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									Intelligence

 Meredyth Daneman
      PSY100
        What is Intelligence?
   abstract reasoning, problem solving, capacity to
    acquire knowledge

   memory, mental speed, linguistic competence,
    mathematical competence, general knowledge,
    creativity

   sensory acuity, goal-directedness, creativity

   what intelligence tests measure
        Overview

   Nature of intelligence

   Methods to measure intelligence

   Theoretical approaches

   Heredity and intelligence
Nature of Intelligence

   Functional

   Multi-faceted

   Culturally Defined
    Nature of Intelligence

   Provisionally define intelligence as:

       the application of cognitive skills and
       knowledge to learn, solve problems,
       and obtain ends that are valued by
       an individual culture
Intelligence Testing

Intelligence tests are measures
  designed to assess an individual’s level
  of cognitive capabilities compared to
  other people in the population
Intelligence Testing (Galton)
Sir Francis Galton

   believed building blocks of intelligence are
    simple sensory, perceptual, and motor
    abilities

   found that these elementary tasks did not
    correlate with much of anything

   pioneering statistician – correlation
Intelligence Testing (Binet)
Binet

   believed that a true measure of intelligence
    is an individual’s performance on complex
    tasks of memory, reasoning, and
    comprehension

   developed the concept of “mental age” or
    “mental level”
         Intelligence Testing

A child’s mental age (MA) indicates that he/she
  displays the mental abilities of a child of that
  chronological age (CA)

   a child with a CA of 5 who can answer questions a
    typical 7-yr old answers, has a MA of 7

   a 5-yr old who can answer the questions expected
    for his/her age but no older, has a MA of 5
Intelligence Testing (Terman)

Terman

   revised the scales: Stanford-Binet

   intelligence quotient (IQ), a score meant to
    quantify intellectual functioning to allow
    comparison among individuals
IQ = (MA/CA) X 100

8yr old performs at level of 12yr old
       (12/8) X 100 = 150

   12yr old performs at level of 8yr old
       (8/12) X 100 = 66

   12yr old performs at level of 12yr old
       (12/12) X 100 = 100
Intelligence Testing (Wechsler)

Wechsler

   developed test that could be used for adults
       WAIS (adults)
       WPPSI (children)

   verbal and performance subtests

   frequency distribution of IQ scores
Wechsler Intelligence Scales:
Verbal IQ
Wechsler Intelligence Scales:
Performance IQ
    Frequency Distribution of IQ Scores

   Original IQ formula was useful for assessing
    children’s test performance, but not adults’
    test performance

   Wechsler remedied the problem by
    abandoning concept of MA and calculating IQ
    as an individual’s position relative to peers of
    the same age on a frequency distribution
The scores on an
IQ test form an
approximately
bell-shaped
curve. The curve
shown here
represents
scores on the
Wechsler IQ
test, with a
standard
deviation of 15
(15 points
above and
below the mean,
which is 100).
The Extremes of Intelligence


    Mental retardation:
        IQ less than 70
        about 2% of population
        75-90% are in mild to moderate range
         (IQ 50-70)
        10% in severe to profound range
         (IQ below 50)
The Extremes of Intelligence
   Giftedness:

       IQs exceeding 130
Validity & Reliability of IQ Tests


   Validity: the ability to assess the
    construct it was designed to measure

   Reliability: the ability to produce
    consistent results
IQ Testing: Criticism & Controversy


   Lack of theoretical basis

   Are IQ tests culturally biased?

   Are IQ tests valid?
Approaches to Intelligence
   psychometric approach

   information-processing approach

   multi-component approach
Psychometric Approach
   The psychometric approach tries to
    identify groups of items in a test that
    correlate with one another in order to
    discover underlying skills or abilities
   Factor analysis: a statistical procedure for
    finding patterns of correlations among
    measures in order to identify underlying
    factors or mental abilities
Identifying a Common Factor
             Sprint Weights               Pullups            Situps
   ---------------------------------------------------------------------

   Sprint       ---        .35              .45             .41

   Weights ---               ---            .70             .52

   Pullups       ---        ---              ---             .37

   Situps        ---         ---             ---             ---
   ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory


general factor or g-factor

specific factors or s-factors
Cattell’s Theory
   Fluid intelligence
       speed and accuracy for abstract reasoning,
        especially for novel problems (drawing
        inferences, finding analogies, recognizing
        patterns)


   Crystallized intelligence
       accumulated knowledge and vocabulary
Thurstone: seven primary abilities

   word fluency
   comprehension
   numerical computation
   spatial skills
   associative memory
   reasoning
   perceptual speed
    Information-Processing Approach
   tries to understand the processes that underlie
    intelligent behaviour; e.g., what is general
    intelligence or “g”?

   various proposals:
       working memory capacity
       retrieving information from long-term memory
       speed of processing (inspection time)
Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Gardner)

   Seven intelligences
       musical
       bodily/kinesthetic
       spatial
       linguistic or verbal
       logical/mathematical
       intrapersonal
       interpersonal
Gardner
   Savants
       one island of brilliance


   Prodigies
       extraordinary and generally early
        developing genius in one area, but normal
        abilities in others
Heredity and Intelligence
Evidence for Hereditary Influences
   twin studies
  adoption studies
Heredity and Intelligence
Evidence for Environmental Influences
  adoption studies
  environmental deprivation &
   enrichment
  generational change (the Flynn effect)
Flynn Effect
   IQ has been rising steadily over the
    industrialized world since 1930s
   Has to be attributed to environmental factors
   Hypotheses:
       reductions in severe malnutrition
       advances in technology (TV, computers, video
        games)
       improved schools, smaller families, better
        educated and informed parents
Heredity vs. Environment

individual differences

vs.

group differences
.

								
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