PowerPoint Presentation by nMYFuu3

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									Processor
Technology
Advanced Computer
Systems

George South

Sep-12    Processor Technology   1
1. The x86 family of microprocessors
 The x86 family of microprocessors has been
  used for over 20 years in the PC
 The first product in the range was the Intel
  8086
 This was a true 16-bit processor with
  internal and external 16-bit data buses
 Sales of the 8086 were less than expected
  because of a high performance 8-bit rival
  the Z80 – the 8-bit data bus provided low
  cost memory and IO
 Intel produced a version of the 8086 with an
  8-bit external data bus – this was the 8088

Sep-12          Processor Technology         2
                   16
 Scratch                       Address
             AX   AH AL
                               Adder                                      Segment
 Pad         BX   BH BL

             CX   CH CL                                    20             Registers
 Registers
             DX   DH DL
                                     IP                                      16
             SP                      CS
             BP           16         SS
             DI
                                                            Bus Interface
                                     DS
             SI                                             Logic
                                     ES
             16                16              16

                                          EU Control
                                                             Multiplexed
                                                             Address/Data Buses
                        ALU



                                               4 byte instruction queue
Temporary
Registers

              EXECUTION UNIT                BUS INTERFACE UNIT
Flag
Registers
             THE 8088 MICROPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE

    Sep-12                          Processor Technology                              3
2. The 8088, X86 and the PC
 IBM selected the 8088 for the original PC,
  this was based on the following features:
     A powerful internal 16-bit architecture
     A large address space (20-bit gave 1MB)
     Low cost 8-bit motherboard
     Compatibility with 8086 code
 The 8088 had a Complex Instruction Set,
  which was the trend in the late 70s, it also
  included multiply and divide instructions
 The 8087 Numeric Processor featured 80-bit
  real arithmetic

Sep-12          Processor Technology         4
2a. The 8088 and the 8087
                Instructions


                          System
         8088              RAM


                            The 8088 and 8087 read a
                            single instruction stream
         8087               but the 8088 processes all
                            instructions except floating
                            point – these are processed
                            by the 8087


Sep-12            Processor Technology                     5
3. 80188/ 80186
 The next x86 processors were the 80188 and
  80186
 These were targeted at the embedded
  market (as the 8088 had been)
 These processors had on-chip:
    Timers
                               80188-useful for
    Interrupt controller       low chip count
    DMA controller                systems
    Chip select logic
 These processors were little used in PCs

Sep-12          Processor Technology          6
4. The 80286
 The 80286 was a major advance
 Three times the performance of 8088-
  based systems
 It was designed for use in multi-user
  applications
 It could address up to 16-MB (24-addr lines)
 RAM and Peripherals such as hard disks were
  expensive and it made sense to share these
 Users were connected using RS232 serial
  links to simple terminals

Sep-12          Processor Technology         7
5. An 80286 multi-user workstation
 Exercise: Draw the block diagram of an
  80286 system
                                        Shared
                          System        RAM
         80286             RAM          and Disk


                           HD
                         Controller
         80287                          Users 1-4


                          Comms
                         Controller

Sep-12           Processor Technology               8
6. The 80286 and the PC-AT
 IBM used the 80286 in the PC’s successor –
  the PC-AT Advanced Technology
 This was a single user computer with a
  ‘lean’ operating system (MD-DOS)
 Most users just used the 80286 in the AT as
  a fast 8088
 Once users had experienced the PC-AT it was
  hard to go back to a unresponsive multi-
  user system



Sep-12         Processor Technology         9
7. The 80386
 The 80386 was the first 32-bit processor
  used in the mainstream market
 Intel had produced a previous 32-bit
  processor product but it had limited sales
 IBM used the 80386 in the IBM PS/2 series
  of PCs with limited success
 The most popular application was in the
  newly developed ISA architecture PCs
 There was little 32-bit software around –
  it was frequently used as a very fast 8088
 Early versions of Windows used with the
  80386 were really a GUI for MSDOS – a 16-
  bit OS
Sep-12         Processor Technology        10
8. The 80386 and AMD
 Intel licensed the 80386 to AMD, who also
  made 80387s
 The AMD version was pin compatible with
  the Intel 80386
 The AMD chips were cheaper and often
  faster – the trend has continued
 Intel made versions with a 16-bit external
  data bus for the laptop and budget markets
  – the 386SX
 This was equivalent to the 8088 and the
  8086
Sep-12         Processor Technology            11
9. The 80486 - 1989
 The PC ISA architecture was now moving up
  market
 The 80486 had a small on-chip cache (8
  kB) to improve performance – it also usually
  had off-chip cache support - Level 2 cache
 The PCI bus was being used to supply the
  requirements of graphics etc
 Windows was providing support for 32-bit
  code and networking
 AMD produced some very competitive
  alternatives – AMD486 etc
Sep-12          Processor Technology         12
                                  AMD, Cyrix
   10. The 80486                    etc

    Intel had serious competition to the 80486
    Intel made various attempts were made to
     improve the performance
    An interesting development was to use a
     processor running at say, twice the clock
     frequency, but interfacing to a standard
     motherboard at the normal speed
33 MHz                                    66 MHz processor
motherboard        486DX2
                                          - core speed
speed



   Sep-12          Processor Technology                 13
11. The Pentium (1993)
 As a result of competitors’ products which
  outperformed the 80486, Intel used a
  patented name for the next product – the
  Pentium
 The Pentium involved a superscalar
  architecture which is a usual feature of RISC
  architectures
 It also had a 64-bit path to the memory –
  this does not make it a 64-bit processor !
 The early Pentium processors had a floating
  point error and Intel ran a major
  replacement programme

Sep-12          Processor Technology         14
12. The Pentium Competition
 AMD had produced a processor called the K6
  which they engineered to fit into Intel’s
  socket 7
 Motherboard manufacturers could fit either
  Intel or AMD processors into Pentium
  motherboards
 Intel responded by putting the Pentium II
  processor on a patented daughter board
  called slot 1
 From that time on, motherboards will only
  accommodate Intel or AMD processors
 For cost reasons – modern CPUs use
  sockets – the cache etc is on-chip
Sep-12         Processor Technology       15
  13. A Pentium II featuring on-board cache

   Slot
technology




  Sep-12        Processor Technology     16
14. The Pentium Era – a review
What were the features of the Pentium Era ?
 Powerful processors with large caches and
  multimedia extensions to the instruction set
 Windows a powerful OS which requires
  almost no specialist knowledge of the
  hardware (RAM, Disk, Network)
 High performance graphics and GPUs
 Complex chip sets needed to support
  processor and peripherals
 A move to serial peripheral technology –
  PCIe, SATA, eSATA, USB, Firewire

Sep-12          Processor Technology        17
15. Quarter-4 2009 processors
 Intel had road mapped processors operating above 4
  GHz but due to excessive heat problems these were
  cancelled
 Intel use processor brands e.g. Core i3/i5/i7/i9 and
  ratings Good/Better/ Best.. more
 32 nm products are due in Q4 2009/2010, however
  current designs based on the Intel Nahalem Micro-
  architecture use the 45 nm process
 The Intel® Core i5 750 Quad Core processor was
  released in September 2009 and is based on the
  Nahalem architecture
  8 MB L3 cache , clk = 2.66 GHz



Sep-12              Processor Technology                 18
16. Q4 2009 processors
Processor Intel® Core™ i5-750 Quad processor
Role Mainstream desktop
Architecture Nahalem 45 nm
RAM dual-channel DDR3-800/1066/1333 memory
L2 Cache = 4 x 256 K L3 Cache = 8M smart cache
Clock Speed 2.66 GHz (Max Turbo = 3.2 GHz)
DMI 2.5 GT/s
Chipset Intel® P55
Socket LGA1156
TDP = 95W
Price: $196

 Sep-12         Processor Technology      19
17. CPU-Z for Core i5 processor
Sep-12   Processor Technology   21
From MB Review




Sep-12     Processor Technology   22
18. Case study – modern x86 class
         processors
Which is the best processor ?
 Reading the specification of modern
  processors doesn’t help us to decide which will
  perform the best
 Intel and AMD keep releasing new processors
  and it is difficult to keep up
 When you buy a new PC it may well not have
  the latest processor in it
 Even if you have the latest processor there
  may be no software (BIOS, OS, Drivers) to
  support the clever features
Sep-12                Processor Technology      23
19. So what features are important ?
 Number of cores (plus HyperThreading)
 Clock speed/ Turbo Boost
 RAM technology – integrated RAM controllers
 Interface technology - FSB/ QPI/ DMI
 Size of caches will influence execution L1, L2, L3
 Modern instructions SSSE 3/ SSE4
 64-bit operation - but needs 64-bit software etc
 Chip set features – Gigabit Ethernet, Surround Sound, PCI
  Express, Serial ATA, Raid, WiMAX
 Security e.g. Execute Disable Bit/ Trusted Execution
 Power monitoring – Speedstep
 Virtualisation    .. more

Sep-12                 Processor Technology                   24
20. What next ?

New software developments usually involve:
 more complex code
 additional features (security etc)
 enhanced graphics requirements
 web based help files, updates, XML technology
 enhanced RAM requirements
 enhanced disk requirements


Sep-12          Processor Technology        25
21. What next ?

        Although new software will usually run on
         PCs purchased over the last five years, it
         inevitably runs better on the latest
         hardware
        This is especially true of software for:
            New Operating Systems
            Games
            Video editing
            CAD


Sep-12               Processor Technology         26
22. What next ?
    So what features do we expect to see in the next
    generations of x86 products?

   Clock speeds typically below 4 GHz
   Larger, smarter cache memories – L3 caches
   Enhanced HT
   64-bit features - Intel® 64 Bit Architecture
   Security/ Anti virus/ buffer overflow protection features in
    hardware/ TXT - Intel® Trusted Execution Technology
   Dual core/ Quad core processors with/without HT
   Power saving features from derived from mobile
    processors
   Virtualisation – with hardware support - Intel® VT
   Hyper-Transport/ Intel QuickPath interfaces



Sep-12                 Processor Technology                 27
 23. So what features do we expect to see in the
 next generations of mobile professional x86
 products?
   For a mobile platform processor performance is
   important but connectivity/security/ management
   are more important
 Intel® Core™2 Duo processor
 Mobile Intel® GM45/PM45/GS45 Express Chipsets
 Intel® vPro™ technology
 Intel® Next-Gen Wireless-N (Intel® WiFi Link 5300 Series)
   or
 optional WiMAX support with Intel® WiMAX/WiFi Link 5350
 Intel® 82567LM Gigabit Network Connection
 Intel® Turbo Memory (Optional)
This will be continued in the PC Product topic


 Sep-12              Processor Technology              28
 Slides after this are archive only
 Not updated 2009-10 session




 Sep-12            Processor Technology   29
This slide is blank !




Sep-12           Processor Technology   30
23. Performance of dual core x86 products
(relative to a Pentium D 840 TDP=130W)

processor     clk   HT    Tech    L2         £     TDP     Perfor-
                                                           mance
Core 2       2.93   no      C    2x2M        676   75 W    1.67
Extreme
X6800
Core 2       2.66   no      C    2x2M        342   65 W    1.56
E6700
Core 2 Duo    2.1   no      A    2x 1M       153   65 W    1.29
E6400
Core 2 Duo   1.86   no      A    2x 1M       125   65 W    1.16
E6300
 All these processors have an 1066 MHz FSB, use 65nm
 geometry and feature XD-bit,EM64T, EIST, Virtualisation

Sep-12                Processor Technology                     31
23. Performance of Core 2 products

So what is going on ?
 Observations

 What is dual-core good for ?

 Best value for money ?

Technology: C= Conroe A= Allendale
TDP = Thermal Design Power (the power that
   the thermal cooler needs to dissipate)
Sep-12          Processor Technology         32
24. Current products from Intel
 These use Intel’s Core 2 micro-
  architecture
 Same micro-architecture is used for:
      Desktop –

          Notebook –

          Server –

 The P4 NetBurst architecture has been
  replaced by the core architecture
Sep-12                Processor Technology   33
25. Workstations and Servers

  Intel and AMD have a particular interest in processors
  for these products, because the profit margin is better
  than desktop processors
Features:
 Larger cache memories – often very large L3
 Enhanced HT
 64-bit support
 Security features in hardware
 Dual-core processors – SMP support
 Virtualisation – multiple OS support
 Installed base worldwide – 25 million

Sep-12               Processor Technology                   34
26. Workstations and Servers

What are the products ?
 Entry level –Core 2 Duo and Athlon (32/64-
  bit)
 Dept servers –Xeon and Opteron (32/64-bit)
 Enterprise (64-bit):
        PowerPC
        Ultra Sparc
        Itanium



Sep-12         Processor Technology       35
 Slides after this are archive only
 Not updated 2007-8 session




Sep-12            Processor Technology   36
26. Workstations and Servers

Market share by revenue (IDC Feb 2006):
($50 billion market)
 IBM 32%         +4%
 HP 29%          +12%   (30% shipments)
 Sun 11%         -5%
 Dell 11%        +22%   (25% shipments)

 Trend is towards lower end (x86) $26 billion with
  11-15% growth with x86-64 representing 60% of
  x86 server spending

Sep-12             Processor Technology               37
28a IBM Power5/PowerPC G5

 IBM has sold off its unprofitable PC business to
  Lenovo in 2004
 It has a powerful 64-bit processor – the Power5 chip
 This is used in the IBM System P5 Servers
 The PowerPC G5 was used in Apple Power
  Macintosh line – new designs however are now using
  Intel processors
 Versions used in Xbox 360 which uses a 3.2 GHz
  custom IBM PowerPC chip with three symmetrical
  cores (also PlayStation 3)
Note: PC = Power Computing

Sep-12             Processor Technology             38
28b Sun UltraSPARC T1
 Uses CoolThreads technology
 four-, six- and eight-core versions of the chip
 1.0/1.2 GHz, 70 Watts per chip
 Sun will be able to spread up to 16 software threads
  across the four-core chip and up to 32 threads across
  the eight-core product
 The lower-end T1000 system looks to start at $3,000
  and stretch up to $11,000, running on a 1.0 GHz
  Niagara chip. It will have one PCI-E slot and room for
  one disk
 Released 6 Dec 2005

www.theregister.co.uk/2005/11/04/sun_niagara_cool/


Sep-12              Processor Technology              39
28c Intel Itanium

 Based on EPIC architecture
 Enhanced Machine Check Architecture (MCA)
  with Extensive Error Correcting Code (ECC)
 Operating System Support HP-UX*, Linux*,
  Windows* Server 2003
 Designed in conjunction with HP
 Dual and multiprocessor versions
 SPECfp_base2000 of 2553 on HP Integrity
  Server rx2620 with one Itanium 2 processor
  1.6GHz with 3M L3 cache
Sep-12         Processor Technology       40
28c Intel Itanium

 Sales Q1 2005 - $472 million out of total
  server sales of $12300 million
 Sales Q1 2006 - $512 million (90%)
 Sales volume for Q1 2005 was 7200
 A version of Longhorn Server will be available
  for the Itanium in 2007
    Longhorn Server is the server equivalent to
     Vista
    May be called Server 2007 or Server 2008
     depending on release date
Sep-12           Processor Technology          41
28c Intel Itanium

 Latest Itanium product is the Montecito
 Two cores per die
 Multithreaded – 2 threads per die (15-35%
  performance enhancement)
 L2 = 1 MB instr and 256K data
 L3 = 12 MB per core
 90 nm design
 1.72 billion transistors
 Power saving features

Sep-12          Processor Technology          42
28c Intel Itanium

 Itanium   2   9050   1.6 GHz / 24 MB L3 $3692
 Itanium   2   9040   1.6 GHz / 18 MB L3 $1980
 Itanium   2   9030   1.6 GHz / 8 MB L3 $1552
 Itanium   2   9020   1.42 GHz / 12 MB L3 $910
 Itanium   2   9015   1.4 GHz / 12 MB L3 $749
 Itanium   2   9010   1.6 GHz / 6 MB L3 $696 *

*Single core


Sep-12             Processor Technology           43
28c Intel Itanium

 Next generation will be able to share chipset/
  motherboard features with Xeon
 So called Common System Interface




Sep-12           Processor Technology          44
28. SPEC results – 1 cpu enabled

Selected SPECint_base2000 results

Itanium 2 in an HP Integrity Superdome
Dual Core Intel(R) Itanium(R) 2
(1.6GHz/24MB, 533MHz FSB) 2837

Xeon in a HP Proliant ML350
(3.6 GHz 2MB L2) 1718

Opteron in TYAN Tomcat
(2.8 GHz 1 MB L2) 1956

POWER5+ in an IBM p5 520
(1.9 GHz 2MB L2 36 MB L3) 1513

Sep-12             Processor Technology   45
28. 64-bit Over View

 What are the trends ?




Sep-12         Processor Technology   46
29. Pocket PC Processors

 All modern Pocket PCs have ARM-based
  processors (StrongArm, XScale or Samsung)
 The power demands of a mobile system are
  critical and RISC designs are appropriate
 The PXA270 runs at 624 MHz
 Versions of the PXA270 can have RAM and
  StratoFlash memory in the same package
 More of this in the PC Product topic



Sep-12         Processor Technology      47
references

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentium_4
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AMD
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DEC_Alpha
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PowerPC
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hewlett-Packard
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sparc
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xscale




Sep-12              Processor Technology        48
                                BTX
                                955X




Sep-12   Processor Technology          49
3.6 Overview of x86 Processor Family


               8088   8086   80188   80286     80386   80386
                                                SX      DX
      date     1979   1978   1980    1982      1988    1985


     clock     5-8    5-8      8     8-12      12-33   12-33


     Trans     29     29              134      275     275
     -istors
     MIPS       .5     .5             1-3      3-11    3-11


     Data      16     16      16      16        32      32
     bus

       On       no     no     no      no        no      no
      chip
     cache

Sep-12                  Processor Technology                   50
 3.6 Overview of x86 Processor Family

                80486   80486   Pentium   Pentium   Pentium   Pentium
                                             II     III       4
                 DX      CX2
         date   1989    1992    1993      1997      1998      2000


      clock     25-66   25-66    66-       200-      400-     ?- 3.6
                                 200       400       800       GHz
      Trans     1200    1200    3100                           125,
     -istors                                                   000

     MIPS       20-55   20-55    100       300       500      7000


         Data    32      32       32        64      256 to    256 to
         bus                                        cache     cache
     On chip     yes     yes     yes       yes       yes       yes
      cache




Sep-12                    Processor Technology                          51
                   16
 Scratch                       Address
             AX   AH AL
                               Adder                                      Segment
 Pad         BX   BH BL

             CX   CH CL                                    20             Registers
 Registers
             DX   DH DL
                                     IP                                      16
             SP                      CS
             BP           16         SS
             DI
                                                            Bus Interface
                                     DS
             SI                                             Logic
                                     ES
             16                16              16

                                          EU Control
                                                             Multiplexed
                                                             Address/Data Buses
                        ALU



                                               4 byte instruction queue
Temporary
Registers

              EXECUTION UNIT                BUS INTERFACE UNIT
Flag
Registers
             THE 8088 MICROPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE

    Sep-12                          Processor Technology                              52
23. Performance of Pentium products

    The following processors are available
    Q4 2005:
   Pentium   Processor Extreme Edition (840 EE)
   Pentium   D Processor 840
   Pentium   D Processor 830
   Pentium   D Processor 820
   Pentium   4 Processor 670

    Two benchmarks are given: a game and a
    processor intensive file compression


Sep-12             Processor Technology        53
Benchmark Applications
   SiSoft Sandra 2007.5.10.98 64-bit
   CPU-Z 1.33
   Compiled binary of C Linpack port from Ace's Hardware
   POV-Ray for Windows 3.6.1 64-bit
   SMPOV 4.6
   Cinebench 9.5 64-bit Edition
   3ds max 8.0
   LAME MT 3.97a 64-bit
   Windows Media Encoder 9 x64 Edition
   Sphinx 3.3
   picCOLOR 4.0 build 561 64-bit
   The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion 1.1
   Battlefield 2 1.22
   Quake 4 1.2 with trq4demo5
   FEAR 1.03
   Unreal Tournament 2004 v3369 and 3369 64-bit Edition with trdemo1
   3DMark05 v120
   WorldBench 5.0
Sep-12                              Processor Technology                54
Task Manager




Sep-12     Processor Technology   55
28d HP Alpha Servers

 HP acquired the AlphaServer product when it took over
  Compaq in 2002
 The Alpha processor was developed by DEC then it was
  acquired by Compaq
 The processors are currently Alpha based but these will be
  replaced by Itanium processors from 2005
 There is an HP Alpha Retain Trust program to phase users to
  Itanium based servers
 HP state they are working on developing OpenVMS (OS)
  solutions to allow Alpha users to migrate to Itanium
 Last orders for Alpha products - 27 October 2006


Sep-12                Processor Technology                      56
28d HP NonStop Servers

 HP acquired NonStop Himalaya servers when
  it took over Compaq in 2002
 NonStop servers use a fault tolerant
  architecture – used for extreme fault tolerant
  applications
 The processors were MIPS based but these
  are being replaced by Itanium processors
 This requires significant modification to code
  and applications
 Gartner Datapro Product Report DPRO-90075,
  Edward E. Cowger, Ann Katan, 9 March 2004.

Sep-12           Processor Technology          57
14. ‘Budget’ Processors

 To match low cost products such as the AMD
  Duron, Intel have had a range of budget
  processors called the Celeron
 A typical Celeron has a Prescott core and 256
  kB of L2 cache and costs less than about $100
 Future Celeron products will probably be
  branded Core Solo – but there are articles
  about Conroe-L processors using the Celeron
  brand name expected in 2007


Sep-12          Processor Technology         58
20. Comparison of modern x86
         microprocessors

Intel vs AMD
 Clock speed
 Activities per clock
 Size of caches – Intel smaller L1 caches
 Instructions SSE 3 and 64-bit operations
 Chip set features – Gigabit Ethernet, surround
  sound, PCI Express, Serial ATA, Raid, graphics
 See Comparison Table
Sep-12             Processor Technology       59
21. Comparison table

processor   Clk    MHz      L1        L2      cost
                            cache     cache
            GHz
Intel       1.86   FSB      2x        2M      £125
E6300              1066    (32k
                          +32k)
AMD         2.0    Hyper  2x    2x            £106
64 X2                -
                   Trans 512KB 512KB
3800+               port
                   1000




Sep-12             Processor Technology              60
21. Comparison table


processor   Clk     Bench     Bench       Bench    Overall
            GHz     mark:     mark:       mark:
                    Paint      DVD        Multi-
                    Shop      encode       Task
Intel       1.86     1.33       1.15       1.49     1.33
E6300
AMD         2.0      1.21       1.03       1.49     1.24
64 X2
3800+




Sep-12             Processor Technology                    61
21. Which processor is the best value ?

Systems include:
   Budget
   Office
   Workstation
   Media Centre (quiet operation important)
   Games PC (Overclocking etc)
Note: note to get marginal improvements in
 performance, requires considerable expenditure – in
 addition, this processor will be outperformed by a
 middle range product in the next generation
Sep-12            Processor Technology             62
24. Current products from Intel

 Desktop – Conroe gives +40% performance
  than Pentium D but with a TDP of 65 W
 Notebook – Merom gives +20%
  performance than Pentium-M with power
  range 2 W to 35 W
 Server – Woodcrest gives +80%
  performance over previous Xeon products
  with power range 65 W to 80 W




Sep-12        Processor Technology      63

								
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