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Immigration History cont

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Immigration History cont Powered By Docstoc
					U.S. Immigration:   Population and Society
Trends and                       SOC 331
Consequences                     08.13.08
Outline
   Trends
       Size
       Composition
   Legislation Responses
   Consequences
Trends in US Immigration
Immigration History
   Pre-1875
       no laws, UK/Germany, Involuntary Migrants
   1875-1920
       Limited Laws, SEC European, Heyday of US immigration
   1920-1970
       Very small flow, “inferior”, WWI and WWII
   1970-1986
       Kennedy Act of 1965 - eliminated national quotas,
        Unintended effect was Asian and Latin American
        Immigration
Immigration History (cont)
   1986
       Simpson-Massoli Act: provided amnesty for
        undocumented immigrants who had been in US
       Sanctions for employers who hired undocumented
        workers
       Failed - no enforcement
   Current
       800,000-1,000,00 per year
Massey’s Return to Aztlan
   Virtually everyone who wants to get to the
    U.S. eventually does
   Equal flow in each direction (Circular
    Migration)
   The Chances of begin apprehended at the
    border are declining
Composition
Consequences
   Hotly debated in media but often citing little
    evidence
   Impact on Workers
       Empirical Studies find little impact (Bean et al 1988, Borjas
        1994, Friedburg and Hunt 1995, Hamermesh 1993, Smith
        and Edmonston 1997)
       National Research Council Report
   Impact on Fiscal System
       Pay lower taxes from lower wages
       Less likely to stay to receive social security and Medicare
       Welfare and health care costs are negligible
Impact on Workers
   Recurring fear about immigrants
       Potential loss to native workers
       But many get pushed up not out (Complement
        effect)
   Empirical Study
       National Studies of all cities comparing change in
        immigrants and change in wages
       No evidence of job loss or lower wages for native
        workers
National Research Council
Report
   “The weight of empirical evidence suggests
    that the impact of immigration on the wages
    of competing native born workers is small -
    possibly only reducing them by 1 or 2
    percent.” (Smith and Edmonston 1997: 220)
   “The evidence also indicates that the
    numerically weak relationship between native
    wages and immigration is observed across all
    types of native workers…” (Smith and
    Edmonston 1997: 223)
Fiscal System
   Often said that extraction exceeds
    contribution
       NRC report showed that immigrants and their
        descendents pay more in taxes than they receive
        in benefits
           Younger, so use more school money but use less
            social security and Medicare
           Relieve some per capita fiscal burden of native-born
            for national debt and public goods (more people
            controbuting)

				
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posted:9/29/2012
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