengineering
    Reducing Pesticide Exposure

• Regulation
  – EPA
  – USDA
• Personal Safety
 CHAPTER 13


BIODIVERSITY
Biodiversity and Species Concept

• What is Biodiversity?
• What are species?
  – Number of species
           Benefits of Biodiversity

•   Food
•   Drugs
•   Medicine
•   Ecological Benefits
•   Aesthetic and Cultural Benefits
  Threats to Biodiversity
• Extinction
• Natural Causes
• Mass Extinction
    Human-Caused Reductions in
          Biodiversity
•   Habitat Destruction
•   Hunting and Fishing
•   Commercial products and Live Specimens
•   Predator and Pest Control
•   Exotic Species Introductions
•   Disease
•   Pollution
•   Genetic Assimilation
            Biodiversity Protection
•   Hunting and Fishing Laws
•   Endangered Species Act
•   Recovery Plans
•   Private Land and Critical Habitat
•   Minimum Viable Populations
•   Habitat Protection
•   International Wildlife Treaties
•   Zoos
•   Botanical Gardens
•   Captive Breeding Programs
     CHAPTER 14

LAND USE: FORESTS AND
    RANGELANDS
               World Land Use
•   Forest, 30%
•   Range and pasture, 26%
•   Cropland, 1%
•   Other, 33
    –   tundra
    –   desert
    –   wetlands
    –   urban areas
              World Forests

• Forest Distribution
  – Closed canopy
  – Open canopy
  – Woodland
               Forest Products
• Industrial Timber
• Fuelwood
              Tropical Forests

•   Diminishing Forests
•   Swidden Agriculture
•   Logging and Land Invasions
•   Forest Protection
    – Reforestation
• Debt-for-Nature Swaps
            Temperate Forests
•   Ancient forest/old growth forests
•   Wilderness Protection
•   Wildlife Protection
•   Harvesting old growth forests
    – clear-cutting
    – strip-cutting
    – selective-cutting
• Fire Management
           Rangelands
• Range Management
• Overgrazing and Land
  Degradation
  – desertification
• Forage Conversion
• Harvesting Wild Animals
         Rangelands in the U.S.

• Bureau of Land Management
• State of the Range
  – feral animals
• Grazing Fees
           Land Ownership
• Who owns what?

• Land Reform

• Indigenous Lands
   CHAPTER 15

PRESERVING NATURE
Parks and Nature Preserves

• Origins and History
• Natural Landscaping
   North American Parks
– Existing Systems
– U.S. National Park System
– Park Problems
   •   Over crowding
   •   Roads
   •   Commercialism
   •   Pollution
– Wildlife
– New Directions
– New Parks
   World Parks and Preserves
• Biosphere Reserves
• Protecting Natural Heritage
• Size and Design of Nature Preserves
  –   recreation areas
  –   historic areas
  –   conservation areas
  –   pristine research areas
• Conservation and Economic Development
• Indigenous Communities
            Wilderness Areas
• Wildlife Refuges
  – Refuge Management
  – International Wildlife Preserves
     • poaching
Wetlands, Floodplains, & Coastal
            Regions
• Wetland Values
• Wetland Destruction
• Floods and Flood Control
  – Floodplains
• Beaches, barrier Islands, and Estuaries
     CHAPTER 16

EARTH AND ITS CRUSTAL
     RESOURCES
          Earth, A Dynamic Sphere
• Earth’s Layers
  –   Crust
  –   Mantle
  –   Outer Core
  –   Inner Core
• Tectonic Processes
  – Tectonic Plates
  – Magma
• Shifting Continents
Rock Types & How They Formed

•   Igneous Rock
•   Weathering
•   Sedimentation
•   Sedimentary Rock
•   Biogenic Sedimentation
•   Metamorphic Rock
               Mineralogy
• Metals
• Nonmetal Minerals
• Strategic Minerals
Environmental Effects of Resource
          Extraction
• Mining
  – tunneling
  – water leakage
  – strip mining
• Processing
  – water pollution
  – chemical emissions
  Conserving Mineral Resources

• Recycling
  – Aluminum & Platinum
  – Steel & Iron


• Substituting New Materials for Old Ones
              Geologic Hazards

• Earthquakes
  – Tsunami
• Volcanoes
• Floods
   CHAPTER 17

AIR, CLIMATE, AND
     WEATHER
          The Atmosphere,
       Composition & Structure
• Gas Mixture
• Layered Envelope
  –   Troposphere
  –   Stratosphere
  –   Mesosphere
  –   Thermosphere
  –   Ionosphere
              Weather Engine

• Solar Radiation/ Heat
  – Albedo (reflectivity)
  – “Greenhouse effect”
• Convection Currents
  – Water vapor
                   Weather
• Energy Balance in the Atmosphere
• Convection Cells
• Prevailing Winds
• Jet Streams
• Frontal Weather
   – cold and warm fronts
• Cyclonic Storms
   – hurricanes and tornadoes
• Seasonal Winds
   – monsoon
• Weather Modification
                  Climate

• Climatic Catastrophes
  – Ice Ages
• Driving Forces & Patterns in Climatic
  Changes
  – Milankovitch Cycles
• El Niño
         Human-caused Global
           Climate Change
• Greenhouse Gases
  – Carbon Dioxide
  – Aerosols
• Sources
  –   Burning Fossil Fuels
  –   Industrial Processes
  –   Deforestation
  –   Agriculture
       Effects of Climate Change

•   Temperature Changes
•   Impact on Plants and Animals
•   Rising Sea Levels impacting Coastlines
•   Melting Ice Packs
•   Possible Increase of Disease
           Cutting Emissions

•   United Nations “Earth Summit”
•   Kyoto Protocol
•   Developed Nations
•   Developing Nations
 CHAPTER 18

AIR POLLUTION
Natural Sources of Air Pollution

• Volcanoes
• Emissions from vegetation
   Human-Caused Air Pollution

• Primary pollutants
• Secondary pollutants
• Fugitive emissions
     Conventional or “Criteria”
            Pollutants
•   Sulfur compounds
•   Nitrogen Compounds
•   Carbon Oxides
•   Metals and Halogens
•   Particulate Materials
•   Volatile Organic Compounds
•   Photochemical Oxidants
       Unconventional Pollutants

•   Emissions & emissions standards
•   Unconventional or noncriteria pollutants
•   Aesthetic degradation
•   Indoor air Pollution
    – smoke
       Climate, Topography, &
       Atmospheric Processes
•   Inversions
•   Dust Domes and Heat Islands
•   Long Range Transport
•   Stratospheric Ozone
    – chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
           Effects of Air Pollution
• Human Health
  – bronchitis
  – emphysema
• Plant Pathology
• Acid Deposition
  –   pH and atmospheric acidity
  –   aquatic effects
  –   forest damage
  –   buildings and monuments
  –   visibility reduction
          Air Pollution Control
• Moving Pollution to Remote Areas
• Particulate Removal
   – filters
• Sulfur Removal
   – fuel switching and fuel cleaning
   – limestone injection/fluidized bed combustion
   – flue gas desulfurization
   – sulfur recovery processes
• Nitrogen Oxide Control
• Hydrocarbon Controls
         Clean Air Legislation
• Clean Air Act of 1963
• Amendments of 1970
• Amendments of 1990
   – Acid rain
   – Urban smog
   – Toxic air pollutants
   – Ozone protection
   – Marketing pollution rights
   – Toxic organic compounds
• EPA
 CHAPTER 19

WATER USE AND
MANAGEMENT
             Water Resources
• Hydrologic Cycle
  – Evaporation/Sublimation
  – Saturation Point
  – Relative humidity
  – Condensation
  – Dew Point
• Rainfall & Topography
  – Rain Shadow
• Desert Belts
• Balancing the Water Budget
    Major Water Compartments
• Oceans
• Glaciers, Ice, & Snow
• Ground Water
   – infiltration
   – water table
   – aquifers
• Rivers and Streams
• Lakes and Ponds
• Wetlands
• The Atmosphere
    Water Availability and Use

• Water Supplies
• Drought Cycles
• Types of Water Use
  – Withdrawal
  – Consumption
  – Degradation
• Quantities of Water Use
• Use by Sector
        Freshwater Shortages
• A Scarce Resource
• Depleting Groundwater
  – subsidence
  – sinkholes
        Increasing Water Supplies

•   Seeding Clouds &Towing Icebergs
•   Desalination
•   Dams, Reservoirs, Canals, & Aqueducts
•   Environmental Costs
    – Evaporation, Leakage, and Siltation
    – Loss of Free-Flowing Rivers
    Water Management & Conservation

•   Watershed Management
•   Domestic Conservation
•   Industrial and Agricultural Conservation
•   Price Mechanisms
  CHAPTER 20


WATER POLLUTION
          Water Pollution

• Point Sources
• Non-point Sources
• Atmospheric Deposition
          Types and Effects of
            Water Pollution
• Infectious Agents
• Oxygen-Demanding Wastes
• Plant Nutrients & Cultural Eutrophication
• Toxic Inorganic Materials
   – Heavy Metals
   – Nonmetallic Salts
   – Acids and Bases
• Organic Chemicals
• Sediments
• Thermal Pollution
      Water Quality Today
• Surface Water in the U.S. &
  Canada
• Surface Water in other Countries
• Groundwater and Drinking Water
  Supplies
• Ocean Pollution
        Water Pollution Control
• Source Reduction
• Non-point Sources and Land Management
  –   Agriculture
  –   Urban runoff
  –   Construction sites
  –   Land disposal
• Human Waste Disposal
  – Natural Processes
  – Municipal Sewage Treatment
    • Primary treatment
    • Secondary treatment
    • Tertiary treatment
  – Low-Cost Waste Treatment
    • effluent sewerage
           Water Legislation

• Clean Water Act
• Clean Water Act Reauthorization
• Other Important Water Legislation
  – Safe Drinking Water Act
  – Superfund
  – Great lakes Water Quality Agreement
 CHAPTER 21


CONVENTIONAL
   ENERGY
                      Energy
• A Brief History
• Current Energy Sources
  –   Fossil fuels
  –   Nuclear power
  –   Hydroelectric
  –   Solar
• Per Capita Consumption
• Energy Use
                  Coal

• Coal Resources and Reserves
• Mining
• Air Pollution
                Oil

• Oil Resources and Reserves
• Oil Imports and Domestic Supplies
• Oil Shales and Tar Sands
              Natural Gas

• Natural Gas Resources and Reserves
• Unconventional Gas Sources
  – Methane hydrate
             Nuclear Power
•   Nuclear Reactors: How They Work?
•   Types of Reactors
•   Alternative Reactor Designs
•   Breeder Reactors
  Radioactive Waste Management

• Ocean Dumping
• Land Disposal
  – high-level waste repository
  – monitored, retrievable storage
• Decommissioning Old Nuclear Plants
    Changing Fortunes of Nuclear
              Power
• Changing Public Opinion
• Nuclear Fusion
  – Magnetic confinement
  – Inertial confinement
CHAPTER 22


SUSTAINABLE
  ENERGY
                Conservation

• Utilization Efficiencies
• Energy Conversion Efficiencies
  – net energy yield
• Negawatt programs
• Co-generation
       Tapping Solar Energy
• A Vast Resource
• Passive Solar Heat
• Active Solar Heat
  – Eutectic Chemicals
 High-Temperature Solar Energy

• Solar Cookers
• Promoting Renewable Energy
• Photovaltaic Solar Energy
  – Photovoltaic Cells
• Storing Electrical Energy
          Energy from Biomass

•   Burning Biomass
•   Fuelwood crisis in LDCs
•   Dung and Methane as Fuels
•   Alcohol from Biomass
    – gasohol
• Crop Residues, Energy Crops and Peat
    Energy from the Earth’s Forces
• Hydropower
  – Dams and Hydro Generators
• Wind Energy
  – Wind Farms
• Geothermal Energy
• Tidal and Wave Energy
  – Tidal Stations
• Ocean Thermal Electric Conversion
   CHAPTER 23


 SOLID, TOXIC AND
HAZARDOUS WASTE
              Solid Waste
• Waste Stream
  –   Paper, 38%
  –   Yard waste, 17%
  –   Metals, 8%
  –   Plastics, 8%
  –   Glass, 7%
  –   Food, 7%
  –   Miscellaneous, 14%
       Waste Disposal Methods
•   Open Dumps
•   Ocean Dumpings
•   Landfills
•   Export Waste
•   Incineration and Resource Recovery
    – Types of incinerators
       • refuse-derived fuel
       • mass burn
    – Incinerator Cost and Safety
      Reducing the Waste Stream

•   Recycling
•   Composting
•   Energy from Waste
•   Reuse
•   Producing Less Waste
    – Photodegradable plastics
    – Biodegradable plastics
    Hazardous and Toxic Wastes
• Hazardous Waste Disposal
• Superfund
• Hazardous Waste Management
  – Produce Less Waste
  – Convert to Less Hazardous Substances
    • Physical treatments
    • Chemical treatments
    • Bioremediation
  – Store Permanently
    • Retrievable Storage
   CHAPTER 24


URBANIZATION AND
SUSTAINABLE CITIES
                Urbanization
• What is a city?
  –   Rural area
  –   Urban area
  –   Village
  –   City
  –   Megacity
  –   Core region
• World Urbanization
      Causes of Urban Growth

• Immigration Push Factors
• Immigration Pull Factors
• Government Policies
                Urban Problems

• The Developing World
  –   Traffic and Congestion
  –   Air Pollution
  –   Sewer Systems and Water Pollution
  –   Housing
       • Slums
       • Shantytowns
       • Squatter Towns
• The Developed World
  – Urban Problems
  – Urban Renewal
  – Noise
Transportation and City Growth

• Transportation methods
  – horse & buggy
  – automobiles
• Roads/freeways
            City Planning

• History
• Garden Cities and New Towns
• Cities of the Future
  – technopolis
• Urban Redesign
• Design for Open space
  – conservation
• Urban Redesign
  –   Limit size
  –   Development areas
  –   Shopping malls into city centers
  –   Convenience for shopping and services
  –   Job location
  –   Exercise areas
  –   Diverse housing
  –   “Superblocks”
  –   Self-sustainable food and waste centers
  –   Public participation
    CHAPTER 25

WHAT THEN SHALL WE
       DO?
       Environmental Education

• Environmental Literacy
• Environmental Careers
         Individual Accountability
• Shopping for Green Products
  –   precycling
  –   Non toxic products
  –   recyclable products
  –   natural products
  –   Environmentally friendly products
• Blue Angels and Green Seals
• Limits of Green Consumerism
• Paying Attention to What’s Important
           Collective Actions
•   Student Environmental Groups
•   Mainline Environmental Organizations
•   Broadening the Environmental Agenda
•   Deep or Shallow Environmentalism
•   Radical Environmental Groups
•   Anti-environmental Backlash
                Global Issues
• Public Opinions and Environmental
  Protection
  – “Post materialist” values
• Sustainable Development
• International Nongovernmental
  Organizations
     Green Government and Politics
• Green Politics
    – “Green” Parties
•   Green Plans
•   National Legislation
•   Courts
•   Executive Branch
•   Environmental Impact Statements
•   International Environmental Treaties and
    Conventions

				
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posted:9/29/2012
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