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									                                            COMPRESSED FACTS
                                                                  VR Systems, Inc.                      Nov/Dec 2000
                                                                                                         Published 12/18/00

                                                           Headquarters: 2408 Mercury Ave., Odessa, TX, 79763, (800)478-0011
                                                 Sales Office: 13310 Leopard St., Ste.6, Corpus Christi, TX 78410 (361)241-5348

Natural Gas Updates from the Energy
Information Administration
If you are looking for a direct link to updates about
natural gas storage levels or gas prices, bookmark There
you'll find a link to the EIA's Natural Gas Update that
contains data on natural gas storage levels and a summary of natural gas prices for the previous
week. The updates are published weekly and are a good way to stay abreast of natural gas market

Specifying Inlet and Discharge Pressures for Your Compression
If you have had the opportunity to utilize our Request for Quote form for a budget price or firm
estimate at, then you've probably asked yourself, "Is
all of this information really required?"
Although we can assume some conditions to provide you with a simple budget estimate, two of
the most vital pieces of data you must provide to us in your Request for Quote are the inlet and
discharge pressures. As designers we must know what you expect the compressor to do and
what specific conditions must be met.
Let us explain what is required of your pressure data.
Pressure is expressed as a force per unit of the area exposed to the pressure. Since weight is
really the force of gravity on a mass of material, the weight necessary to balance the pressure
force is indicated as a measure (ie. psi, lb/sq. ft., gr/sq. cm., -Kg/sq. cm.). Pressure is usually
measured with a gauge.
The pressure measured by the gauge, gauge pressure, is the pressure above atmospheric pressure
as shown on the dial of a pressure gauge in pounds per square inch (psiG). Gauge pressure does
not indicate true total gas pressure (pressure above zero) because it does not include the current
atmospheric pressure. Absolute pressure on the other hand does indicate the true total of gas
pressure, as it is the pressure shown on a pressure gauge plus atmospheric pressure (psiA). (At
sea level, atmospheric pressure is 14.7 pounds per square inch.) Thus for appropriate design of a
compression system, absolute pressure should be used in all calculations including inlet and
discharge pressures.
To review VR Systems Request for Quote form or for a budget price or firm quote on your compressor application
visit our website:
OPEC Output Cuts 'Almost Certain' If Prices Keep Falling Source: Oil & Gas
The UAE Oil Minister Obeid bin Saif Al Nasiri has cautioned that OPEC's next meeting on
January 17 in Vienna could result in production cuts depending on price levels and crude stocks.
The Oil Minister commented "all options are open - we don't rule out any possibility of
production cuts when we meet next month," and went on to speculate on a future drop in oil
prices, saying: "The fall in the prices is possible especially if production rates continued at their
current rates...It is for the next OPEC meeting to discuss means of avoiding a major slump
similar to that witnessed during 1998 and early 1999."
These views were reiterated by Kuwaiti Oil Minister, Sheikh Saud Nasser al-Sabah, who
recently was quoted as saying: "OPEC members will examine a decrease in production at their
next meeting...if prices continue to sink at the current rate...It is almost certain that an agreement
on a reduction in production will be reached during the meeting. About one million bpd will be
taken away if it is necessary, especially with the coming of spring and summer, which bring a
reduction in consumption levels and the worldwide demand for oil.".

Iraq resumes oil exports after 12-day break
DUBAI, Dec 13 (Reuters) - Iraq resumed oil exports on Wednesday when the Indian Oil Corp
began to load a cargo -- putting an end to a 12-day suspension of Iraq's United Nations-
monitored sales.
"The Jade is definitely loading and the Nikolaos is about to berth," an Iraqi official told Reuters
by telephone from Baghdad. Both tankers are chartered to IOC for lifting from Iraq's Gulf port of
Mina al-Bakr.
Iraq had kept 2.3 million barrels a day (bpd) of oil sales on hold from December 1 after
customers under the United Nations oil-for-food exchange, an exception to Gulf War sanctions,
declined to meet Iraqi demands for special payments.
At least in IOC's case, Baghdad appears to have dropped its demand for a 40-cent per barrel
"We're not violating any U.N. sanctions. India will not violate any U.N. sanctions," an industry
official in India told Reuters.
The Iraqi oil official declined to say whether Baghdad had abandoned its surcharge demand.
"You know we cannot talk about such things," the official said.
Any payments direct to Iraq would contravene U.N. rules that demand revenues be deposited in a
U.N. escrow account.
Iraq's demand for a fee paid into a Baghdad-controlled account had been seen as one of the
boldest moves yet by the country to wrest back some control over its oil export revenues from
the U.N.
It remained to be seen whether Baghdad would excuse a string of other customers waiting to load
Basrah Light crude oil at Mina al-Bakr from the surcharge.
Industry sources said about eight vessels are queued up behind the IOC tankers.
No action was seen at the Turkish Mediterranean port of Ceyhan, Iraq's second U.N. authorized
export outlet, which customers deserted when Iraq stopped exports on December 1.
Market sources reckon loadings of Kirkuk crude from Ceyhan might not get under way until
December 19.
It was also uncertain whether Iraq would enact its threatened boycott of companies supplying
states hostile to Iraq.
The United States, held in contempt by Iraq, has been lifting about 750,000 bpd through third
parties. REUTERS

EPA's LMOP Program Reports: "Green Power Programs Spur US
Source: EPA's LMOP

Utilities in states that have yet to undergo electric utility restructuring are leading the way in
selling green power, according to a new report by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory
(NREL). Green pricing programs, under which utilities sell electricity generated from
renewables at a premium price, grew by 24 new utility programs in 1999, according to NREL.
This brings the total to 52, nearly double the number of programs offered in 1998. These
programs have led to the development of 73 MW planned. Meanwhile, competitively marketed
green power in California, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and some New England states has led to
53 MW of new renewable energy installations, with another 60 MW in the works.

                                       Left: Sliding Vane Compressor for Vapor Recovery being prepared for
                                       shipment to West Texas location. Design Conditions: 0-30 PSI (250
                                       MSCFD); Process: Vapor Recovery---70.7% Carbon Dioxide with
                                       other gas mixtures; Package Description: (1) 30 HP electric motor
                                       driving an AC Ro-Flo 8DB sliding vane compressor.

                                       "Small or large application? Rest assured knowing you have placed
                                       your job into the hands of experienced professionals at VR Systems!"

Industry Events
Gas Compressor Association
Sixth Annual Expo & Conference
February 6-8, 2001
Omni Bayfront Hotel
Corpus Christi, TX
For more information or to register, visit or call 972-518-0019. JGA

  Compressed Facts is published monthly by VR Systems, Inc., 2408 Mercury Ave. Odessa, Texas, 79763, strictly for customers
and vendors of VR Systems, Inc. Send any contact e-Compressed Facts is published monthly by VR Systems, Inc., 2408 Mercury
 Ave. Odessa, Texas, 79763, strictly for customers and vendors of VR Systems, Inc. Send any contact e-mail address changes or
               updates to: VR Systems, Inc., 13310 Leopard St., Ste.6, Corpus Christi, Texas, 78410 or e-mail to Comments are welcomed and should be addressed to the editor at the above e-mail or by phone
                                             at (361)241-5348 or fax (361)241-5386.
                              Energy Indices
                             October/November 2000
                 based on Closing Prices & Dow Jones Industrial Averages

Disclaimer: The data/information presented above was obtained from other sources and is not
guaranteed. VR Systems accepts no responsibility nor liability for the accuracy or quality of the
data/information nor any losses that might have incurred because of the data/information.

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