Module05 Jan21 2012 Part01 by xa0usF8Q

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									                                                     Module 05

Renewable Energy (RE) Technologies & Impacts

- Use of RE sources in electricity generation, in transport, and
                          in other energy consumption modes

             - Ecological impacts of RES, and mitigation measures




Prof. R. Shanthini
Jan 21, 2012
Renewable energy
comes from resources that
naturally renew themselves (replenishable),
and practically never runs out (inexhaustible).


                                   Sustainable energy
                     is replenishable within a human lifetime
                       and causes no long-term damages to
                                          the environment.


                              Examples?
Prof. R. Shanthini
Jan 21, 2012
RE technology options:

  - Hydroelectric
  - Solar Photovoltaics (Solar PVs)
  - Solar Thermal (Solar T),
         also known as Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)
  - Wind
  - Geothermal
  - Marine (Wave and Tidal)
  - Biofuels (Biomass, Bioethanol and Biodiesel)

 Prof. R. Shanthini
 Jan 21, 2012
RE in global final energy consumption, 2008:
                                                     Wind/solar/
                                                     biomass power
                                                     generation, 0.7%
                      Nuclear
                        3%                           Biofuels, 0.6%

                                                     Biomass/solar
                                                     /geothermal
 Fossil                     RE                       hot water/heating,
  78%                       19%
                                                     1.4%

                                                     Hydropower, 3.2%


                                                     Traditional
                                                     biomass, 13%


 Prof. R. Shanthini
 Jan 21, 2012                     RENEWABLES 2010 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT
Electricity from renewable energy sources:
                     3500

                     3000
Global Consumption
 (Terawatt-hours)



                     2500

                     2000
                                     Hydroelectric
                     1500

                     1000            Other Renewables

                      500

                        0
                        1990   1995            2000           2005           2010
                                               Year
      Prof. R. Shanthini
      Jan 21, 2012             Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2011
Electricity generation by renewable energy source:
                              6000   Geothermal
                                     Solar
Global Consumption Forecast




                              5000   Other
                                     Wind
      (Terawatt-hours)




                              4000
                                     Hydroelectric

                              3000

                              2000

                              1000

                                0
                                     2008     2015        2020          2025     2030       2035
                                                                 Year
            Prof. R. Shanthini
            Jan 21, 2012                             Source: Table 13, International Energy Outlook 2011
Electricity from renewable energy sources:

 RE is given by actual annual energy production/consumption
 (in watt-hours).

 RE is also given by the installed capacity power rating
 (in watts).

 A hydro-electric plant, for example, rarely operates at its full
 power rating over a full year.

                                    Annual average power
 Capacity factor of RE plant =
                                    Installed capacity rating



  Prof. R. Shanthini
  Jan 21, 2012         Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2011
Comparison of Technologies:

   Technology          Available   Technical     Current      Current
                        energy     potential    installed   electricity
                       (PWh/yr)     energy      capacity    generation
                                   (PWh/yr)       (GW)       (TWh/yr)
 Hydroelectric           16.5       < 16.5        778          2840
    Solar PVs           14900       < 3000        8.7          11.4
 Concentrated           9250 –     1.05 – 7.8    0.354          0.4
 Solar Power            11800
    (CSP)




  Prof. R. Shanthini
  Jan 21, 2012
Hydroelectric power




  Prof. R. Shanthini
  Jan 21, 2012
                     Amount of
                      electricity
                     generated
                       depends
                          on the
                          height
                     difference.




Prof. R. Shanthini
Jan 21, 2012
Prof. R. Shanthini
Jan 21, 2012         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroelectricity
Hydroelectric power


  Technological status mature
  Average growth          2.2% per year
  Total share of global   16% of electricity in 2008
  energy mix              16% of electricity in 2035 (potential)




  Prof. R. Shanthini
  Jan 21, 2012                        Source: International Energy Outlook 2011
World hydroelectric power generation projection:
                               6000
                                      Average growth is 2.2% per year
 Hydroelectricity generation


                               5000
     (Terawatt-hours)



                               4000


                               3000

                               2000

                               1000

                                 0
                                      2008    2015    2020        2025         2030        2035
                                                          Year
     Prof. R. Shanthini
     Jan 21, 2012                                            Source: International Energy Outlook 2011
World electricity generation projection:
                          40000


                          35000   Hydroelectric
                                  Total electricity
 Electricity generation



                          30000
   (Terawatt-hours)




                          25000


                          20000


                          15000


                          10000


                          5000


                             0
                                  2008     2015       2020          2025      2030         2035
                                                             Year
    Prof. R. Shanthini
    Jan 21, 2012                                              Source: International Energy Outlook 2011
World electricity generation projection:
                          100%
                          90%
 Electricity generation



                          80%
                          70%                  Rest
                          60%                  Hydroelectric
                          50%
                          40%
                          30%
                          20%
                          10%
                           0%
                                 2008   2015   2020      2025         2030        2035
                                                  Year
          Prof. R. Shanthini
          Jan 21, 2012                                Source: International Energy Outlook 2011
Hydroelectric power
Why hydroelectric power?
         Once the dam is built, the energy is virtually free.
         No waste or pollution produced.
         Much more reliable than wind, solar or wave power.
       Water can be stored above the dam ready to cope with
     peaks in demand.
       Hydro-electric power stations can increase to full power
     very quickly.
         Electricity can be generated constantly.
        Dams help preventing flooding (following predicted
     climate change induced heavy rains), if built over capacity.
  Prof. R. Shanthini
  Jan 21, 2012
Hydroelectric power
The Elwha Dam, a 33 m high dam in Washington state, USA,
is one of two huge dams built in the 1910s to power a local
paper mill, under the direction of Thomas Aldwell.

    The reservoir
      that fills the
    valley behind
  the dam is now
  known as Lake
          Aldwell.




  Prof. R. Shanthini
  Jan 21, 2012                      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elwha_Dam
Hydroelectric power
Effects of dam on river habitat:
  River bed is eroded by lack of sediment needed to create
 suitable habitats for spawning (25 million cubic yards of
 sediment have piled up behind the dam over time).
  Water stays for so long in the Lake Aldwell and Lake Mills
 (created by damming), it warms up to about 16°C (which would
 have been 0°C in the absence of dam).
  These high temperatures are unnatural for spawning fish.
  High temperature also increases parasite populations, which
 wipe out two thirds of a spawning population.
  Natural flow patterns (which promote the health of native
 species and help eliminate non native species) are evened out
 by the reservoirs and dams.
  Prof. R. Shanthini
  Jan 21, 2012                    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elwha_Dam
Hydroelectric power
The Elwha Dam is being dismantled since Sept 2011.
 It is a 3-year project costing $351 millions.

Removal of dam
       will restore
the fish habitats,
   will create an
        additional
    715 acres of
        terrestrial
 vegetation, and
      improve elk
         habitats.

  Prof. R. Shanthini
  Jan 21, 2012      http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/09/110923-elwha-dam-removal/
Hydroelectric power
The Three Gorges Dam project in China
 Installed capacity: 22,500 MW
 Project cost: 39 billion US$



Length: 2.3 km
 Height: 101 m




  Prof. R. Shanthini
  Jan 21, 2012
Hydroelectric power
The Three Gorges Dam project
   - has flooded a total of 632 km² area
   - displaced 1.24 million people
   - washed away 13 major cities (submerging cultural and
   archaeological sites)
   - causing dramatic ecological changes
   - used 27,200,000 m3 of concrete, 463,000 tonnes of steel
   and moved about 102,600,000 m3 of earth.
   - when the water level is maximum at 175 m over sea level
   (110 m above the river level down stream), the reservoir
   created is about 660 km in length and 1.12 km in width on
   average, and contains 39.3 km3 of water.

  Prof. R. Shanthini
  Jan 21, 2012
Hydroelectric power
The Twin Aswan Dams of Nile river
 Installed capacity of 2100 MW.




Length: 3.8 km
 Height: 111 m




  Prof. R. Shanthini
  Jan 21, 2012                    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aswan_Dam
Hydroelectric power
The Twin Aswan Dams
      provide protection from floods and droughts
      load of rich fertilizing silt are deposited in reservoirs
     instead of the delta
      lack of natural fertilizer has resulted in an increase in
     erosion of the river and Nile Delta, and an increase in the
     use of chemical fertilizers
      chemical fertilizers have to be imported and thus cost
     money for the farmers, and it also causes pollution of the
     surrounding environment due to runoff.
      chemical fertilizers contain high levels of Nitrogen and
     Phosphorous which are harmful to the water resources

  Prof. R. Shanthini
  Jan 21, 2012                         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aswan_Dam
Hydroelectric power
What are the problems with hydroelectric power?
     Barriers in the natural flow of a river prevents fish from
  migration, alters ecosystems, and threatens the livelihoods
  of local communities.
   The world's 52,000 largest dams release 104 million.
  metric tons of methane (a greenhouse gas) annually.
      Reservoirs fill up with sediment and cost billions to dredge.
      Failure of a dam will have catastrophic consequences.
    Loss of land as well as flooding of areas such as natural
  habitats and existing settlements.
      The future generations must pay for destroying dams.
  Prof. R. Shanthini
  Jan 21, 2012

								
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