Massachusetts New Americans Agenda Produced by The Governor’s Advisory Council for Refugees and Immigrants October 1, 2009 With Contributing Authors: Westy Egmont, Co-Chair, Governor’s Advisory Council for Refugees and Immigrants Eva Millona, Co-Chair, Governor’s Advisory Council for Refugees and Immigrants Richard Chacón, Executive Director, Massachusetts Office for Refugees and Immigrants Nicole Tambouret, Coordinator, New Americans Agenda, Massachusetts Immigrant and Refugee Advocacy Coalition Marcia Hohn, Governor’s Advisory Council for Refugees and Immigrants Ramon Borges-Mendez, Governor’s Advisory Council for Refugees and Immigrants In partnership with: Massachusetts Office for Refugees and Immigrants and Massachusetts Immigrant & Refugee Advocacy Coalition 1 Massachusetts New Americans Agenda Contents Executive Summary 5 Report Input 6 Introduction Integration 7 The New Americans Agenda 8 Massachusetts’ Immigrant Portrait 10 Massachusetts’ Immigrant by the Numbers 11 Recommendations Civil RIghts 12 Adult English Language Proficiency 14 Economic Development 16 Education 18 Public Safety 22 Employment and Workforce Development 26 Access to Sate Services 29 Citizenship Assistance 32 Health 33 Refugees 36 Youth 37 Housing and Community Development 39 How Others Can Participate 41 Acknowledgements 42 Glossary 43 Appendix I. Top 12 Meeting Issues 45 II. Advisory Council Letter to the Governor 46 III. Executive Order No. 503 48 IIII. Executive Order No. 478 50 Footnotes 53 2 Massachusetts New Americans Agenda Executive Summary Immigrants in Massachusetts represent over 14% of the state’s in the United States, and relevant statistical information. population and an even larger portion of the Massachusetts workforce.1 By 2004, immigrants accounted for 1 in 6 of all Governor Patrick chose to launch the project as an integration workers in the Commonwealth.2 More importantly, immigrants initiative in recognition of the important two-way exchange that make up over 21.6 percent of the crucial younger labor force, integration represents. Integration is a process in which both aged 21-44, necessary to drive the Massachusetts economy and newcomers and welcoming communities share responsibilities generate new growth.3 and benefits. Immigrants bring economic, cultural, and social contributions to the Commonwealth; in turn the Commonwealth Massachusetts has come to depend on the growth of its offers opportunities for education, healthcare, and economic immigrant populations to maintain its population size and advancement. These mutual benefits provide an incentive to economic prosperity. Massachusetts benefits economically, promote integration for the benefit of the Commonwealth and all culturally, and civically from the full inclusion of immigrants. of its residents. The New Americans Agenda (NAA) project reflects the desire of the Commonwealth to better understand the benefits and The recommendations in this report are organized in twelve needs of immigrants and their communities and to develop or topic areas and presented in order of importance determined by promote improved state policies that emphasize their integration. the members of the GAC: Civil Rights, Adult English Language Proficiency, Economic Development, Education, Public Safety, Initiated by Governor Patrick with Executive Order 503 as the Employment and Workforce Development, Access to State immigrant population of the Commonwealth is about to reach 1 Services, Citizenship Assistance, Health, Refugees, Youth, and million people, the value of moving past the media debates Housing and Community Development. The recommendations about national admission policy and status into an intentional aim to improve state policies and programs as they relate to state strategy of inclusion is timely and critical to the civic and access, inclusion and opportunity for all immigrants in each of economic future of the state. Good public policy aims at the the topic areas, as well as to increase awareness and well-being of all residents and can be a vital tool in fostering a understanding of these issues across state government. positive climate for newcomer and settled communities alike in Massachusetts. All of the recommendations included in this report are vital to the full integration of immigrants into the civic and economic The first phase of the project, as stated by the Executive life of the Commonwealth. However, there are certain broad Order, calls for the Governor’s Advisory Council for Refugees areas which form the foundation for all other integration and Immigrants (GAC) to deliver a set of policy successes. The GAC views these areas as the very essence of recommendations to the Governor to better integrate immigrants integration. In that spirit, the GAC affirms the central and refugees into the civic and economic life of the importance of: Commonwealth. The GAC, a voluntary advisory body established by state law in 1986 and whose membership is English language acquisition as the basis for full appointed by the Governor, is comprised of immigrants, participation in all aspects of American life; business leaders, academics, policy experts and representatives from several state agencies and secretariats that affect or serve Basic and advanced education for children and adults significant foreign-born populations. and assistance for those already possessing professional credentials as a means of unlocking the potential of This report contains the final recommendations from the first every resident in the Commonwealth; phase of the New Americans Agenda project. The information for the NAA recommendations came from three primary sources: Access to a full range of state services to ensure the support and success of all immigrants; 1. A series of public meetings across the state– regional meetings attended by more than 1,200 individuals were held Protection from discrimination to preserve the rights in Chelsea, Hyannis, New Bedford, Lowell, Springfield, and and freedoms of all. Fitchburg; These broad areas are crucial to secure the success of the important recommendations listed throughout this report. As a 2. A series of policy meetings– in which over 175 state whole, these policy recommendations seek a climate shift that agency staff, community experts, and policy professionals met cumulatively demonstrates a commitment to the foreign born for two rounds of discussions about immigrant integration. residents of Massachusetts which has the ultimate benefit of The topics included public safety, housing, youth, health, fostering a society of inclusion, respect, and cultural richness. economic/workforce development, education, and civil rights; 3. Existing literature and research– including demographic and academic studies, other statewide integration initiatives 3 Report Input: Sources and Information Research- From in-state and out of state including studies, reports and recommendations Policy Meetings- Specific topics discussed with community members, state agency staff, and policy experts Public Meetings- Regional meetings were held in Springfield, Fitchburg, New Bedford, Lowell, Hyannis, and Chelsea. Over 1200 people attended to give opinions and list important issues 4 Introduction Integration Challenges and Opportunities The purpose of the New Americans Agenda is to recommend ways to better integrate immigrants and refugees into the civic and economic life of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Integration, the combining of separate components into a harmonious whole, is fundamental to the success of the Commonwealth and the nation. Our society’s ability to peacefully absorb newcomers and to encourage their full engagement as workers, neighbors, and citizens is the basis for our national history of regeneration, innovation, growth, and prosperity. The importance of an integration focus on immigrant issues is that integration represents a two-way commitment with the host community and the newcomer populations agreeing to work together to create a more prosperous future and a healthier, more secure Commonwealth. Integration is an important goal for both partners but it faces many challenges. The most evident is the rise of virulent anti-immigrant rhetoric in the country. Although most Americans agree that immigrants are valuable assets to local communities, a small minority of individuals feel that America should no longer be a nation open to immigrants. These anti-immigrant voices have created a poisonous atmosphere around the immigration debate and unfortunately have often overwhelmed legitimate public discussions on flow, status, and the best way to incorporate newcomers. Another important challenge to integration is the current need for comprehensive federal immigration reform. In the absence of reform that establishes clearer pathways for legalization and citizenship for millions of immigrants currently in the United States, true integration will continue to remain an elusive goal for many who risk further marginalization in our society– a situation which bears no benefits for either the immigrant or our larger society. A third notable challenge to integration that is unique to our Commonwealth is the great diversity of the Massachusetts immigrant population. Unlike many other states, which are home to immigrants from one or two primary countries of origin, immigrants in the Commonwealth represent dozens of different nationalities; in Boston alone residents speak over 140 languages.4 In addition, Massachusetts attracts immigrants from very diverse educational, occupational, and cultural backgrounds. Immigrants in Massachusetts are both more likely to hold an advanced degree than the native born population and less likely to have a high school diploma. 5 Massachusetts immigrants also live in a wide variety of geographic locations, from densely populated cities, to the fast-growing suburban tracts in Boston’s metro west region, even into the state’s remote rural areas, including the Berkshire Mountain region. Some communities have a rich tradition of immigration but face difficult adjustments to a new economy; others are new to immigrant arrivals and wary of cultural and demographic shifts. These differences of history, location, and circumstance bring unique challenges to the work of integration and a reminder that the needs and strengths of immigrants are not uniform but vary widely across the Commonwealth. The current debates around federal immigration policy, as well as the diversity of Massachusetts immigrants, also present opportunities. Massachusetts is poised to offer support and services to immigrant residents despite the inadequacies of the federal system (for a summary of the GAC’s conclusions on federal immigration issues please see the “Federal Letter” in Appendix II of this report). Also the Commonwealth’s ability to attract immigrants of all ages and backgrounds means higher rates of entrepreneurship, industry driving academic and technological achievement, and revitalization of aging cities and towns. The New Americans Agenda 5 In this spirit of opportunity and growth and in recognition of the need to invest in the future of the Commonwealth, Governor Patrick signed Executive Order No. 503 in July 2008, thus launching the New Americans Agenda. The NAA is a comprehensive statewide initiative to develop recommendations for the state to better integrate immigrants and refugees into the civic and economic life of the Commonwealth. This initiative was informed by the work of several other states which have recently undertaken similar integration-based strategies including Illinois, New Jersey, Maryland, and Washington. However, the model developed by the Commonwealth focused on a unique process of civic engagement, community involvement and active dialogue among state officials, municipal leaders, and policy experts. During phase one of this initiative, the Governor’s Advisory Council for Refugees and Immigrants (GAC) was charged with creating a set of policy recommendations to present to the Governor. To complete the enormous work of phase one the GAC worked in partnership with the Massachusetts Office for Refugees and Immigrants (ORI), the state agency responsible for immigrant and refugee policy and affairs, and the Massachusetts Immigrant and Refugee Advocacy Coalition (MIRA), the Commonwealth’s pre-eminent immigrant advocacy organization. The information for the report came from three sources: existing research, a series of topic specific policy meetings, and a series of six public meetings held across the state. Throughout this process the GAC has relied on the input and assistance of community-based organizations. The state relies heavily on these organizations to provide services, offer feedback, and support the success of communities. Therefore, many of the recommendations focus on improving the strength and diversity of partnerships between state agencies and community-based organizations. The public meetings were organized and hosted by ten community-based organizations which worked throughout the year on both planning the meetings and becoming a well developed network, building their capacity as a group while building the capacity of their individual communities. These organizations included: Alliance to Develop Power (Springfield), Center for New Americans (North Hampton), Chelsea Collaborative (Chelsea), Community Economic Development Center (New Bedford), Immigrants Assistance Center (New Bedford), Irish Immigration Center (Boston), ONE Lowell (Lowell), ROCA (Chelsea), The Massachusetts Mutual Assistance Association Coalition, and Cleghorn Neighborhood Center (Fitchburg). These organizations and their members and communities made the public meetings the highlight of the information gathering process. More than 1,200 immigrants, non-immigrant residents, state and local officials, and business leaders attended meetings held in Chelsea, Hyannis, New Bedford, Lowell, Springfield, and Fitchburg. Members of the Governor’s Advisory Council heard personal stories, concerns, suggestions, and solutions about better immigrant integration. The meetings allowed individuals well versed in local issues to present, while also allowing time for anyone in attendance to share their individual concerns and desires. The meetings displayed the diversity of Massachusetts’ immigrant population with participants from dozens of ethnic backgrounds. The GAC heard testimony that expressed both the fears and hopes of the immigrant community and the community-at-large. Though the fear of detention and deportation was a continued theme– even among many who are legally present in this country– it has not prevented immigrants from succeeding in work and personal accomplishments. The community meetings raised stories of triumph, of successful immigrant entrepreneurship, of after school programs and English classes run by the immigrant community, and of successful partnerships among immigrant communities and the broader community. (For a list of the top concerns of the immigrant community expressed at these public meetings– see Table 1 in Appendix I.) In order to balance the breadth of information presented at the public meetings with specific in-depth information on key topic areas, the NAA project also held a series of policy meetings. These meetings were a valuable source of diverse stakeholder engagement. More than 175 people from state agencies, policy organizations, business, municipal offices and community groups from across the state participated in two rounds of meetings on seven specific topics: public safety, housing, youth, health, economic/workforce development, education and civil rights. At the meetings, convened by ORI, participants established a vision for integration around their specific topic areas and then worked to list barriers to their goal and finally to generate solutions in the form of policy recommendations. The frameworks from these exchanges were forwarded to the GAC to consider as it finalized its recommendations. 6 Massachusetts - An Immigrant Portrait The rich portrait of Massachusetts’ immigrants presented by the public meetings was further enhanced by current demographic and economic information presented to the Governor’s Advisory Council (GAC). These statistics highlight the growing size of the Massachusetts immigrant population as well as its many important contributions. Immigrants play an essential role in providing the Commonwealth with both the current and future labor force that it needs to remain competitive in the world economy. By 2004, immigrants accounted for 1 in 6 of all workers in the Commonwealth. 6 More importantly, immigrants represent a much younger population than the native born, making up 21.6 percent of the state’s labor force between the ages of 25 and 44 in 2007.7 This is notable since immigrants will be earning more income and paying more taxes even as a largely native-born baby boom generation grows older and therefore earns less and pays less in taxes. In addition, immigrants contribute to the economic stability of the Commonwealth through their high propensity for saving, as demonstrated by their remittances back to their native countries of $654 million of their savings in 2008. 8 Still more savings go each year to grow their businesses and support their families here in the Commonwealth. Another essential immigrant contribution is the stabilization of population loss in the state. From 2000 to 2006, Massachusetts would have declined in overall population if not for the growth of its foreign-born population.9 It is Massachusetts’ ability to attract and retain immigrant residents which has allowed the state to maintain population numbers and by extension, substantial representation in Congress and access to vital, population-based federal funds. Finally, it is vital to acknowledge the diversity in arts, languages, entertainment, food, traditions and other aspects of culture that immigrants bring to Massachusetts. Immigrants with an intimate understanding of diverse cultures and wide-ranging contacts can continue to enhance Massachusetts’ ability to compete in a globalized economy. A summary of key immigrant statistics for the state, “Massachusetts’ Immigrants by the Numbers”, is available in the following section. 10 7 PhD’s residing in the state. At the same time, Population immigrants are also more likely to hold less than a high school degree, 25.2% compared to 8.7% for 912,310 immigrants lived in Massachusetts the native born. in 2007, comprising 14.1% of the state’s population. From 2000 to 2006 Massachusetts 43% of the immigrant population suffered an out migration of 233,000 residents, a five years and older are unable to speak English loss which has been made up primarily by the “very well”. influx of immigrants. The top 5 languages spoken in 47.7% of Massachusetts’ foreign Massachusetts, after English, are Spanish, born were naturalized citizens in 2007. Portuguese, Chinese, French, and Italian. 27.8% of all persons in Boston are immigrants. Chelsea has the highest concentration Economic Circumstances of immigrants, followed, in order, by Malden, Lawrence, Everett, Lynn, and Cambridge. 17% of the state’s workforce is comprised of immigrants. In 2005, the average salary for 79% or more of the immigrant population in immigrants was $42,200 or 11.7% less than the Massachusetts is of working age, compared with native population. only 61% of the native population. Property incomes such as interests, 0.06%: the incarceration rate for immigrant dividends and retirement/pensions are appreciably men in 2000– much lower than the native-born rate lower among immigrants. of 1.5%. 14.5% of immigrants were living below the 22.8% of all children in the Commonwealth poverty line in 2007, versus 11.1% of the native have an immigrant parent. born and 32.4% of immigrants were living below 200% of the poverty line versus 22% of natives. 2.95: :the average number of persons living in 654 million dollars: the amount an immigrant household. Native households have of savings immigrants in Massachusetts remitted to an average of 2.35 persons. (2007) their home countries in 2008. Since 2000, most immigrants in Massachusetts have come from Latin America and Public assistance income reliance is approximately the same among immigrants and Asia. Historically, the Commonwealth’s the native born. immigrants were largely of European origins. Taxes Education and English 16.4% of the state income tax filers were Proficiency immigrants In 2007. Immigrants paid $1.2 billion in Massachusetts state income taxes. 24% of immigrants hold a master’s degree or higher. Immigrants are are more likely to have 14.5% of consumer spending was advanced degrees than the native born (16% for from immigrant-headed households in 2007. natives.) Also, immigrants comprise 50.3% of all In addition, immigrant-headed households in Massachusetts paid $1.06 billion in local property taxes in 2007, $346 million in sales and 8 excise taxes in 2006 or 14.5% of all receipts. Citation: footnote no.10. Massachusetts New Americans Agenda– Oct/2009 Recommendations The recommendations are presented by category; the categories were pulled primarily from the text of the Executive Order, with further categories developed during the course of the policy topic meetings and public meetings. The categories are presented in order of overall importance to integration, as decided by the Governor’s Advisory Council. Although many recommendations cut across several categories, each is listed only once for purposes of clarity and brevity. The GAC is fully aware of the constraints of the current financial climate. Although some of the recommendations require increased funding, the main energy of the recommendations is about utilizing existing funds and programs in more effective and creative ways. Civil Rights The preservation of individual rights and liberties is the very core of American democracy and a founding value of the Commonwealth. It is the utmost mission of the Commonwealth to ensure that all residents have lives of dignity, free from violation and abuse. Unfortunately immigrants are often the targets of abuse and discrimination in employment, housing, law enforcement, tax preparation, legal advice, and other areas. Many of these violations of civil rights come from a fundamental misunderstanding of complex federal immigration laws, leading individuals to incorrectly deny goods and services to qualified immigrants. Other violations have more sinister roots in racial, religious, and ethnic bias. The Commonwealth has already taken some important steps in recent years under the Patrick Administration to ensure that all residents have equal opportunity and protection from discrimination. In January 2007, Governor Patrick signed Executive Order No. 478 to establish a non-discrimination and equal opportunity policy for all state agencies and programs. In 2008, the Patrick Administration also appointed an Assistant Secretary for Access and Opportunity within the Executive Office for Administration and Finance to guide and monitor state agencies’ plans for non-discrimination and diversity policies. In order to make the values of the Commonwealth a reality for all residents, it is imperative that all residents have knowledge of their rights and the opportunity to enforce those rights when violated. These recommendations are an effort to improve access to enforcement mechanisms, increase awareness of rights within the immigrant community, and highlight areas of law and regulation in need of improvement. Recommendations Per Executive Order No. 478, ensure that non-discrimination, diversity, and equal opportunity are safeguarded, promoted, and reflected by increasing the representation of persons from the immigrant community on state advisory boards and commissions. Support the full implementation of Executive Order No. 478 on non-discrimination and equal opportunity by encouraging the state’s Human Resources Division to channel more resources to outreach in immigrant communities to increase the diversity of the applicant pool. Support the proposed state Act to Restore Enforcement of Civil Rights, (Senate Bill 1688) which would allow individuals to challenge policies and activities of the government that have the effect of discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, or sex. Establish a firm policy against racial, ethnic, and religious profiling by law enforcement agencies in the Commonwealth and restore the previously empanelled advisory board on racial profiling. Require that police departments record each stop, including the name, age, race and reason for the stop (as advocated for juveniles in 9 Senate Bill 940). This data should be available publicly without the names to protect the privacy of the individuals involved, and aggregated yearly to see trends. State funds should be linked to the implementation of this policy. Reinforce and re-issue the State Police policy against the confiscation of foreign identity documents. Improve Limited English Proficient (LEP) victims and witnesses access to victim services, victim witness advocates, and court translators, as well as outreach and education about available U and T visas for immigrant victims of trafficking or other forms of criminal violence. Issue state detention standards to supplement the federal standards and regulate fair treatment for immigration detainees housed in state and local correctional facilities. Increase funding for legal services available to immigrants. In addition, increase the funding for the Committee for Public Counsel Services Immigration Impact Unit, to enable better training of attorneys on the interaction between criminal and immigration proceedings. Support legislation requiring any non-attorney who advertises as a notary public or “notario publico” to include a disclosure stating that the person is not an attorney, with criminal penalties for individuals who fail to do so or who accept payment for legal advice. This legislation should include outreach mechanisms such as a multilingual guide on fraud, workshops and a hotline to report fraud.34 10 Adult English Language Proficiency English language proficiency is the single greatest challenge to integration for most of the Commonwealth’s foreign-born population. The ability to communicate in English allows adults and families to more easily understand American culture, society and its laws and traditions. It also helps foreign-born individuals achieve citizenship, access services, self-advocate and communicate more productively with neighbors, government officials, businesses, and service providers. English language proficiency is an essential step for foreign-born individuals towards economic self-sufficiency, educational attainment, and professional advancement. The 2005 Massachusetts Institute for a New Commonwealth (MassINC) publication entitled “The Changing Face of Massachusetts,” reports on average that an immigrant who speaks only English at home earns 2.5 times as much as an immigrant who does not speak English well. 11 According to this same MassINC report, less than 8% of Limited English Proficient (LEP) immigrants hold professional, management level jobs– compared to 35% of immigrants with higher levels of English proficiency.12 It is in the social and economic interest of the state to promote and ensure greater English language proficiency of foreign-born residents. The importance of English language proficiency for immigrants is clearly demonstrated by the overwhelming desire and demand for adult English language classes that are offered across Massachusetts in a variety of formal and informal settings. The current system does not provide an adequate number of classes and many that are offered are frequently inaccessible to immigrants because of transportation, employment, and/or childcare needs. It is estimated that the current demand for English classes exceeds the existing supply by at least 16,000 students.13 The Commonwealth should prioritize the elimination of this backlog for English classes by increasing its investment in this system and by leveraging additional support to build more partnerships for providing English language classes through private enterprises and nonprofit organizations. English proficiency is the foundation for integration and for building a skilled workforce and healthy communities. While we recognize the priceless and inherent cultural value of the dozens of languages new arrivals bring to Massachusetts, we must also ensure that access to learning English be easier and more effective if we are to build a skilled, dynamic workforce prepared for the global economy. This section addresses recommendations for Adult English Language Proficiency. Recommendations for children are addressed in the Education section. Recommendations Increase the Department of Elementary and Secondary Education’s (ESE) funding for Adult Basic Education (ABE) and English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) to begin the process of bringing the state’s responsibility for ABE to a level recommended by the Governor’s Transition Team, including funding for: • Family literacy • Workplace based instruction • Vocational/career pathway ESOL classes • More classes offered during evenings and weekends Create a statewide task force focused on the elimination of the current backlog for English classes in Massachusetts. Explore sources for more funding, including but not limited to: Labor law violation fines The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 11 Massachusetts Workforce Training Fund usage Business tax incentives for workplace ESOL Education cost sharing programs Develop and support effective models for ESOL bridge-to-college programs. Develop ABE curricula which are geared towards specific careers or career advancement opportunities. Provide college credits for ESOL classes taken at community colleges. Support full implementation of the Dedicated Fund for workplace ABE/ESOL, as recommended by the Massachusetts Workforce Investment Board (WIB) and the Executive Office of Labor and Workforce Development (EOLWD). Initiate an active marketing campaign about the importance of employer contributions to ESOL, showcasing successful models and available resources. Incorporate education about civic engagement and civic responsibility into adult ESOL curricula. Inform Limited English Proficient (LEP) parents about the availability of ESOL classes through their interaction with public schools. Fund a survey of non-state funded ESOL programs across the state to track outcomes, services, populations served, and other relevant data. 12 Economic Development Immigrants already make substantial contributions to the Massachusetts economy through their entrepreneurship, technology and science-based skills and connections to the global economy. Immigrants are also a young population and as baby boomers begin to retire, immigrant workers will continue to sustain and even grow the state’s labor force. Their importance to Massachusetts’ current and future economy cannot be over-emphasized and should be recognized in the comments and actions of the state government. Consider these research findings: · Immigrants are founders in 25.7 percent of Massachusetts biotechnology firms.14 In 2006, these firms generated over $7.6 billion in sales and employed over 4,000 workers.15 · The number of businesses in Massachusetts whose proprietors are Asian, primarily immigrant, increased 44 percent between 1997 and 2002, compared with a 5 percent overall business growth rate.16 · Immigrant storefront businesses continue to revitalize depressed neighborhoods and cities throughout Massachusetts.17 · Immigrants are developing transnational businesses at an increasing rate and have cultural know-how that is strengthening the state’s ability to compete in a global economy. 18 · Immigrants have demonstrated impressive savings abilities with 45 percent of Massachusetts immigrants remitting funds to their families abroad.19 However, research has also shown that there is a significant gap between immigrant entrepreneurs at all levels and publically available business services. In addition, asset building opportunities for immigrant households for homes, businesses, and education have been severely weakened by the current economy. Many immigrant communities also lack the institutional infrastructure and know-how required to grow new economic opportunities. As immigrants learn to navigate a new language, culture and financial system, their earning potential and readiness to seize economic opportunities will increase. This in turn will increase their tax payments, consumer spending and lessen use of public benefits. In 2005, immigrant households were over 16 percent of state income tax filers, paying in $1.2 billion. 20 Immigrant households also paid 14.5 percent of Massachusetts sales and excise tax receipts. 21 Recommendations The Governor and his Cabinet should regularly promote the economic contributions of immigrant-owned businesses, workers and consumers throughout the Commonwealth. Strengthen and expand opportunities for immigrant entrepreneurs and small businesses by: Improving access to state and federal procurement systems, and encouraging consideration of minority and multilingual-run businesses in the contracting and procurement process; Improving access to capital including micro-enterprise loan programs; Partnering with local community-based organizations, private sector entities as well as chambers of commerce across 13 the state to provide multilingual individual technical assistance, mentoring and support groups in such areas as business planning, credit building, marketing, and accounting. Providing incentives to encourage utilization of immigrant savings on projects based in the Commonwealth. Provide access to financial information and resources by: Delivering financial education programs for immigrants about such topics as safe banking, building credit, affordable financial services, earned income, and other tax credits; Developing a working group to connect to the Massachusetts Division of Banks and the FDIC “Alliance for Economic Inclusion” for improved banking services and lending practices for immigrants. This includes accepting alternative forms of identification as well as marketing and special outreach in immigrant communities; Providing savings incentives to promote the creation of federal and state “Individual Development Accounts” (IDAs) with special attention to micro-finance models. 14 Education Education encompasses a broad array of instruction, opportunities, services and institutions both public and private. Education is the great democratic equalizer in American society that lifts people and communities from the margins to mainstream and beyond. Recommendations from this section cover the quality, accessibility and content of education for children from birth through college. Adult education issues are discussed in the Adult English Language Proficiency Section. For immigrant children, integration through education means a smooth transition into the school system and welcoming classroom experiences. While English proficiency should remain a top priority for these students, educators, and other classmates should also be given a deeper understanding of the many cultures within their community through more diverse lessons in their curriculum. Currently, the levels of drop-out rates among many immigrant students have reached a crisis situation. In particular, the drop-out rate for Latino males– either immigrants or sons of immigrant families– has reached over 25 percent across the Commonwealth.22 Immigrant students are disproportionately likely to drop out of school and fail to reach their intellectual or economic potential. These high rates reflect a variety of challenges including failure to manage transitions for new arrivals, lack of: proper support systems, adequate training for school staff, English proficiency, and access to services in multiple languages. The Commonwealth must work to improve these rates and to better convey to all students their worth and ability. In addition, Massachusetts must support the teachers and educators interacting with immigrant students everyday, often with insufficient resources and assistance. Our commitment to fostering the development and achievement of young people should extend beyond our primary and secondary schools to public higher education. Massachusetts should provide equal access to higher education for all residents in the Commonwealth. Massachusetts is the birthplace of universal public education in the United States and the home of the greatest concentration of higher education institutions in the world. The Commonwealth is once again poised to demonstrate world-class leadership in the way it teaches all of its youth and adults to attain the language and skills necessary to be productive members of American society and the global community. Recommendations Birth through Grade 12 Early Education and Care Continue the work of the Birth to School-Age Initiative at the Department of Early Education and Care (DEEC), specifically the expansion of birth to school-age programs serving Limited English Proficient (LEP) and dual-language children and their families Continue to explore the expansion and implementation of universal pre-kindergarten programs in the Commonwealth. Support for Parents and Families of K-12 Students Urge public school districts across the state with significant immigrant student populations to reach out to immigrant parents to participate in parent and oversight committees and serve as classroom helpers, tutors, and Student Support Coordinators. The Student Support Coordinators would conduct outreach to LEP students and their families and help maintain communication between the families and the school under the model recommended by the Education 15 Action Agenda of Governor Patrick’s Readiness Project. Provide parents enrolling LEP students in schools with a multilingual guide to navigating particular aspects of the state education system, including the following: • Parents’ rights to request bilingual waivers • Parents’ right to request a special education evaluation • Application and appeal procedures for special education students • School rules and procedures • Graduation requirements Curriculum, Staffing, and Professional Development Continue to improve the quality of instruction for LEP students by, 1) developing and implementing more differentiated instructional models and strategies, and 2) providing teachers of LEP students with ongoing opportunities to expand their content and pedagogical knowledge. Include curricula for professional development of teachers on the teaching of LEP students, cultural competency, immigration history, current Massachusetts immigration trends, and immigration law and privacy into the training and professional development requirements for teachers. Curricula should ensure teachers can effectively incorporate information about the history and culture of students’ countries of origin, emphasize the positive contributions of immigrants, describe the current role of immigration in Massachusetts, and emphasize the importance of civics and civic engagement. Motivate educators to work within the Massachusetts Curriculum Framework to emphasize the history of immigration in the U.S., positive contributions of immigrants, the current role of immigration in Massachusetts and the importance of civics and civic engagement. Where possible also, incorporate information about the history and culture of students’ countries of origin. Urge the state’s Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (ESE) to develop a cultural competency curriculum that can be disseminated statewide. Request that the agency develop a bank of professionals who can provide cultural competency training for schools and other public agencies or organizations. Request district administrators and school leaders in communities with significant immigrant populations to emphasize multilingual and multi-cultural skills when hiring teachers and other school personnel. Provide professional development for guidance counselors on career and academic guidance for immigrant students which promote the student’s increased participation in math and science and support the retention of these students. Dropout Prevention and Alternative/Vocational Education Promote strategies and programs to decrease dropout rates, increase graduation rates, and increase college matriculation rates of immigrant students. In particular, support the implementation of research-based intervention strategies that are being developed by districts that are currently utilizing the Early Warning Index- a data system that is being managed by ESE. Provide increased flexibility around the age of students able to enroll in both traditional and alternative high schools. Improve support for alternative education programs to serve students who have aged out of traditional high schools. Require ESE to provide specific student outcome information about LEP students enrolled in alternative education programs. 16 Urge vocational schools to increase outreach to immigrant populations. Implementation of Existing Policy Create state regulations which detail what language programs schools are allowed to implement when working with LEP students and how schools should identify LEP students, in the context of the current law on bilingual education (MGL Chapter 71A). Ensure consistent implementation of the process by which LEP students are identified (http://www.doe.mass.edu/ell/sei/identify_lep.html). Require the Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (ESE) to re-evaluate the criteria currently used for determining the placement of these students. Issue a policy statement from ESE to all public schools clarifying that school staff members are prohibited by federal law from inquiring about students’ immigration status. Postsecondary As recommended by the Patrick administration’s Education Action Agenda, provide access to in-state tuition rates for state colleges and universities for all immigrant students residing in Massachusetts for at least three years and graduating from a Massachusetts high school or receiving a GED (General Educational Development Test). Allow all immigrant students access to state financial aid programs offered through the Office of Student Financial Assistance. Request that the Department of Higher Education conduct a review into the implementation of its 2007 policy affirming in- state tuition access for all students lawfully present in the United States. In addition, require the department to re-issue the policy to ensure consistent implementation and provide mandatory training for admissions staff at all public colleges and universities regarding the policy. Urge public colleges and universities to provide information they produce on the application process and financial aid in multiple languages. In addition, request institutions to offer workshops to immigrant families on financial aid and general financial literacy. Require the Massachusetts Educational Financing Authority to create programs designed for low-income families. Increase funding, support and prevalence of dual immersion programs in which all students receive instruction in both English and another language, allowing them to become fully bilingual. Increase funding of the Individual Development Account (IDA) programs to promote savings for college and other educational expenses. 17 Public Safety In recent years, federal immigration authorities have made concerted efforts to increase participation of local law enforcement in immigration enforcement activity. This shift of responsibility not only represents a failure of the federal authorities to properly implement their own programs but also places a great strain on local law enforcement. Enforcement of federal immigration law not only drains time and financial resources from local law enforcement but also contributes to a deep and dangerous rift and mistrust between local communities and police. In many immigrant communities, partnerships between local police and federal immigration authorities– both formal and informal– have made community members afraid to cooperate with police and call on police for necessary assistance. This chilling effect causes many problems. The first is that immigrants are afraid to contact police when they are in dangerous situations or have been the victims or witnesses to crimes. This fear allows criminal activity to flourish unchecked by police who may not be aware of the crimes. In addition many criminals prey upon the silence of immigrant communities, targeting immigrants because they are less likely to report the crimes. The divide between communities and law enforcement also leads to increased misunderstanding on both sides. Law enforcement officers are denied the opportunity to learn about the local community and interact with immigrant constituents, and immigrant communities are denied the opportunity to learn about the services and protections they are entitled to receive from local law enforcement. Promoting trust and communication between community members and law enforcement is crucial to creating safe and healthy communities. Building this trust is not possible when immigrants believe that local police will cooperate with federal immigration authorities. These recommendations seek to improve communication and outreach between public safety agencies and immigrant communities while also striving to provide both with the tools necessary to ensure the safety of all residents. Recommendations Enforcement Discourage questioning by local and state police on the immigration status of those involved in crimes including victims, witnesses, and suspects. Reiterate the policy directive banning State Police from engaging in enforcement of federal immigration laws and encourage similar policies for local police departments. Create a policy that discourages local law enforcement agencies from entering into 287g Memoranda of Agreement with federal immigration authorities. The state should reduce funding for local law enforcement agencies participating in such agreements. Also, rescind the Department of Corrections 287g Memorandum of Agreement. Develop a clearer method of reporting alleged police abuses to the Executive Office of Public Safety and Security (EOPSS), and increase education and outreach efforts to immigrant communities about the different roles of local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies. Relationship between police and communities Support local and state police efforts to improve communication with Limited English Proficient (LEP) populations through a variety of methods including: distributing cards printed in common local languages which explain what to do when pulled over, how a traffic stop is conducted and what the officers might ask; offering demonstrations of routine stops; distribute (to all stations and substations, including field officers) language identification cards for use 18 in quickly identifying the native language of an LEP individual during an interaction with police officers; create and maintain a directory of approved interpreters and translators. Advocate for a new generation of community policing grants. Promote the development of ethnic community advisory groups for local police, along a community policing model, to ensure ongoing dialog. Encourage state and local police departments in areas with significant immigrant populations to hire community liaisons to work with the immigrant community. These individuals must be bilingual, bicultural and would conduct outreach to the community about police policies and ongoing programs and activities, while also relaying concerns from the community to the police. Create an advisory commission or board to identify best practices being employed by local police departments on immigrant issues and convene an annual conference of law enforcement officials to provide education, training, and sharing of these best practices. Require mandatory training for all law enforcement recruits and in-service personnel on issues of cultural competency, linguistic diversity, and immigration law and statuses. The state should use its financial leverage to urge local departments and agencies to execute such training. Where possible training should be conducted by leaders from the community partnered with bicultural law enforcement officers. Encourage first responder agencies (police, fire, and paramedics) in areas with significant immigrant populations to increase the number of bilingual staff members to better reflect the demographics of the communities they serve. Driver’s Licenses/Identification The importance of driver’s licenses to the well being of the immigrant community and the Commonwealth as a whole was heavily stressed at all of the public meetings. In addition to the obvious public safety interest of having all driver’s licensed, regulated and insured, many other important considerations were raised. Police chiefs and public safety officers– both through the public meetings and policy groups– expressed their support for greater access to driver’s licenses to improve the safety of roads, to ease identification of individuals during police interactions, and to reduce the instances of driving without a license, freeing valuable time and resources to investigate and deter other, more serious offenses. Access to driver’s licenses was one of only two recommendations raised at all of the six public meetings. The Governor’s Advisory Council heard many stories from individuals afraid to drive to vital services because they are not able to obtain driver’s licenses. The inability to drive securely has left individuals afraid to drive their children to school, relatives to the hospital, or themselves to work. Although this recommendation had overwhelming support, it must be considered in the context of the current federal REAL ID statute which lays out qualifications each state much meet in order to have their state-issued driver’s license recognized as a valid federal identification document. The REAL ID statute places many burdens on the state and provides almost no funds to implement its regulations. However, failure to adhere to the statute would mean that a Massachusetts driver’s license would no longer be accepted as identification for entering federal buildings or boarding an airplane. This would have severe and costly consequences for residents across the state. Therefore at this time the Governor’s Advisory Council’s recommendations must focus on efforts to repeal the REAL ID act, and if a repeal is successful or the statute is no longer a barrier, working toward providing access to driver’s licenses. Create a uniform policy, through the Registry of Motor Vehicles (RMV), detailing current eligibility for driver’s licenses including detailed information about the variety of immigration statuses which allow individuals to apply for a license. Institute a mandatory training on the clarified policy for RMV staff. Also work toward improved customer service through sensitivity training for RMV staff. Champion the repeal of the Real ID federal statute through the Massachusetts Congressional delegation, National 19 Association of Governors, and all other available avenues. If Real ID is repealed, provide access to driver’s licenses to all individuals who are able to demonstrate residency, pass the required examination, and prove identity (through means not limited to Social Security Numbers). Improve access to driver’s licenses by making the manual and other RMV materials available in the same languages as the written test, either in print or through reliable on-line translations. Provide access to State ID cards to all individuals able to demonstrate residency. Domestic Violence The state should issue a policy statement encouraging victims of domestic violence to report crimes and assuring victims protection of their immigration status. Such a statement should also be made available in various languages and distributed throughout the statewide network of immigrant-serving community organizations. Expand the Refugee and Immigrant Safety and Empowerment Program (RISE) program to adequately address current geographic limitations while also increasing outreach to immigrant communities about domestic violence and how to access services. Also prioritize LEP communities in the distribution of other domestic violence treatment and prevention grants in order to address the disproportionate incidence of domestic violence in these communities. The state should support a research study investigating the scale and impact of human trafficking in the Commonwealth. prioritize LEP communities in the distribution of other domestic violence treatment and prevention grants in order to address the disproportionate incidence of domestic violence in these communities. The state should support a research study investigating the scale and impact of human trafficking in the Commonwealth. 20 Employment and Workforce Development Workforce development broadly describes the collaborative and networked practices and services produced by multiple actors and intermediaries (private, public and non-profit, unions, educational organizations, etc.) to improve labor market access and the opportunities of workers with all kinds of socioeconomic, demographic, educational characteristics and skill levels. The broad objective of workforce development strategies is to match workers and employers. However, the strategies may be guided by an array of different strategic objectives: short-term employability, long-term skills building, sector growth, educational improvement, professional transitions, and improving work quality. At any given moment, a combination of such strategies may be needed to match the conditions workers face in the labor market and the needs of employers. Immigrants are a vital and growing part of the state’s workforce. Between 1980 and 2004, the share of immigrants in the workforce grew from 8.8 percent to 17 percent.23 Moreover, the state’s economic competitiveness is based on technology, science and knowledge, and immigrants currently provide greater technology and science-based skills than the native-born. Consider these research findings: Among highly educated recent immigrants in Massachusetts, 24 percent hold a master’s degree or higher compared to 16 percent of natives. Immigrants also account for 50.3 percent of all PhD’s residing in the state. 24 These highly educated immigrants bring technology and science skills that enhance biotechnology, technology, health care and educational sectors that are vital to the Massachusetts’ economy and keep the Commonwealth competitive in the world economy. In the Massachusetts health care industry, immigrants are 51 percent of medical scientists, 40 percent of pharmacists and 28 percent of physicians and surgeons.25 However, immigrants are also likely to be less highly educated and live in non-English speaking households. Many within this immigrant group fill critical job vacancies in low-wage jobs that many native-born residents are unlikely to take. Immigrants clean and guard our hotels, convention centers, and office buildings– serve fast food– and are the frontline of long-term and home health care. However, these low-wage jobs are largely disconnected from career advancement, benefits, and representation. Advancement requires good education, English-language skills, strong interpersonal “soft skills” and hard technology skills, but opportunities for immigrants to move up career ladders are severely limited. Geographical concentration of immigrants into economically depressed cities and towns where job creation, training opportunities, and social supports are restricted further exacerbates the problems. Investing in the workforce strategies and initiatives that represent best practices for linking the supply of immigrant workers to both short term and long term labor force demands and increasing pathways for immigrants’ economic mobility will greatly benefit the state’s current and future economy. Recommendations Career Pathways Create better access, through the Executive Office of Labor and Workforce Development, to career pathways for immigrants by: • Maintaining statistics on the number of foreign-born clients being served in various career and employment programs • Develop and promulgate best practices for One Stop Career Centers for serving immigrant populations • Improve availability and access to apprenticeship programs for immigrants, including union apprenticeship programs • Continue to provide work supports and supportive services to immigrants enrolled in training programs 21 Continue to support the Workforce Training Fund and Workforce Competiveness Trust Fund as existing vehicles that provide important training to immigrants. Maintain statistics on immigrants being served through this funding. Urge all regional Workforce Investment Boards to more closely collaborate with immigrant-serving organizations in their communities. Leverage federal stimulus funds with a focus on increasing services and training for refugee and immigrant populations. Work toward increasing access to affordable childcare to help immigrants and low-income populations access job opportunities. Workers Rights Issue state guidance to prohibit employers from providing employees’ personal information to federal immigration authorities. Also work to discourage the expansion of the federal E-Verify program. Support the Temporary Workers’ Right to Know Bill and the Wage Compliance and Recordkeeping Bill. Increase protections for day laborers including banning harassment of individuals and intrusive recording and photographing. Certification/Re-certification Improve access to re-licensing for immigrants and refugees with professional degrees from their home country, including a review of current licensing regulations, creation of a website with centralized information about re-licensing, and centers to provide information on re-licensing. Urge the Department of Higher Education to develop policies that assist immigrant professionals complete the additional coursework necessary to attain re-certification. Increase the availability of public transportation in underserved areas to improve access to job opportunities for immigrants and low-income populations. Support increased funding for the Fair Labor Division of the Attorney General’s Office to continue its work enforcing wage and labor laws– recovering earned, yet unpaid wages for employees– and tax dollars for the state. 22 Access to State Services Title VI of the US Civil Rights Act of 1964 requires that all organizations and agencies that receive federal funds are required to provide adequate linguistic access to Limited English Proficient (LEP) individuals. These regulations apply to most state agencies and services and mandate that those agencies, within federal regulations, accommodate the language needs of individuals to provide program access. Access to interpreter and translation services across state government depends largely on the practices and policies of individual agencies, which vary from one state agency to another. The state would benefit from a better understanding of how these services are provided across state government and a more consistent level of access. These recommendations strive to improve upon the design and delivery of state services for all residents. Beyond the technical changes and suggestions there is also a focus on education and outreach, both for agency staff on immigrant issues and cultural competency and for immigrant communities on available services. Recommendations Linguistic Access Improve LEP populations’ access to state agencies by: Requiring agencies to have information about basic services available in multiple languages– whether in print or through reliable internet-based translation services– and encourage agencies to recruit and hire multilingual staff Issuing an Executive Order reaffirming the federal obligation for state agencies to make their services reasonably accessible to LEP clients with a requirement that each agency or department to assign a specific staff person(s) to monitor compliance with federal law and internal agency regulations on LEP access Strengthening the Executive Office of Administration and Finance to monitor and provide resources for state agencies, in partnership with a fully funded Office for Refugees and Immigrants, to coordinate state policy on language access Establishing a process to monitor state agency compliance with federal and state statutes and regulations on LEP access Funding the Office of Access and Opportunity to conduct a survey of the ways state agencies are attempting to meet the needs of LEP residents in the Commonwealth Extending all language access requirements to all contractors and vendors that do business with the Commonwealth Create a centralized state office, housed in the Office for Refugees and Immigrants, for interpreter and translation services for state agencies. The Office for Refugees and Immigrants should develop contracts with community-based organizations as well as with language service agencies to assure availability of a range of language access resources. Also encourage the use of innovative technologies for interpretation. Establishing a multilingual resource line or office for immigrants and other newcomers to access information about state services Purchasing, through the Governor’s Office of Civic Engagement, a set of translation equipment for use at state public meetings Establish a web-based clearinghouse of multilingual school related documents, housed at the Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, which schools could access to avoid overlapping translation costs for 23 common and statewide documents. Also encourage schools with significant LEP student populations to provide interpreters at important school meetings. Require the Human Resources Division (HRD) of the Governor’s Office to encourage agencies to recruit and hire more multilingual staff and promote the development of internship programs for multilingual and multi-cultural students. Training Evaluate current cultural competency training within state agencies and if deemed appropriate develop, pilot, and implement a new or expanded curriculum for mandatory training across all agencies for front line staff, support staff, and managers, to promote cultural competence and a basic understanding of various immigrant statuses and immigrant issues. Incorporate customer service and cultural sensitivity questions into the annual performance review for state employees, linking performance in these areas to career advancement. Enact specific disciplinary actions, within the regulations of the existing human resources structure of each agency and department, for state employees who inappropriately inquire about immigration status, refuse to offer immigrants valid state services, or report an immigrant’s status to federal immigration authorities unless required to do so by statute. Also create a hotline for reporting misconduct by state employees regarding immigration status. Require cultural competence training based on the Department of Public Health’s Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) standards for all service providers contracting with the state. Outreach Encourage state agencies to distribute information about programs and policies at community sites such as parent information centers, places of worship, health centers, hospitals, schools, community organizations, libraries, and ethnic websites. Expand the Office for Refugees and Immigrants (ORI) work with libraries and other local partners to establish welcoming events and information hubs for newcomers. Create a page on the Office for Refugees and Immigrants website with information for immigrants about state offices, civil rights, and service providers, available in multiple languages. Elevate the Office for Refugees and Immigrants to a cabinet level agency. As demonstrated by this report, immigrants affect and are affected by all aspects of state government and activity. Therefore it is vital that a single overarching body be responsible for coordinating these efforts at a cabinet level, with the authority to respond to the work of many different agencies. Provide full state funding for the Office to fulfill its statutory authority as a coordinating agency for all state policy regarding immigrants. 24 Citizenship Assistance Citizenship is a crucial step in many immigrants’ integration into American society. For many, citizenship is the beginning of a new life of civic engagement and full participation in American society. For the Commonwealth, new citizens offer a commitment to the future and a continuous strengthening of the state. While we recognize that the federal government determines citizenship eligibility, we as a state should do all in our power to promote citizenship and assist those who are eligible. It is estimated that as many as 180,000 Massachusetts residents are currently eligible to apply for citizenship.26 One goal of the New Americans Agenda is to discover what barriers these individuals face and work to reduce them. During the course of the public meetings many people highlighted challenges such as the need for assistance with test preparation, English classes, form preparation and other logistical challenges, including the cost of the test and application. The Commonwealth currently provides citizenship assistance through a state appropriation; however the amount funded covers services to only a very small fraction– less than two percent– of eligible individuals.27 In order to maximize the total number of New Americans who can become citizens, the Commonwealth must increase its own investment in citizenship assistance programs while at the same time using its leverage to promote similar programs offered through private and nonprofit organizations. By addressing these challenges, the Commonwealth will renew its commitment to supporting those who choose to become citizens and active members of American society, while also receiving an increase in federal funds for the care and assistance of those in need of support. Recommendations Expand funding of the Citizenship for New Americans Program and other legal services programs to assist with naturalization and outreach to better identify the 180,000 or more eligible Lawful Permanent Residents residing in the Commonwealth. Request that the Department of Revenue study the feasibility of creating a refundable tax credit for Massachusetts state taxes for naturalization expenses, or other incentives. Promote more volunteer and civic engagement opportunities through programs for citizens to assist immigrants in the citizenship process. 25 Health The foundation of individual and community health is a well-coordinated health care system that is easily accessible, culturally competent, and resourceful in the face of challenge. Access to quality health care for individuals and families provides stability and support as newcomers make the enormous adjustments to American society. Although Massachusetts has made a bold commitment to healthcare reform, immigrants still face many challenges in accessing adequate health care. The most basic challenges are inability to enroll in healthcare programs due to financial or status-based restrictions, linguistic access, and cultural competency of providers. These and other barriers make non-citizens vulnerable to health problems. According to one national study non-citizen Latinos are 7% less likely to have seen a doctor in the past year then their citizen counterparts. This number jumps to 12% for non-English speakers in the same categories.28 In addition non-citizens are 20% more likely than citizens to postpone care for illness.29 These delays in treatment are often precipitated by language and insurance barriers and can lead to longer illness, permanent ailments, and premature death. These devastating effects impact not only individual families and the broader immigrant community but also impose serious burdens on the health system by creating an overreliance on emergency services. Access to regular medical treatment and preventative care provides significant health benefits while also decreasing the overall cost of care. Beyond these challenges is the difficult work of reconciling widely divergent cultural views of medicine, treatment, and communication. The recommendations in this section seek to address these challenges while also working to further improve healthcare institutions and the success of Massachusetts healthcare reform as a whole. Recommendations Community Health Systems – Networks of Care Ensure that the immigrant community be included as a category in health care disparities studies and initiatives. Implement recommendations based on findings from the state’s Health Disparities Initiatives. (see http://www.mass.gov/hdc/about/2006_report.pdf) Use the Department of Public Health (DPH) licensing and Determination of Need processes to improve access for refugees and immigrants at hospitals by (1) posting tested universal symbols to indicate departments and locations and (2) assuring immigrant and refugee residents’ participation and voice through advisory councils. Require DPH to study and identify other strategic mechanisms to increase access at hospitals. Support an Act Strengthening Health Reform, which would allow MassHealth to provide elderly and disabled refugees access to home care (House Bill 1166). Develop, through the Department of Public health, an immigrant outreach campaign to increase knowledge and awareness of public health programs such as Women, Infants, and Children Nutrition Program, preventive health and wellness programs. Support basic adult dental services coverage by MassHealth. Healthcare Professionals Require, with the Department of Public Health’s Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) standards, training for all direct service providers contracting with the Department of Public Health. Partner with the Massachusetts Medical Society and other professional medical organizations to develop and implement continuing medical education programs that incorporate cultural competency training. Work to expand opportunities in medical schools for medical students to meaningfully engage with refugee and immigrant families to 26 increase cultural competency and understanding of newcomers. Use workforce development funds to increase upward job mobility of diverse healthcare providers at all levels. Use One Stop Career Centers, training programs, and community college collaborations to increase targeted outreach to immigrant communities about careers in health care. Provide incentives for community and state colleges to develop flexible study models for medical interpreter certificate programs. The programs should offer flexible hours, home study, and reduced tuition and would build a cadre of certified medical interpreters. Language Access Ensure that all hospitals and health centers comply with language access requirements under Title VI of the US Civil Rights Act of 1964, by providing interpreters to Limited English Proficient (LEP) patients. Amend the Department of Public Health’s licensing requirements to incorporate the use of universal symbols to indicate departments and locations in hospitals and health centers. Require hospitals to publish information about their language access compliance, including number of interpreters on staff, languages spoken, number of patients requiring interpretation, languages spoken by patients, number average wait for interpreter, and other relevant data. Health Insurance Ask the Insurance Commissioner to adopt language requirements in the application process and customer services of state- licensed insurers. Increase the number of languages in which MassHealth eligibility and enrollment forms are offered. Require interpreting assistance in completing and filing of insurance applications. Ensure that the needs and issues of the refugee and immigrant community are represented in the implementation planning for Chapter 58 healthcare reform. Restore full funding in Commonwealth Care for legally present immigrants whose coverage was reduced in the fiscal year 2010 budget. Federal Issues Urge the Obama Administration and the Massachusetts Congressional delegation to restore federal Medicaid coverage for all legally present immigrants by eliminating the five year bar on Medicaid eligibility and other federal safety net benefits for legal permanent residents. Also advocate to expand the definition of “qualified alien” to include more legally present immigrants under color of law (PRUCOL), such as victims of trafficking, temporary protected status, asylum applicants, etc. Advocate the easing of immunization requirements for applicants for lawful permanent residence. Increase funding for community health centers that provide the first access to health care for refugees. Codify MassHealth Outreach and Enrollment grants program and restore line-item funding. 27 Refugees Since 1975, over 2.6 million refugees have been settled in the US, primarily from Southeast Asia and the former Soviet Union.30 The United Nations defines a refugee as a person who has a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, and for that reason is outside the country of her nationality. Massachusetts has welcomed its role as a receiving state for refugees from all over the world and is now home to more than 70,000 refugees and others with similar humanitarian admission status, from many diverse backgrounds including Vietnamese, Kurds, Bosnians, Ethiopians and Liberians.31 The Commonwealth values the strength and perseverance refugees demonstrate, as well as the amazing diversity they bring to our cultural, educational, and economic institutions. Refugees and asylees are eligible for federal assistance which is provided through voluntary agencies (community groups such as Catholic Charities, Lutheran Social Services, and the International Institute, among others) with funding administered through the Massachusetts Office for Refugees and Immigrants. Resettlement is heavily concentrated around the cities of Boston, Lowell, Lynn, Worcester, and Springfield. In 2007, 1328 refugees arrived in Massachusetts.32 Federal funds to the state for these and prior arrivals is approximately $12 million, primarily used for casework, as well as cash and health assistance during the initial eight months of settlement.33 In federal fiscal year 2009, Massachusetts expects to receive more than 2,200 refugees and continuing the important and valuable work of their resettlement. Recommendations Advocate for increased amount of federal refugee assistance, to extend assistance services to one year, extend refugee case management to 18 months (with well defined responsibilities including education, housing, transportation, banking, health care, and communications), and expand employment services (with a focus on securing housing near available employment, and capitalizing on refugees’ existing fields of expertise). Assist resettled refugee groups to organize for peer support, cultural orientation and sharing of cultural traditions with the welcoming community. Engage Massachusetts Cultural Council in supporting ethnic festivals to increase understanding and awareness of newcomer communities. Create a state supplement to the federal refugee assistance program. 28 Youth Immigrant youth face many unique barriers. Often they are called upon to be the cultural and linguistic ambassadors for families as their parents struggle to learn a new language and culture. They also face the challenge of reconciling vastly different cultural expectations presented by their parents and their peers. Too frequently youth are asked to serve as informal interpreters for parents in personal and sensitive situations. In addition, many young people face language barriers themselves, which when combined with the difficulty of adjusting to a new educational system, can lead to higher rates of disciplinary actions, and lower graduation rates. Once disengaged from school immigrant youth are at risk for other dangerous behaviors which impact their individual health and the health of their neighborhoods. These risks aside, the strength of many immigrant communities lies in the success of their youth. In areas where immigrant youth are supported; where appropriate school services, and community outreach programs are in place, young people provide vitality and industry. It is important to both the well being of immigrant communities, and the Commonwealth as a whole, to ensure that immigrant youth are able to actively participate in appropriate educational, vocational, social and cultural activities. Massachusetts’ ability to produce well educated well rounded citizens of all backgrounds will determine the future social and economic success of the Commonwealth. Recommendations Promote arts programs that foster the sharing of immigrant and refugee youth’s stories through artistic expression. Support programs designed to ease transition of Limited English Proficient (LEP) students, such as: creating a buddy system for LEP students by assigning a peer mentor, pairing LEP students with LEP counterparts in other area schools as pen pals so both students could practice English writing and communication. Support programs which provide job training and work experience opportunities for immigrant youth. Encourage local police departments to begin Community Liaison Officer (CLO) programs to improve the relationship between local police and immigrant youth, such as entry-level police positions for bilingual students attending school with an interest in public safety. The students provide support services that include helping residents who come into the department needing assistance and answering non-English calls received. CLOs also ride with uniformed officers and respond to incidents when translation assistance is needed. Because CLOs can later apply to become police officers, the program can both build bridges between police and the immigrant community and also increase the pool of experienced bilingual, bicultural potential public sector employees. Increase funding for after school programs for immigrant and refugee youth, including sports leagues and other activities, with an emphasis on community-based providers to ensure culturally and linguistically appropriate programming. Restore funding for the Shannon Grant and Department of Public Health youth violence prevention programs, with additional requirement that grantees demonstrate linguistic accessibility for all major immigrant populations within the municipality served. 29 Housing and Community Development Safe and secure housing is a necessity for all families. In Massachusetts both immigrants and non-immigrants often face challenges securing housing due to the high cost of living. This lack of affordable housing has a serious impact on the Commonwealth’s ability to retain both immigrant and native born workers. It is crucial to the continued growth and vitality of the Commonwealth to provide an environment in which workers and families can afford appropriate housing. In addition to cost barriers, immigrants also face unique challenges accessing housing. During the recent housing bubble immigrants were particular targets of predatory lending. The unworkable mortgages sold to immigrant families have lead to very high numbers of foreclosures in the immigrant community and in primarily immigrant neighborhoods. These foreclosures have brought blight, insecurity, and economic decline further endangering immigrant housing. In contrast, those neighborhoods which have been able to avoid foreclosure have benefitted greatly from immigrant homeownership, which has revitalized many cities and towns. Immigrants have bought property in areas which have seen a decline in owner occupied properties and by both buying in and living in a neighborhood have brought stability and investment to cities in need of support. During the community meetings several individuals also mentioned challenges around the size and layout of available housing. These community members had challenges fitting large families, either multi-generational or nuclear, into housing which frequently had no more than two or three bedrooms. Another cause for concern was the location of affordable housing, often far from public transportation or employment. The recommendations in this section are designed to address these concerns by providing greater access to housing, greater supports for landlords and housing professionals, as well as greater awareness and protection of housing rights. Recommendations Provide multilingual public outreach and education on housing and consumer issues including: renting, home buying, financial services, predatory lending practices, along with others. Provide more multilingual information on housing issues through the Department of Housing and Community Development’s (DHCD) website. Support the work of organizations currently providing financial literacy education. Expand accessibility to affordable housing by: increasing the number of rental vouchers; leveraging private subsidies; and encouraging production of more affordable housing in suburban areas while addressing the potential impact of local resident selection preferences. Also provide financial incentives to builders locating affordable housing near transportation and job centers. Create a state produced consolidated multilingual booklet of basic information about housing including housing rights, housing services, availability, applications, etc. Provide these materials on DHCD’s website. Create an educational campaign for immigrants interested in becoming landlords, and which provides support materials, training, and information about the permitting process. Encourage landlords and local community organizations to utilize available funds to rehabilitate buildings. Foster neighborhood clean-ups and rehabilitation of houses through incentives such as tax credits, small grants and organization of volunteer groups. Promote community development in immigrant neighborhoods by investing in resources and supports, as well as improving physical infrastructure including the quality of housing and community spaces. Further expand accessibility to affordable housing by increasing funding for subsidized housing to build more housing for a diverse range of income and family types. Increase the number of local and state inspectors available to review housing code violations. 30 How Others Can Participate Support programs that partner newly arrived immigrants with established community members to help them navigate their new home. Places of worship and their members can provide support, welcoming, and information for newcomers to their neighborhoods. Provide information to immigrant communities and community-based organizations about the availability of public access television. Use public access television to provide informational programs in native languages. Foster immigrant participation in in-service programs through the Massachusetts Service Alliance, to increase job training for immigrant youth while making use of their valuable multilingual bicultural skills. Promote neighborhood cleanups, rehabilitation of houses, and environmental cleanup. Encourage people to personally get to know someone who is foreign born. Participate in the “Welcoming Massachusetts” campaign, visit the website at www.welcomingma.org. Encourage shared dialogs between immigrant groups and existing neighborhood social, ethnic, or religious clubs, and organizations. Recruit immigrants as volunteers for your agency or organization. Visit the Office of Grassroots Governance’s website to see ways you can become involved in other civic engagement projects. Apply to join one of over 700 state Boards and Commissions at http://appointments.state.ma.us/ If you are an employer, explore ways to provide ESOL to your employees, consider utilizing the workforce training fund express. 31 Zoltan Csimma “I do have some emotion around how immigrants are treated” admits Genzyme vice-president Zoltan Csimma, referring to his childhood. After the Second World War, Csimma’s family, displaced from Hungary to Germany, resettled in California. Although his father, an engineering executive in his native Hungary, worked his way up at a local manufacturing plant from a machine operator to become a project engineer with a string of patents, he never earned more than a machinist’s salary. “People didn’t like having weird accents and other differences back then,” Csimma explains. Now, as chief human resource officer at the Massachusetts biopharmaceutical company which employs over 5,500 in Massachusetts, Csimma continues to see both opportunities and barriers for immigrants. At Genzyme, “there’s a pretty good diversity of ethnicity,” from lab technicians to top executives, “who’ve helped build the fourth or fifth biggest biotechnology company in the world.” Yet immigration limitations test every high- tech organization. “There are certain people with certain skill sets that you want to be able to attract, and if there are not sufficient visas available, that’s a real problem…Without a strong immigrant base here, I think companies like ours would have a greater struggle meeting our resource needs,” he explains. “You know, we live in a global economy. And we should be able to tap the right people. And we should be able to do that effectively.” Ahmed Abou-Dawood When Ahmed Abou-Dawood left Cairo in 1999, he looked more Westernized than he does now, a change that began after September 11. “I stared being more involved with the community, with Muslim organizations,” he explains. “Little by little, I became more grounded in my faith. It had a reflection . . . on my personal development and my external appearance, dressing more modestly in compliance with my faith, and little by little wearing a long beard.” Somewhere, one of those increments crossed a line. In early 2007, on a trip to Canada, Abou-Dawood was stopped for a random border search that lasted four hours. Since then, every time he’s traveled or dealt with the police, he has had trouble. Once, when stopped by a Massachusetts state trooper, Abou-Dawood overheard the officer talking about “the list” over his radio. Another time he was told by a customs agent at JFK airport, “Well I’m just a middle man. There are other agencies that we’re filling in the forms for.” The searches are more intense when Abou-Dawood travels with his wife, who wears a full hijab and veil, and when he flies from Boston. “In Logan airport it’s very personal and discriminatory,” he says. “They’ll go out of their way to make things more difficult for you.” Even so, the longer that he’s stayed, the more he’s come to identify as a Bostonian. “As much as I have Egyptian culture in me, I also have American culture in me,” he says. It was therefore only natural that Abou-Dawood applied for U.S. citizenship last year. He received his letter with a test and interview date in February. He went, took the test and returned home and has not heard from Citizenship and Immigration Services (CIS) since. According to CIS the case is still under review. Senel Mauricette Since he left Haiti in 1992, Senel Mauricette has taken different jobs to support his family, but he has always dreamed of becoming a teacher in the United States, as he was in Haiti. Last year he took his first step toward that goal. He enrolled in English classes through the Citizenship for New Americans Program, a successful statewide program which assists immigrants in preparing for citizenship. He drove over an hour from his home in Leominster to the classes in Boston, at the Haitian American Public Health Initiative. He wanted to become a citizen, not only to better his own future, he says, but “to serve the country” and “to help my community”. . After months of hard work and support from his teacher, he passed the citizenship exam and became a U.S. citizen. Now he dedicates time to volunteering at the citizenship program, filling in when the teacher is out and tutoring other students. Although he is not teaching full time, he is able to support the community and share his love of learning by “helping (students) learn like I did before”. He credits the program with his citizenship and his English, saying he “really appreciates all (his teacher) did” for him. He looks forward to working with many more students and using his English to start the process of becoming a certified teacher. Tomas Xirum Six months ago, Tomas Xirum fulfilled a typical immigrant dream– and a quintessential American one– opening his first business in the United States. His Latino music and apparel store, International Guatemalan Musical, required an initial personal investment of over $20,000, earned through years of working double and triple shifts at menial jobs. Like many American entrepreneurs, his motivation was simple. “I don’t want to work anymore for others,” says the New Bedford businessman. “I want to work for myself.” The road to Xirum’s common dream, however, was uncommonly hard. When Xirum was a young boy, his father and then grandmother were killed in Guatemala’s civil war, leaving Tomas and his four siblings to fend for themselves. By around seven, he began working any job he could find, including street vending. At 18, Xirum managed to flee to the U.S., eventually joining relatives in New Bedford, which includes a thriving Guatemalan population. He decided on the apparel and music store, he says, simply because the city lacked a place to pick up the latest styles in boots or music from Central America. The response has been positive, even if it hasn’t translated into major sales. “If people had money it would be better,” he says. As Xirum sees the situation, the problem is political as much as economic. “If the immigration system is fixed for everyone, it will be a great advantage,” he explains. “Now there are a lot of people here, but they’re without documents, and it’s hard for them to get jobs. Also, bosses abuse them: they don’t pay them overtime; they don’t pay them holidays; they make them work Saturdays and Sundays. All people want is a little money– they don’t mind working– but they should have their legal benefits and not be discriminated against.” 32 Simbagoye Emmanual When Simbagoye Emmanual was two-weeks old his family left their native Burundi, fleeing the 1972 genocide of Hutus. It took 35 years before they found another permanent home. “We travelled many countries: from Burundi to Congo, from Congo to Rwanda, from Rwanda to Tanzania,” Emmanual says in halting, careful English. “That’s why the U.S. government took us to come here.” In 2007, the Emmanual family resettled in Springfield. He hoped to resume the career he’d practiced in Tanzania. “In all Africa, there was a problem of people that need help in medicine,” he explains. “That’s why I chose to go to study nursing.” In Springfield, however, Emmanual found that the “African English” he’d used in Tanzania was nothing like “American English.” For six months he studied English in an Adult Basic Education program then took a two-month class to become a Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA). Although he passed the certification exam, it was difficult to find a job without a car. “I stayed two months at home,” he says. “But in that two months, I was reading the driving book.” He obtained his learner’s permit, applied for re-certification money for driver’s education from the Office of Refugees and Immigrants, and received a donated car from a church. After that, he says, he found a permanent full-time job “without any problem.” Now Emmanual works as a CNA at the LifeCare Center in Wilbraham. Hoping to become a registered nurse or physician’s assistant, he recently enrolled in community college, and his wife has also begun studying nursing. Meanwhile, his three children have taken quickly to Springfield. “Springfield is very nice to me because I’m getting better! I’m improving, my kids are improving, my wife is improving,” he says, pausing reflectively. “Yeah.” Yessenia Alfaro As Yessenia Alfaro sees it, her oldest son is a lot like other teenagers who don’t like school, but his high school’s response to his disinterest was unanticipated. “He was coming in late to school,” she says, “And this teacher was telling him, ‘Don’t worry, you’re going to be turning 16 pretty soon…you don’t have to worry about coming in early or late. Just sign yourself out of the school system.’ And then he did.” Alfaro was stunned. When she couldn’t get her son to return, she went to the school herself. “I spoke to the attendance policy person and the school principal, and I asked them, ‘Why is it that you allow a person to sign out from school without the consent of the parent?’ And they said, ‘This is the law. The law says that if you don’t want to continue studying and you are 16 years old, you can leave.’ So, of course, if you tell a 16-year-old that, he’s going to be doing it.” Alfaro emigrated from El Salvador when she was 13, and her children were born as citizens in the United States, yet she knows of other Latino parents in similar straits in this predominantly Latino town. “We don’t have many Latino teachers, unfortunately,” she says. She also wonders if recent immigrants from Somalia and elsewhere might face even greater troubles. “We at least know how to navigate the system and speak the language, more or less,” she says. Now, over a year after her son left, he seems directionless. Yessenia says he recently threw away his musical instruments, saying that the school was right: he’ll never amount to anything. “I’m not defending him,” she stresses. “What bothers me is the system that needs to improve.” Joana Joana always knew she wanted to go to college. “It would be hard,” she says, because of her status, but “I was determined.” Despite the rigors of adjusting to life in a new country, after moving to the United States from Uruguay, she pushed herself to excel throughout high school and was able to win a scholarship to a local community college. However her status confined her to nighttime off-campus classes taught by part-time faculty. “I was never able to take morning classes”, she explained, and that “made it harder”. Despite also working full-time, Joana finished her associate’s degree in business administration in two years. By that time she had become a lawful permanent resident and was able to enroll as a student at a four-year state college. While completing her bachelor’s degree in Interdisciplinary Studies, she worked at a local community center as an interpreter and business manager, using her hard earned skills to give back to her community. Cheerful and tenacious, she now works full-time at the same community center assisting clients dealing with education, public safety, health, and other issues. When asked about what she wants to do with her degrees, the confident 22 year old says, “I want to help people at the center and in the future providing translation at courts and hospitals.” 33 Acknowledgements We would like to thank all of the following organizations, individuals and funders for the indispensable work on the New Americans Agenda Project. Funders Executive Office of Education Carnegie Corporation Jennifer Amaya Thompson Hildreth Stewart Charitable Foundation Department of Early Education and Care The Clowes Fund Rosemary Chandler Partners HealthCare Division of Career Services Ed Wang Partners Department of Mental Health, Multi-Cultural Affairs Massachusetts Office for Refugees and Immigrants Kurt Schwartz Massachusetts Immigrant and Refugee Advocacy Executive Office of Public Safety Coalition Members of the Governor’s Advisory Council Stephanie Brown Westy Egmont Bob Hildreth Department of Transitional Assistance Eva A. Millona Marcia Hohn Margaux LeClair Anne Awad Mahmud Jafri Department of Housing and Community Development Patricia Baker Thomas Lebach Jennifer Cochran Ramon Borges-Mendez Loh-Sze Leung Department of Public Health Gregg Croteau Alvaro Lima Maura Healey Jean-Robert Durocher Sonith Peou Attorney General's Office, Civil Rights Division Lucas Guerra Gerald C. Rovner Patricio S. Rossi Betsy Hatfield Designee, Attorney General's Office, Civil Rights Division Stage Agency Designees and Ex Officio Members of Wendy Wayne the Governors Advisory Council Committee for Public Counsel Services, Immigration Impact Unit Marilyn Anderson Chase Members of the Design Team and Drafting Assistant Secretary Executive Office of Health and Human Services Subcommittee Elizabeth Clay Governor’s Office of Grassroots Governance Network Organizations Richard Chacón Alliance to Develop Power Office for Refugees and Immigrants Center for New Americans Vivie Hengst Chelsea Collaborative Office for Refugees and Immigrants Cleghorn Neighborhood Center Samantha Shusterman Community Economic Development Center Office for Refugees and Immigrants Immigrants Assistance Center Paula Callahan Irish Immigration Center Department of Social Services Mutual Assistance Association Coalition Saeyun Lee ONE Lowell Roca 34 Interaction Institute for Social Change Policy Meetings Glossary ABE – Adult Basic Education, instruction in basic skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics to adult learners in order to prepare them for transitioning into the labor market or higher academic or vocational training. CPCS – Committee for Public Counsel Services, the state office which provides legal representation to indigent persons in criminal and civil court cases and administrative proceedings in which there is a right to counsel. ESOL – English for Speakers of other languages, English language classes for non-English speakers. Executive Order – Any written or printed order, directive, rule, regulation, proclamation or other instrument promulgated by the governor of a state (a) in the exercise of his constitutional authority as "chief executive" or "supreme executive magistrate," (b) in fulfillment of his constitutional duty to enforce state laws, (c) in performing constitutionally assigned duties relative to executive branch reorganization, (d) in the exercise of his constitutional responsibilities as commander-in-chief of the armed forces and civil defense forces of the state, as regulated by state law, and (e) in his role as "agent" of the state legislature in exercising powers delegated to him by statute to implement and administer particular state laws and programs. GAC – Governor’s Advisory Council for Refugees and Immigrants, group of volunteer appointed advisors charged with counseling the Governor on policy and programs for immigrants and refugees in the Commonwealth. GED – General Educational Development tests, tests which are designed to measure the skills and knowledge equivalent to a high school course of study. Governor’s Office of Civic Engagement – Executive department which promotes civic engagement by taking the lead on community- based participation, citizen voice and public service. ICE – Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the federal agency responsible for enforcing immigration law. IDA – Individual Development Accounts, a Massachusetts state program which provides matched savings accounts for low-income families. Immigrant – for purposes of this report the term immigrant encompasses all foreign born individuals residing in the state. LEP – Limited English Proficient. MOA/287g – Memorandum of Agreement, a specific agreement between a local police department and Immigration and Customs Enforcement, which allows the local department to participate in federal immigration enforcement. SCHIP – State Children’s Health Insurance Program, a federal program to help states insure low-income children who are ineligible for Medicaid but cannot afford private insurance through an enhanced federal match. 35 Appendix I. TOP 12 ISSUES Raised at the Public Meetings 1. Access to driver’s licenses (raised at all of the public meetings) 2. Access to in-state tuition for all immigrant residents (raised at all of the public meetings) 3. More ESOL classes, and lower cost for classes 4. Increased funding for translation and interpreter service in schools 5. Allowing bilingual education 6. Better access and information on state colleges including better information about, and access to, college scholarships 7. Improving accessibility of recertification agencies for foreign professional degrees 8. Need for translators available at all health centers 9. Cost of naturalization prohibitive particularly for families with multiple members applying 10. More affordable and/or subsidized housing 11. State Agencies need greater multilingual support staff to address demand 12. Assistance with housing applications 36 Appendix II. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Governor’s Advisory Council for Refugees and Immigrants DEVAL L. PATRICK WESTY A. EGMONT Governor Co-Chair 617-448-9770 TIMOTHY P. MURRAY EVA A. MILLONA Lieutenant Governor Co-Chair 617-350-5480 To: Honorable Governor Deval Patrick From: The Governor’s Advisory Council for Refugees and Immigrants Re: Supporting the Recommendations of the New Americans Agenda As the Governor’s Advisory Council, submits the recommendations of the New Americans Agenda to you, we wanted to take this opportunity to urge you to do all that it can to support immigrants and refugees in the Commonwealth. As you will see in reviewing the recommendations, many of them cannot be implemented by the state, but rather must come from changes in federal law and regulations. We urge you to take a leadership role on the national level in pressing President Barack Obama, Congress, and other governors to seek real reform of our broken immigration system. Only with comprehensive reform that addresses many of the inequalities that persist in our nation, can immigrants in Massachusetts achieve the social, economic, and political opportunities needed to reach their potential as contributing members of our communities. As such, we respectfully ask that you support the following principles for comprehensive immigration reform: Create an Immigration System that Looks Forward. America has seen a large influx of immigrants over the past two decades. This has largely been because of increased economic traffic and cooperation in the Western Hemisphere and throughout the world. Increased globalization has drastically altered migration patterns, yet U.S. immigration laws have not kept up with these changing realities. In order for a comprehensive immigration reform program to be more than just a short-term band-aid, it needs to include a reformation of our nation’s immigration system that addresses the root causes of undocumented migration to the United States. Congress must reform the family-based immigration system to ensure that families are not separated for long periods of time – sometimes decades – and have a legal method for reuniting. They must also address the employment- based immigration system to ensure that it is responsive to the needs of American business without harming the rights of workers already here. Develop an Overall Policy on Immigrant Integration. Up until now, it has been left to states and local community groups to help immigrants learn about and transition into American culture and society. The push for immigration reform offers Washington an opportunity to consider how it can best assist immigrants in making the most of their talent and energy to contribute to America’s social and economic well-being. In debating immigration reform, Congress should examine what institutions can be created to assist immigrants seeking to learn English, improve educational access for immigrant children, help those who are seeking to become U.S. Citizens, and provide health care access to all immigrants regardless of their status or length of residency. Establish a Rational Enforcement System. Current immigration enforcement efforts have had a negligible impact on the number of undocumented immigrants in the country, but have been extremely harmful to families and communities that have been torn apart. Rather than targeting hard working immigrants without criminal histories, our limited enforcement resources need to be focused on those immigrants who pose a danger to our communities and our security without harming those who 37 contribute to our economic prosperity. In order to focus on removing such dangerous immigrants, the definition of “aggravated felony” found in 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(43) should be amended to include only serious, violent felonies, returning to the pre 1996 definition. Provide a Just and Fair Legalization Program. Legalization is a key element in any comprehensive immigration reform proposal and must provide immigrants who have established new lives in the United States with access to procedures that permit them to adjust their immigration status. ‣ Any legalization program must set forward the primary eligibility criteria in a simple, clear, and generous way so as to be as inclusive as possible while avoiding the ongoing litigation and confusion that resulted from the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. ‣ A legalization program should also protect the confidentiality of those who apply; otherwise the threat of potential deportation could have a chilling effect, preventing many eligible immigrants from applying. Confidentiality would also protect many immigrants who apply through unscrupulous attorneys and notarios who seek to take advantage of people desperate to gain legal status. ‣ Finally, the procedures for a legalization program must be designed in a way that avoids confusion and provides both applicants and the government with the resources necessary for proper adjudication. Legislation should provide an appropriate amount of time between passage and implementation so that the administration has sufficient time to issue appropriate regulations and train staff to handle the new law. Congress should provide additional funding to U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services so that the agency has the resources necessary to process millions of applications in a fair and timely manner. It should also provide funding to credible charitable agencies so they can assist applicants in filling out and filing their applications. Repeal the REAL-ID Act. REAL-ID places onerous burdens on both states and residents by forcing upon us all expensive and restrictive licensing requirements. Moreover, REAL-ID would permanently block many workers in the Commonwealth from acquiring the driver’s licenses they need to get to work, drive their children to school, obtain auto insurance, and purchase the basic necessities of life. Over and over again, we have heard from community members that access to driver’s licenses is one of the priorities for immigrant communities across the state. Repealing REAL-ID would be a necessary first step in ensuring that they are able to obtain such licenses. Pass the DREAM Act. Tens of thousands of undocumented immigrant children are raised as Americans and attend school in United States. 65,000 of these graduate from high school every year, including honor roll students, star athletes, and talented artists. Despite being raised in the United States, they face unique barriers to higher education, are unable to work legally in the U.S., and often live in constant fear of detention by immigration authorities. The DREAM Act would give these children hope for a better future, the hope that they can attend school and live a life full of the same opportunities as their classmates. Failure to pass the DREAM Act would lead to the loss of an educated class of promising immigrant students who have demonstrated a commitment to hard work and a strong desire to be contributing members of our society. Reform our Refugee/Asylee Systems. U.S. refugee admission targets are far below their historical levels, while actual admission have fallen even lower–stagnating at around 70,000. With more than 14 million refugees and asylum seekers around the world, the decreased U.S. admission level has left tens of thousands of innocent, persecuted people being left without relief. Immigration reform should include raising the target to 125,000 for FY '10 with gradual increases to 200,000 refugees by FY '13. In addition, Congress should acknowledge the fact that refugees have a more difficult time adjusting to conditions in the United States due to their traumatic experiences and increase the time they are eligible to receive resettlement services to 9 months. We need to get past the rhetoric of hate that has dominated this debate and instead strive for policy choices that are in the best long- term interests of our nation. As Governor of Massachusetts, you are in a position to help influence the debate in Washington in favor of true reform that benefits the Commonwealth and the country. We encourage you to take a leadership role on immigration reform by reaching out to your fellow governors, members of Congress, and President Obama and urging them to support a comprehensive immigration reform package that addresses the failings of our current broken immigration system. 38 EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 503 INTEGRATING IMMIGRANTS AND REFUGEES INTO THE COMMONWEALTH WHEREAS, the Commonwealth has been a home and order as follows: a haven for new immigrants, refugees and their descendants throughout its history; and Section 1. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts shall develop a New Americans Agenda, a comprehensive WHEREAS, for more than three centuries immigrants and strategic statewide approach to successfully and refugees have come to the United States and this integrate our immigrant and refugee populations that Commonwealth for economic opportunity, religious builds upon the strengths of immigrants and refugees in freedom, and civil liberties, and have found the means the Commonwealth. The New Americans Agenda will to establish a new life here; and help to ensure that these populations become self- sufficient and integrated members of our economy and WHEREAS, this tradition continues to this day, as the communities as quickly as possible. Commonwealth's immigrant population, which comprises 14 percent of the state's population and 17 Section 2. The Massachusetts Office for Refugees and percent of its workforce, continues to grow; and Immigrants (MORI), the state agency chiefly responsible for refugee resettlement and state policies WHEREAS, this immigrant and refugee population affecting immigrant and refugee populations, shall work faces many challenges and obstacles on the path to with the Governor's Advisory Council for Refugees and becoming productive and self-sufficient new Americans Immigrants (GACRI) to develop policy residing in the Commonwealth; and recommendations for the New Americans Agenda. MORI and the GACRI shall be authorized to call upon WHEREAS, the Commonwealth recognizes that the any state department, office, division or agency to seek successful integration of immigrants and refugees into information about services, personnel and policies our society is critical to our economic and civic well- necessary to develop their recommendations pursuant to being; and this Order. MORI and the GACRI shall also consult with host communities across the Commonwealth WHEREAS, immigrants and refugees have great concerning issues that affect immigrants and refugees. potential to contribute to the Commonwealth's MORI and the GACRI may consult with knowledgeable communities as residents, entrepreneurs, students and individuals in the public or private sector on any aspect employees, and it is in the interest of all that their of their mission to help assess the needs of immigrant potential be nurtured and encouraged; and and refugee populations and determine best practices for their integration. WHEREAS, the Commonwealth would benefit from having more of our eligible immigrants and refugees Section 3. MORI shall work with the Governor's Office become naturalized citizens; and of Civic Engagement and the Massachusetts Immigrant and Refugee Advocacy Coalition (MIRA) to develop a WHEREAS, the Commonwealth would benefit from a New Americans Network of community-based coordinated approach to immigrant policy that uses organizations across the Commonwealth that will immigrants' and refugees' skills and assets and directs organize a series of public meetings to take testimony state efforts to accelerate immigrants' and refugees' from community groups, business leaders, local officials integration into the community; and other interested persons. This information shall be considered in the development of policy NOW, THEREFORE, I, Deval L. Patrick, Governor of recommendations for the New Americans Agenda. the Commonwealth, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution, Part 2, c. 2, § I, Art. I, do hereby Section 4. MORI shall present its policy 39 recommendations concerning the New Americans Agenda to the Governor no later than July 1, 2009. It shall include recommendations on how the Commonwealth can better prepare immigrants and refugees to become productive and self-sufficient members of society by addressing their strengths and needs for greater access in areas including but not limited to citizenship assistance, employment/workforce training, English language proficiency, education, civil rights, fair housing, healthcare and public safety. Section 5. After approval by the Governor or his designee, MORI's policy recommendations shall be forwarded to state departments, offices, divisions and agencies. Those entities shall develop New Americans plans that incorporate effective training and resources, culturally and linguistically competent and appropriate services, and administrative practices that address the needs of immigrants and refugees. State departments, offices, divisions and agencies shall consider the New Americans Agenda policy recommendations in creating the plans. Plans shall be submitted to the Governor or his designee no later than one year following their receipt of the policy recommendations. Given at the Executive Chamber in Boston this 9th day of July in the year of our Lord two thousand and eight, and of the Independence of the United States of America two hundred and thirty-two. DEVAL L. PATRICK, GOVERNOR Commonwealth of Massachusetts WILLIAM FRANCIS GALVIN Secretary of the Commonwealth GOD SAVE THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 40 Appendix IIII. EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 478 ORDER REGARDING NON-DISCRIMINATION, DIVERSITY, EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, AND AFFIRMATIVE ACTION (Revoking Executive Order 452) WHEREAS, the Constitution of the Commonwealth of shall take immediate, affirmative steps to ensure Massachusetts is based on a belief in freedom and compliance with this policy and with applicable federal equality for all individuals and in the duty of and state laws in connection with both the internal Government to safeguard and foster these rights; operations of state government as well as their external relations with the public, including those persons and WHEREAS, the Executive Branch of the organizations doing business with the Commonwealth. Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognizes the Each agency, in discharging its duties, shall consider the importance of non-discrimination, diversity, and equal likely effects that its decisions, programs, services, and opportunity in all aspects of state employment, activities will have on achieving non-discrimination, programs, and activities; diversity, and equal opportunity. WHEREAS, creating a culture of inclusion that values Section 3. All state agencies shall develop and and promotes diversity and equal opportunity for all implement affirmative action and diversity plans to individuals is the central objective of this Executive identify and eliminate discriminatory barriers in the Order and the goal of my administration; workplace; remedy the effects of past discriminatory practices; identify, recruit, hire, develop, promote, and WHEREAS, while acknowledging the many efforts retain employees who are members of under- and accomplishments of the past, the Commonwealth represented groups; and ensure diversity and equal can and must do more to ensure that non-discrimination, opportunity in all facets, terms, and conditions of state diversity and equal opportunity are safeguarded, employment. Such plans shall set forth specific goals promoted, and reflected in state workplaces, decisions, and timetables for achievement, shall comply with all programs, activities, services, and contracts; applicable state and federal laws, and shall be updated, at a minimum, every two years. NOW, THEREFORE, I, Deval L. Patrick, Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, by virtue of Section 4. All programs, activities, and services the authority vested in me by the Constitution, Part 2, c. provided, performed, licensed, chartered, funded, 2, § I, Art. I, do hereby revoke Executive Order 452 and regulated, or contracted for by the state shall be order as follows: conducted without unlawful discrimination based on race, color, age, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, Section 1. This Executive Order shall apply to all religion, creed, ancestry, national origin, disability, state agencies in the Executive Branch. As used in this veteran’s status (including Vietnam-era veterans), or Order, “state agencies” shall include all executive background. Equal opportunity and diversity shall be offices, boards, commissions, agencies, departments, protected and affirmatively promoted in all state, state- divisions, councils, bureaus, and offices, now existing assisted, and state-regulated programs, activities, and and hereafter established. services. Non-compliance shall subject violators to such disciplinary or remedial actions as permitted by law. This provision applies, but is not limited to, the use and operation of facilities owned, leased, funded or Section 2. Non-discrimination, diversity, and equal subject to control by the Commonwealth; the sale, lease, opportunity shall be the policy of the Executive Branch rental, financing, construction, or development of of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in all aspects of housing; state-licensed or chartered health care state employment, programs, services, activities, and facilities, educational institutions, and decisions. Each executive officer and agency head serving under the Governor, and all state employees, businesses; education, counseling, and training 41 programs; and public schools. Review all such plans and either approve, return for amendment, or reject them; Section 5. All Executive Branch contracts entered into after the effective date of this Order shall contain Establish periodic reporting requirements for agencies provisions prohibiting contractors and subcontractors concerning the implementation of their plans and all from engaging in discriminatory employment practices; actions taken to ensure compliance with this Executive certifying that they are in compliance with all applicable Order and applicable state and federal laws; federal and state laws, rules, and regulations governing fair labor and employment practices; and committing to Provide assistance to agencies in achieving compliance purchase supplies and services from certified minority with their plans and with applicable federal and state or women-owned businesses, small businesses, or laws; businesses owned by socially or economically disadvantaged persons or persons with disabilities. Monitor and assess the status of agency compliance and Such provisions shall be drafted in consultation with the investigate instances of non-compliance; and Office of the Comptroller and the Operational Services Division, which shall develop and implement uniform Where appropriate, determine and impose remedial language to be incorporated into all Executive Branch courses of action, including the potential imposition of a contracts. The provisions shall be enforced through the freeze on all personnel requisitions and appointment contracting agency, the Operational Services Division, forms submitted by any non-compliant agency to the and/or the Massachusetts Commission Against Chief Human Resources Officer. Discrimination. Any breach shall be regarded as a material breach of the contract that may subject the Section 8. Each Secretariat shall appoint a contractor to appropriate sanctions. Diversity Director. Each agency shall appoint a Diversity Officer. Diversity Directors and Officers shall Section 6. All state agencies shall exclude from have a direct reporting relationship to their Secretary or any forms requesting information any item or inquiry Agency head; shall also report to the Director of ODEO; expressing or soliciting specifications as to race, color, and shall coordinate their component’s compliance with creed, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, age, the requirements of this Order and applicable federal sexual orientation, or disability, unless the item or and state laws. Through the Diversity Directors and inquiry is expressly required by statute or is deemed by Officers, and in compliance with the reporting the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination, guidelines and requirements established by ODEO, all the Massachusetts Office on Disability, the Human state agencies shall submit periodic reports to the Resources Division, or the Office of Diversity and Equal Director of ODEO concerning the status and Opportunity to be a bona fide qualification or otherwise implementation of their affirmative action and diversity required in good faith for a proper purpose. plans. Section 7. The Office of Diversity and Equal Section 9. The Massachusetts Office on Disability Opportunity (“ODEO”), as presently established within (“MOD”), through its Director, shall be responsible for the Human Resources Division of the Administration advising, overseeing and coordinating compliance with and Finance Secretariat, shall be responsible for federal and state laws protecting the rights of persons ensuring compliance with this Executive Order and with with disabilities, including but not limited to the all applicable state and federal laws. ODEO shall have a Americans with 12131-12134; Section 504 (“504”) of Director (the “Director”), who shall be selected by and the Disabilities Act (“ADA”), 42 U.S.C. §§ serve at the pleasure of the Governor. The Director Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. § 794; Article shall report to the Commonwealth’s Chief Human CXIV of the Massachusetts Constitution; and Chapter 6, Resources Officer and submit periodic written reports to §§ 185-87; Chapter 93, § 103; Chapter 151B; and the Governor. The Director shall have the authority to: Chapter 272, §§ 92, 98, and 98A of the Establish guidelines for agency affirmative action and Massachusetts General Laws. MOD shall serve as the diversity plans (“plans”); Executive Branch’s designated ADA and Rehabilitation Act Coordinator, and shall provide information, training, 42 and technical assistance and promulgate guidelines a solely advisory capacity. reflecting best practices, policies and procedures concerning persons with disabilities. Each agency shall 13.2 The Advisory Council’s work shall include, but appoint an ADA/504 Coordinator who shall report need not be limited to, making written recommendations directly to the agency head and work with MOD to the Governor concerning actions, policies, and concerning issues involving persons with disabilities. practices that the Commonwealth should implement to Notification of such appointment shall be made to ensure that the objectives of this Executive Order are MOD’s Director. accomplished. Section 10. Pursuant to guidelines established by 13.3 The Advisory Council shall meet at such times ODEO and MOD, all agency heads, managers, and places as determined by the Chair and shall submit supervisors, and employees shall attend mandatory an initial report containing its written recommendations diversity training within one year of the effective date of to the Governor no later than 60 days following the this Order. For future hires, such training shall be part appointment of the Council’s 15 members. Thereafter, of the standardized orientation provided to new the Advisory Council shall meet at least semi-annually employees. and submit supplemental reports to the Governor no less than once per year. Section 11. ODEO and MOD shall promulgate guidelines establishing a complaint resolution process Section 14. Nothing in this Executive Order shall be for individuals who allege non-compliance by state construed to preclude or otherwise limit the continuation agencies with applicable federal and state laws or implementation of any lawful affirmative action prohibiting discrimination. In instances where this programs or other programs that support the objectives process does not resolve the complaint, the Director of of this Executive Order. ODEO may refer to the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination (“MCAD”) or to MOD any Section 15. This Executive Order shall take effect information concerning conduct that the Director immediately and shall continue in effect until amended, believes may constitute a violation of the law. The superseded or revoked by subsequent Executive Order. MCAD shall initiate investigations and, where necessary, file complaints against those agencies and Given at the Executive Chamber in Boston this 30th persons whom it has reason to believe are in violation of day of January in the year of our Lord two thousand and the laws of the Commonwealth or the United States. seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America two hundred and thirty-one. Section 12. In performing their responsibilities under this Order, ODEO, MOD, and the MCAD shall have the full cooperation of all state agencies, including compliance with all requests for information. Section 13. The Governor’s Non-discrimination, Diversity and Equal Opportunity Advisory Council (“Advisory Council”) is hereby established to advise the Governor concerning policies, practices, and specific actions that the Commonwealth should implement to ensure that the objectives of this Executive Order are accomplished. 13.1 The Advisory Council shall consist of fifteen persons, including a Chair, each of whom shall be appointed by the Governor. All members shall serve without compensation at the pleasure of the Governor in 43 Footnotes 1 Alan Clayton-Matthews and Paul Watanabe with Faye Karp, Massachusetts Immigrants by the Numbers: Demographic Characteristics and Economic Footprint, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2009 p8. 2 Andrew M. Sum, Johan Uvin, Ishwar Khatiwada, Dana Ansel, The Changing Face of Massachusetts, MassInc and Center for Labor Market Studies, June 2005, Figure ES1, p7. 3 Alan Clayton-Matthews and Paul Watanabe with Faye Karp, Massachusetts Immigrants by the Numbers: Demographic Characteristics and Economic Footprint, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2009 p14. 4 Alvaro Lima, New Bostonians 2005, Boston Redevelopment Authority, prepared for the Mayor’s Office of New Bostonians, October 2005, p16. 5 Andrew M. Sum, Johan Uvin, Ishwar Khatiwada, Dana Ansel, The Changing Face of Massachusetts, MassInc and Center for Labor Market Studies, June 2005, Figure ES4, p9. 6 Andrew M. Sum, Johan Uvin, Ishwar Khatiwada, Dana Ansel, The Changing Face of Massachusetts, MassInc and Center for Labor Market Studies, June 2005, Figure ES1, p7. 7 Alan Clayton-Matthews and Paul Watanabe with Faye Karp, Massachusetts Immigrants by the Numbers: Demographic Characteristics and Economic Footprint, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2009 p14. 8 The Changing Pattern of Remittances: 2008 Survey of Remittances from the United States to Latin America, The Inter-American Development Bank and Multilateral Investment Fund, April 2008, p3. 9 Andrew Sum, Ishwar Khatiwada, Joseph McLaughlin, Sheila Palma, Paulo Tobar, Mass Economy: the Labor Supply and Our Economic Future, MassInc and the Center for Labor Market Studies, December 2006, ES Figure 3, p12. 10 Citation for “Massachusetts Immigrants By the Numbers”, from top to bottom in the left and then right columns - Alan Clayton-Matthews and Paul Watanabe with Faye Karp, Massachusetts Immigrants by the Numbers: Demographic Characteristics and Economic Footprint, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2009 p8. Andrew Sum, Ishwar Khatiwada, Joseph McLaughlin, Sheila Palma, Paulo Tobar, Mass Economy: the Labor Supply and Our Economic Future, MassInc and the Center for Labor Market Studies, December 2006, ES Figure 3, p12. Alan Clayton-Matthews and Paul Watanabe with Faye Karp, Massachusetts Immigrants by the Numbers: Demographic Characteristics and Economic Footprint, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2009 p9. Alan Clayton-Matthews and Paul Watanabe with Faye Karp, Massachusetts Immigrants by the Numbers: Demographic Characteristics and Economic Footprint, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2009 p9-11. Antoniya Owens, A Portrait of New England’s Immigrants, New England Public Policy Center Research Report 08 -2, Boston Federal Reserve Bank, November 2008, Table 3, p18. Antoniya Owens, A Portrait of New England’s Immigrants, New England Public Policy Center Research Report 08 -2, Boston Federal Reserve Bank, November 2008, Table 16, p37. Migration Policy Institute, Immigration Data Hub, 2007 ACS/Census Data on the Foreign Born by State, Massachusetts, “Social and Demographic Characteristics”. http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/state.cfm?ID=MA Migration Policy Institute, Immigration Data Hub, 2007 ACS/Census Data on the Foreign Born by State, Massachusetts, “Social and Demographic Characteristics”. http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/state.cfm?ID=MA Andrew M. Sum, Johan Uvin, Ishwar Khatiwada, Dana Ansel, The Changing Face of Massachusetts, MassInc and Center for Labor Market Studies, June 2005, Figure ES2 and ES3, p11. Alan Clayton-Matthews and Paul Watanabe with Faye Karp, Massachusetts Immigrants by the Numbers: Demographic Characteristics and Economic Footprint, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2009 p18. Andrew M. Sum, Johan Uvin, Ishwar Khatiwada, Dana Ansel, The Changing Face of Massachusetts, MassInc and Center for Labor Market Studies, June 2005, Table 7, p35. Migration Policy Institute, Immigration Data Hub, 2007 ACS/Census Data on the Foreign Born by State, Massachusetts, “Social and Demographic Characteristics”. http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/state.cfm?ID=MA Andrew M. Sum, Johan Uvin, Ishwar Khatiwada, Dana Ansel, The Changing Face of Massachusetts, MassInc and Center for Labor Market Studies, June 2005, Figure ES1, p7. Alan Clayton-Matthews and Paul Watanabe with Faye Karp, Massachusetts Immigrants by the Numbers: Demographic Characteristics and Economic Footprint, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2009 p22. Alan Clayton-Matthews and Paul Watanabe with Faye Karp, Massachusetts Immigrants by the Numbers: Demographic Characteristics and Economic Footprint, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2009 p23. The Changing Pattern of Remittances: 2008 Survey of Remittances from the United States to Latin America, The Inter-American Development Bank and Multilateral Investment Fund, April 2008, p3. Alan Clayton-Matthews and Paul Watanabe with Faye Karp, Massachusetts Immigrants by the Numbers: Demographic 44 Footnotes Characteristics and Economic Footprint, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2009 p40-41. Alan Clayton-Matthews and Paul Watanabe with Faye Karp, Massachusetts Immigrants by the Numbers: Demographic Characteristics and Economic Footprint, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2009 p30. Alan Clayton-Matthews and Paul Watanabe with Faye Karp, Massachusetts Immigrants by the Numbers: Demographic Characteristics and Economic Footprint, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2009 p31-32, 40-41. 11 Andrew M. Sum, Johan Uvin, Ishwar Khatiwada, Dana Ansel, The Changing Face of Massachusetts, MassInc and Center for Labor Market Studies, June 2005, Figure ES6, p11. 12 Andrew M. Sum, Johan Uvin, Ishwar Khatiwada, Dana Ansel, The Changing Face of Massachusetts, MassInc and Center for Labor Market Studies, June 2005, Figure 19, p5. 13 Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, Adult and Community Learning Services, http://acls.doemass.org/ 14 Daniel Monti, Laurel Smith-Doerr, James McQuaid, Immigrant Entrepreneurs in the Massachusetts Biotechnology Industry, Boston University Department of Sociology prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2007, p4. 15 Daniel Monti, Laurel Smith-Doerr, James McQuaid, Immigrant Entrepreneurs in the Massachusetts Biotechnology Industry, Boston University Department of Sociology prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2007, p10. 16 Paul Watanabe and Michael Liu, The Rise of Asian-Owned Businesses in Massachusetts, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2007, p5. 17 Ramon Borges-Mendez, Michael Liu, Paul Watanabe, Immigrant Entrepreneurs and Neighborhood Revitalization, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, December 2005, p3. 18 Alvaro Lima, Eugenia Garcia-Zanello, and Manuel Orozco, Brazilians in the United States: A Look at Migrants and Transnationalism, 2007. 19 The Changing Pattern of Remittances: 2008 Survey of Remittances from the United States to Latin America, The Inter-American Development Bank and Multilateral Investment Fund, April 2008, p11. 20 Alan Clayton-Matthews and Paul Watanabe with Faye Karp, Massachusetts Immigrants by the Numbers: Demographic Characteristics and Economic Footprint, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2009 p30. 21 Alan Clayton-Matthews and Paul Watanabe with Faye Karp, Massachusetts Immigrants by the Numbers: Demographic Characteristics and Economic Footprint, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2009 p31-31. 22 Academic year 2006, Mass Department of Education, profiles.doe.mass.edu/gradrates.aspx 23 Andrew M. Sum, Johan Uvin, Ishwar Khatiwada, Dana Ansel, The Changing Face of Massachusetts, MassInc and Center for Labor Market Studies, June 2005, Figure ES1, p7. 24 Alan Clayton-Matthews and Paul Watanabe with Faye Karp, Massachusetts Immigrants by the Numbers: Demographic Characteristics and Economic Footprint, University of Massachusetts Boston prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, June 2009 p18. 25 Ramon Borges-Mendez, James Jennings, Donna Haig Friedman, Malo Huston, Teresa Elliot Roberts, Immigrant Workers in the Massachusetts Healthcare Industry A Report on Status and Future Prospects, University of Massachusetts Boston, Tufts University, and University of California prepared for the Immigrant Learning Center, March 2009, Table 3, p19. 26 Department of Homeland Security, Population Estimates: Estimates of the Legal Permanent Resident Population in 2007, February 2009, Table 5, p4. 27 Department of Homeland Security, Population Estimates: Estimates of the Legal Permanent Resident Population in 2007, February 2009, Table 5, p4. 28 Leighton Ku and Timothy Waidman, Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, How Race/Ethnicity, Immigration Status and Language Affect Health Insurance Coverage, Access to Care and Quality of Care Among the Low-Income Population, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities and The Urban Institute prepared for the Kaiser Family Foundation, August 2003, Figure 6, p18. 29 Leighton Ku and Timothy Waidman, Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, How Race/Ethnicity, Immigration Status and Language Affect Health Insurance Coverage, Access to Care and Quality of Care Among the Low-Income Population, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities and The Urban Institute prepared for the Kaiser Family Foundation, August 2003, Table 4, pg. 21 30 US Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Public Affairs, Office of Refugee Resettlement Fact Sheet, January 2009. 31 This figure is derived from United States Public Health Service Quarantine Station Notifications to the MA Department of Public Health (1986-1997); Resettlement numbers and trends in MA federal fiscal year (1998-2008) produced by the MA Office for Refugees and Immigrants; and federal fiscal year 2009 overseas arrival data compiled by the MA Office for Refugees and Immigrants with information from the Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration. For copies of these reports please contact the MA Office for Refugees and Immigrants. 32 US Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Refugee Resettlement, State Profiles Fiscal Year 2005-2007, “Massachusetts”, p23, http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/data/Profiles05-07.pdf 33 US Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Refugee Resettlement, State Profiles Fiscal Year 2005-2007, “Massachusetts”, p23, http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/data/Profiles05-07.pdf 34 In many countries notary publics are required to be attorneys, leading many immigrants to believe that American notaries are 45 qualified to give legal advice. However, American notaries are not required to have any legal training.
Pages to are hidden for
"naa report"Please download to view full document