§113.35. United States Government (One-Half Credit). (a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one-half unit of credit for successful completion of this course. (b) Introduction. (1) In Government, the focus is on the principles and beliefs upon which the United States was founded and on the structure, functions, and powers of government at the national, state, and local levels. This course is the culmination of the civic and governmental content and concepts studied from Kindergarten through required secondary courses. Students learn major political ideas and forms of government in history. A significant focus of the course is on the U.S. Constitution, its underlying principles and ideas, and the form of government it created. Students analyze major concepts of republicanism, federalism, checks and balances, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights and compare the U.S. system of government with other political systems. Students identify the role of government in the U.S. free enterprise system and examine the strategic importance of places to the United States. Students analyze the impact of individuals, political parties, interest groups, and the media on the American political system, evaluate the importance of voluntary individual participation in a democratic society, and analyze the rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Students examine the relationship between governmental policies and the culture of the United States. Students identify examples of government policies that encourage scientific research and use critical-thinking skills to create a product on a contemporary government issue. (2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich Comment [Jon Rolan1]: Comment [A1]: primary and secondary source material such as the complete text of the U.S. Constitution; “C” was in lowercase. elected Federalist Papers; landmark cases of the U.S. Supreme Court (such as those studied in Comment [Jon Rolan2]: Comment [A2]: BSG- This is to draw attention to the fact that Grade 8 and U.S. History); biographies, autobiographies, and memoirs; speeches and letters; the historical cases are located in other and periodicals that feature with analyses of political issues and events is encouraged. courses for vertical alignment. Selections may include excerpts from John Locke's Two Second Treatises ofn Government, Comment [Jon Rolan3]: JR: Redundant The Federalist 10, 51, and 78, Madison's introduction to the Bill of Rights, and the Kentucky Comment [Jon Rolan4]: JR: Brevity Resolutions of 1798. Comment [Jon Rolan5]: JR: Only Second Miranda v. Arizona. Treatise is relevant. Comment [Jon Rolan6]: JR: Should read at (3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be least 3 of the Federalist Papers. integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the geography and social studies skills Comment [Jon Rolan7]: JR: Short and presents some critical insights. strands in subsection (c) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all Comment [Jon Rolan8]: JR: Short essential presentation of Jefferson's most knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content definitive commentary on the Constitution. material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines Comment [Jon Rolan9]: This is not the place for a particular SC case. and critical-thinking skills are taught together. (4) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic republican values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Comment [Jon Rolan10]: JR: Focus should be on deliberation rather than just Education Code, representation. §28.002(h). (5) State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances including Celebrate Freedom Week. Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under Texas Education Code, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the United States Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation ProclamationThirteenth Amendment and the wWomen's sSuffrage Comment [Jon Rolan11]: JR: The Emancipation Proclamation was not that movementAmendment. historically or legally significant. Comment [Jon Rolan12]: JR: It was the Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of amendment, not the movement, that is the most important result. instruction prescribed under subsection (a) of this section, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed." (c) Knowledge and skills. Comment [Jon Rolan13]: JR: If the (1) History. The student is to understands how constitutional government, as developed in student already understood we wouldn't have to teach him. America and expressed in the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the U.S. Constitution, developed in the United States, has been influenced by people, ideas, people, and historical documents. The student is expected to: (A) explain major political ideas in history including natural law, natural rights, divine right of kings, social contract theory, and the rights of resistance to illegitimate government; and Comment [Jon Rolan14]: Comment [A6]: Per Dr. Dreisbach. From the Declaration of Independence. [Rule of law?] (B) identify major intellectual, philosophical, political, religious traditions that informed the American foundingconstitutionalism, including Judeo-Christian (especially biblical Comment [Jon Rolan15]: Comment [A7]: law)ancient Hebrew, Greek, and Romand law, English Common Law and constitutionalism, BSG-Moved from above for clarity and Enlightenment, and Republicanism, as they speak continuity to issues ofconcerning libertyies, rights, and responsibilities of individuals with respect to officials. Comment [Jon Rolan16]: JR: It is constitutionalism that all this led to. The Founding was implementation of that. Comment [Jon Rolan17]: JR: Hebrew, Greek, and Roman law were all important, and shared common origins. Comment [Jon Rolan18]: JR: Need to make clear these are complementary to powers of officials Comment [Jon Rolan19]: Comment [A8]: SBOE&ER-Written with Dr. Dreisbach. Also, SBOE (C) identify the individuals whose principles of laws and government institutions and ideas Comment [Jon Rolan20]: JR: Moses did not really address institutions. informed the American founding documents, including those of Moses, Comment [Jon Rolan21]: Comment [A9]: William Blackstone, Edward Coke, John Lilburne, John Locke, Algernon Sidney, and Charles SBOE & ER, including Gail Lowe de Montesquieu; Comment [Jon Rolan22]: JR: Coke was the (D) identify the contributions of the political philosophies of the Founding most influential on the leading Founders. Fathers, including John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Comment [Jon Rolan23]: JR: Lilburne and the other Levellers were the main Madison, George Mason, Roger Sherman, and James Wilson, on the development of the antecedents of the Founders. U.S. Government; Comment [Jon Rolan24]: JR: Sidney was also a major influence. (E) examine debates and compromises that impacted the creation of the Comment [Jon Rolan25]: Comment [A10]: ER-Per Dr. Dreisbach. Mason founding using historical documents and examples of previous republics; and = Virginia Declaration of Rights, Sherman = Great Compromise, etcetera, Wilson = 3/5 (F) identify significant individuals in the field of government and politics including Compromise George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, Andrew and proponent of democracy during Constitutional Jackson, Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt, and Ronald Convention. Reagan. Comment [Jon Rolan26]: JR: The Founders were heavily influenced by the example of (2) History. The student is to understands the roles played by individuals, political parties, earlier experiments in self-government. interest groups, and the media in the U.S. political system, past and present. The student is Comment [Jon Rolan27]: JR: Should not expected to: neglect critical role of Franklin. Comment [Jon Rolan28]: Comment [A11]: ER-Written with Dr. Dreisbach. The (A) give examples of the processes used by individuals, political parties, interest committee tried to identify major national groups, or the media to affect public policy, including logical fallacies, propaganda methods, figures representing trends within the American federal system. F. Roosevelt and marketing, organizing, and lobbying, and how they exhibit the public choice problem; examine Reagan are there to be foils of one various solutions that have been tried, such as separation of powers, checks and balances, life another and represent opposite ideas within American government. tenure for judges, and sortition to select jurors; and ... (B) analyze the impact of political changes brought about by individuals, political Comment [Jon Rolan29]: Comment [A12]: Wanted to include “selected others;” parties, reform movements, interest groups, or the media, past and present. however, this would have fallen under ... Comment [Jon Rolan30]: JR: Need to get (3) Geography. The student understands how geography can influence U.S. political divisions more specific on this point. and policies. The student is expected to: Comment [Jon Rolan31]: JR: Reform movements are especially instructive and should be examined. (A) analyze the political significance to the United States of the location and Comment [Jon Rolan32]: Comment [A13]: geographic characteristics of selected places or regions such as Cuba and Taiwanareas or high BSG-These changes were made to narrow the scope of the geography strand and have it... and low rainfall, varying soil fertility, mineral deposits, proximity to markets, natural harbors, Comment [Jon Rolan33]: JR: Focus should mountain passes, navigable streams, and protection from wide oceans; and be on U.S. Geography and how it affects understand how population shifts affect voting patterns; U.S. government. Comment [Jon Rolan34]: Comment [A14]: This allows the students to examine (B) examine political boundaries to make inferences regarding the distribution of geographical patterns in the context of ... political power; and Comment [Jon Rolan35]: Comment [A15]: This allows the students to see the difference between large and small states... (C) explain how political divisions are crafted and how they are affected by Supreme Court decisions, such as Baker v. Carr. Comment [Jon Rolan36]: Comment [A16]: BSG-This allows the students to see how the Supreme Court protects an individual’s rights. SBOE- Re: comment of Gail Lowe, chairman, while this could apply to government, this applies here to human geography and voting patterns (rural v. urban), etcetera. (4) Geography. The student is to understands why certain places or regions are important to the United States. The student is expected to: Comment [Jon Rolan37]: Comment [A17]: BSG-This was changed to return the focus to the US and government. (A) identify the significance to the United States of the location and key natural resources of selected global places or regions; and Comment [Jon Rolan38]: Comment [A18]: BSG-This is about how other areas of the world affect us which brings back into (B) analyze how United States foreign policy affects focus the intent of the previous 4(A) and 4(B). selected places and regions. Comment [Jon Rolan39]: Comment [A19]: BSG-This is about how the United States (5) Economics. The student is to understands the roles played by local, state, and national impacts other areas of the world. governments in both the public and private sectors of the U.S. free enterprise ( capitalismt, free market) system. The student is expected to: Comment [Jon Rolan40]: Comment [A20]: BSG-This is to introduce current terminology and aligning with the (A) explain how government fiscal, monetary, and regulatory policies Economics course and per ER. influence the economy at the local, state, and national levels; Comment [Jon Rolan41]: Comment [A21]: (B) identify the sources of revenue and expenditures of the U. S. government and BSG-Shows the linkage between government and economics courses analyze their impact on the U.S. economy; and (C) compare the role of government in the U.S. free enterprise system ( capitalismt, free Comment [Jon Rolan42]: Comment [A22]: BSG&ER-This is to introduce current market) and other economic systems. terminology and aligning with the Economics course and per ER. (6) Economics. The student is to understands the relationship between U.S. government policies and the economy. The student is expected to: Comment [Jon Rolan43]: Comment [A23]: This is more general and aligned with the economics’ course. (A) examine how the United States government uses economic resources in foreign policy; and Comment [Jon Rolan44]: Comment [A24]: This is more coherent in how it is (B) understand the roles of the executive and legislative branches in setting international applied. trade and fiscal policies. Comment [Jon Rolan45]: Comment [A25]: (7) Government. The student is to understands the American beliefs and principles reflected This reinforces 7(A) in the U.S. Constitution and why these are significant. The student is expected to: Comment [Jon Rolan46]: Comment [A26]: ER (A) explain the importance of a written constitution; (B) evaluate how the federal government serves the purposes set forth in the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution; (C) analyze how the Federalist Papers, such as Number 10 and Number 51 , explain the Comment [Jon Rolan47]: Comment [A27]: SBOE-Gail Lowe, et al., such as McLeroy. principles of the American constitutional system of government; We have selected two of those requested because this is only a one semester course and time is a factor. (D) evaluate constitutional provisions for limiting the role of government, including republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, a difficult amendment process, grand and trial juries, and individual rights; Comment [Jon Rolan48]: Comment [A28]: (E) describe the constitutionally-prescribed procedures by which the ER-Written with Dr. Dreisbach U.S. Constitution can be changed; and analyze the Comment [Jon Rolan49]: Comment [A29]: role of the amendment process in a constitutional government; and BSG-This makes it clear and measurable and allows students to identify the beliefs and principles in action. (F) identify how the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution contribute to a national identity and, are embodied in the United States today, and influence nations elsewhere. Comment [Jon Rolan50]: JR: Influence of our constitutionalism on other countries (8) Government. The student is to understands the structure and functions of the government and peoples needs to be examined. created by the U.S. Constitution. The student is expected to: Comment [Jon Rolan51]: Comment [A30]: This was to tie the power of the court into (14C). Students are asked to analyze (A) analyze the structure and functions of the legislative branch of government, interpretations which are a result of judicial review. including the bicameral structure of Congress, the role of committees, and the procedure for enacting laws; Comment [Jon Rolan52]: JR: The opinion (B) analyze the structure and functions of the executive branch of government, in Marbury is important to examine. including the constitutional powers of the president, the growth of presidential power, Comment [Jon Rolan53]: Comment [A31]: and the role of the Cabinet and executive departments; BSG-For clarity Comment [Jon Rolan54]: Comment [A32]: (C) analyze the structure and functions of the judicial branch of government, including BSG-This was moved to clarify that it is the federal court system, types of jurisdiction, and judicial review, with examination of an executive agency and not a regulatory commission. Marbury v. Madison; (D) identify the purpose and analyze the opereation of selected independent executive Comment [Jon Rolan55]: Comment [A33]: agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and BSG-This was needed to clarify the regulatory difference between the executive agency and the regulatory commissions. commissions , including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and discuss which if any of them would have been Comment [Jon Rolan56]: JR: Could make a considered constitutional by the Founders; better selection. Suggest Federal Trade Commission (FTC), Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Federal Reserve System, (E) explain how certain provisions of the U.S. Constitution provide for separation of powers and checks and balances among the several levels and three branches of government; Comment [Jon Rolan57]: JR: Balances are among separated powers. Always want to mention both. (F) explain the major responsibilities of the federal government for domestic andforeign policy, such as national defense; and Comment [Jon Rolan58]: Comment [A35]: ER (G) compare the structures, and functions, of the Texas state government to the federal system; and processes of the national, state, and local governments in the United States federal system. Comment [Jon Rolan59]: Comment [A36]: This was used to combine (H) and (I). (9) Government. The student is to understands the concept of federalism. The student is expected to: (A) explain why the Founding Fathers created a distinctly new form of federalism and adopted a federal system of government instead of a unitary system; (B) categorize government powers as national, state, or sharedconcurrent, and examine the territorial jurisdictions of each; Comment [Jon Rolan60]: JR: “concurrent” is the correct term. (C) analyze historical and contemporary conflicts over the respective roles of national Comment [Jon Rolan61]: Comment [A38]: Allows for both historical and and state governments; and contemporary conflicts (D) understand the limits on the national and state governments in the U.S. federal system of government, and for each past, current, or possible future governmental activity, discuss whether it is constitutional or unconstitutional and why. (10) Government. The student is to understands the processes for filling public offices in the U.S. system of government. The student is expected to: Comment [Jon Rolan62]: JR: Should (A) compare different methods of filling public offices, including elected and examine alternative methods that have been tried. appointed offices, at the local, state, and national levels, including various methods of Comment [Jon Rolan63]: Comment [A39]: election, appointment and sortition; and Redundant and now more measurable. (B) explain the process of electing the President of the United States ,and analyze the Comment [Jon Rolan64]: Comment [A40]: SBOE-Gail Lowe, analysis of the Electoral Electoral College, and discuss alternative methods of nominating candidates and selecting College includes and requires an electors. assessment of benefits. (11) Government. The student is to understands the role of political parties in the U.S. system Comment [Jon Rolan65]: JR: Need to examine alternatives that have been tried. of government. The student is expected to: (A) analyze the functions of political parties and factions within parties and their role in the electoral process at local, state, and national Comment [Jon Rolan66]: JR: Parties have their own parties within them. levels; Comment [Jon Rolan67]: Comment [A41]: Combined (A) and (C) (B) explain the two-party system and evaluate the role of third parties in the United States; and (C) identify opportunities for citizens to participate in political party activities at local, state, and national levels. (12) Government. The student is to understands the similarities and differences that exist among the U.S. system of government and other political systems. The student is expected to: (A) compare the United States constitutional republic to historical and contemporary forms of government such as monarchy, a classical republicaristocracy, authoritarian, socialist, direct democracy, theocracy, tribal, and other republicsforms; Comment [Jon Rolan68]: Comment [A44]: ER-Moved info from 1(B) to here to consolidate the different forms of (B) analyze advantages and disadvantages of federal, confederate, and unitary systems government of government, and treaty organizations; and Comment [Jon Rolan69]: JR: Need to (C) analyze advantages and disadvantages of presidential and parliamentary systems of examine all the standard models. government. Comment [Jon Rolan70]: JR: Needed for completeness. (13) Citizenship. The student is to understands rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Comment [Jon Rolan71]: Comment [A45]: BSG-Clarification The student is expected to: Comment [Jon Rolan72]: JR: Need to be taught to question the lawfulness of official acts. (A) understand the roles of limited government and the rule of law to in the protection Comment [Jon Rolan73]: Comment [A46]: of individual rights, and that an unconstitutional statute or regulation is not law; SBOE-Added per Gail Lowe; Unalienable” per Thomas Jefferson, 1776 (B) identify and define the sources of various rights, and how powers of officials unalienable and rights are each restrictions on the other, with examination of Madison's Comment [Jon Rolan74]: JR: Need to introduction to the Bill of Rights; examine the relation between rights and powers more deeply. Comment [Jon Rolan75]: Comment [A47]: (C) identify the freedoms and rights guaranteed by each amendment in the Bill of BSG-Clarification, First Amendment is in Rights, including the unenumerated rights of the Ninth Amendment, from historical sources; the Bill of Rights. SBOE-Property rights, which was a concern of McLeroy, are included in the Bill of Rights. (D) analyze United States Supreme Court interpretations of rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution in selected cases including: Engel v. Vitale, Schenck v. U.S., Texas v. Johnson, Miranda v. Arizona, Gideon v. Wainwright, Mapp v. Ohio, and Roe v. Wade. Comment [Jon Rolan76]: JR: There is no better way to understand rights than by identifying the unenumerated ones. (E) explain the importance of due process rights to the protection of individual rights Comment [Jon Rolan77]: Comment [A48]: and in limiting the powers of government, and how they relate to “privileges and immunities”; BSG&ER-Addition of Roe v Wade per expert testimony. Additional cases are and significant to individual rights. Comment [Jon Rolan78]: Comment [A50]: BSG-Clarification (F) recall the conditions and debates that produced the 14th amendment, describe the Comment [Jon Rolan79]: JR: The debates are especially instructive. selective incorporation of rights in the Billof Rights, and analyze its impact on the scope of fundamental rights in the Bill ofRights and on federalism . Comment [Jon Rolan80]: Comment [A51]: ER-These three ideas are put together on purpose because they flow together (14) Citizenship. The student is to understands the difference between personal and civic well,one builds upon the preceding. It is not recommended that you separate these responsibilities. The student is expected to: into three separate points. Written with Dr. Dreisbach. (A) explain the difference between personal and civic responsibilities; (B) evaluate whether and/or when the obligation of citizenship requires that personal desires and interests be subordinated to the public good; and (C) understand the responsibilities, duties, and obligations of citizenship, such as being well informed about civic affairs, serving in the military and militia service, voting, servingservice on a grand or trial jury, observing and helping to enforce the laws, paying lawful taxes, and serving the public good. (D) explain the role of the independent grand jury not only for indictment but also for hearing public complaints and investigation and reporting of public problems; Comment [Jon Rolan81]: JR: Grand jury needs special attention. (E) explain the role and operation of a trial jury in civil and criminal cases, including the review of the legal decisions of the bench, and protection of the rights of all parties from misconduct by officials. Comment [Jon Rolan82]: JR: Trial jury needs special attention. (15) Citizenship. The student is to understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the U.S. democratic republic society. The student is expected to: (A) analyze the effectiveness of various methods of participation in the political process at local, state, and national levels, including research, letter writing, litigation, lobbying, testifying, publicizing, organizing, public demonstration, voting, and contending for public office; (B) analyze historical and contemporary examples of citizen movements to bring about political change or to maintain continuity; and (C) analyze understand the factors that influence an individual's political attitudes and Comment [Jon Rolan83]: Comment [A54]: More relevant to student understanding actions. (16) Citizenship. The student is to understands the importance of the expression of differentpoints of view in a democratic republic society. The student is expected to: (A) analyze examine different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important contemporary issues, such as League of United Latin American Citizens LULAC), the National Rifle Association (NRA), National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); and Comment [Jon Rolan84]: JR: Should not discuss specific private groups unless they have played a significant historical (B) analyze the importance of protections of religion, petition, assembly, free speech and role, for the same reason we don't mention particular religious denominations. press in a democratic Comment [Jon Rolan85]: Comment [A56]: society. SBOE Comment [Jon Rolan86]: JR: Can't just (17) Culture. The student is to understands the relationship between government policies and omit one of the five rights in the First Amendment. the culture of the United States. The student is expected to: Comment [Jon Rolan87]: Comment [A57]: ER-Per Barton’s expertise (A) evaluate a United States government policy or court decision that has affected a Comment [Jon Rolan88]: Comment [A59]: particular racial, ethnic, or religious group, such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the SBOE-Wording changed per Gail Lowe U.S. Supreme Court cases of Hernandez v. Texas and Grutter v. Bollinger; and Comment [Jon Rolan89]: Comment [A60]: BSG-Merged 18(A) and (C)for better (B) explain changes in American culture brought about by government policies clarification and guidance such as voting rights, the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill of Rights) , and racial integration. Comment [Jon Rolan90]: Comment [A61]: BSG- Broad strokes – who students are now. (18) Science, technology, and society. The student is to understands the role the government plays in developing policies and establishing conditions that influence scientific discoveries Comment [Jon Rolan91]: Comment [A62]: and technological innovations. The student is expected to: BSG-Clarification (A) analyze understand how U.S. constitutional protections, such as patents, copyrights, and trademarks, have fostered and government policies fostering competition and entrepreneurship; and, have resulted in scientific discoveries and technological innovations. Comment [Jon Rolan92]: Comment [A64]: BSC-Clarification and focus on the U.S. Constitution (B) identify examples of government-assisted research that, when shared with the JR: This should be left in. private sector, have resulted in improved consumer products such as computer and communication technologies. (19) Science, technology, and society. The student is to understands the impact of advances in science and technology on government and society. The student is expected to: (A) analyze understand the potential impact on society of recent scientific discoveries and technological innovations; and (B) evaluate the impact of the Internet and other electronic information on the political Comment [Jon Rolan93]: Comment [A66]: More contemporary and process. relevant 20) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to: (A) analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions; (B) create a productreport on a contemporary government issue or topic using critical Comment [Jon Rolan94]: JR: Product? Report is more clear. methods of inquiry and citing sources; Comment [Jon Rolan95]: JR: Need to learn how to write scholarly papers. (C) analyze and defend a point of view on a current political issue; Comment [Jon Rolan96]: Comment [A67]: ER-More measurable per ER (D) analyze and evaluate the validity of information, arguments and counterarguments Comment [Jon Rolan97]: Comment [A68]: from primary and secondary sources for bias, propaganda, point of view, and frame of Per public comment submitted reference; to committee Comment [Jon Rolan98]: Comment [A69]: (E) evaluate government data using charts, tables, graphs, and maps; and CRS (F) use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs. (21) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to: (A) use social studies terminology correctly; (B) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation; (C) transfer information from one medium to another, including written to visual and statistical to written or visual, using computer software as appropriate; and (D) create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information. (22) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to: (A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and (B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision. Source: The provisions of this §113.35 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.
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