right of kings by 3CVp5o2Z


									§113.35. United States Government (One-Half Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one-half unit of credit for successful
 of this course.
(b) Introduction.

 (1) In Government, the focus is on the principles and beliefs upon which the United States
founded and on the structure, functions, and powers of government at the national, state, and
local levels. This course is the culmination of the civic and governmental content and
studied from Kindergarten through required secondary courses. Students learn major political
ideas and forms of government in history. A significant focus of the course is on the U.S.
Constitution, its underlying principles and ideas, and the form of government it created.
Students analyze major concepts of republicanism, federalism, checks and balances, separation
of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights and compare the U.S. system of
government with other political systems. Students identify the role of government in the U.S.
free enterprise system and examine the strategic importance of places to the United States.
Students analyze the impact of individuals, political parties, interest groups, and the media on
the American political system, evaluate the importance of voluntary individual participation in
a democratic society, and analyze the rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Students
examine the relationship between governmental policies and the culture of the United States.
Students identify examples of government policies that encourage scientific research and use
critical-thinking skills to create a product on a contemporary government issue.

(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich
                                                                                                    Comment [Jon Rolan1]: Comment [A1]:
primary and secondary source material such as the complete text of the U.S. Constitution;           “C” was in lowercase.
elected Federalist Papers; landmark cases of the U.S. Supreme Court (such as those studied
in                                                                                                  Comment [Jon Rolan2]: Comment [A2]: BSG-
                                                                                                    This is to draw attention to the fact that
Grade 8 and U.S. History); biographies, autobiographies, and memoirs; speeches and letters;         the historical cases are located in other
 and periodicals that feature with analyses of political issues and events is encouraged.           courses for vertical alignment.

Selections may include excerpts from John Locke's Two Second Treatises ofn Government,
                                                                                                    Comment [Jon Rolan3]: JR: Redundant
The Federalist 10, 51, and 78, Madison's introduction to the Bill of Rights, and the Kentucky
                                                                                                    Comment [Jon Rolan4]: JR: Brevity
Resolutions of 1798.
                                                                                                    Comment [Jon Rolan5]: JR: Only Second
Miranda v. Arizona.                                                                                 Treatise is relevant.
                                                                                                    Comment [Jon Rolan6]: JR: Should read at
(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be   least 3 of the Federalist Papers.

integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the geography and social studies skills     Comment [Jon Rolan7]: JR: Short and
                                                                                                    presents some critical insights.
strands in subsection (c) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all
                                                                                                    Comment [Jon Rolan8]: JR: Short
essential                                                                                           presentation of Jefferson's most
knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content        definitive commentary on the Constitution.
material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines        Comment [Jon Rolan9]: This is not the
                                                                                                    place for a particular SC case.
critical-thinking skills are taught together.

(4) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in
geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society;
social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables
to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and

the basic democratic republican values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas         Comment [Jon Rolan10]: JR: Focus should
                                                                                                  be on deliberation rather than just
Education Code,                                                                                   representation.

(5) State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances including
Celebrate Freedom Week. Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom
Week as provided under Texas Education Code, §29.907, or during another full school week
determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning
intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the United States
Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the
Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed
in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the
rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the
formulation of the United States Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the
Emancipation ProclamationThirteenth Amendment and the wWomen's sSuffrage                          Comment [Jon Rolan11]: JR: The
                                                                                                  Emancipation Proclamation was not that
movementAmendment.                                                                                historically or legally significant.
                                                                                                  Comment [Jon Rolan12]: JR: It was the
Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of           amendment, not the movement, that is the
                                                                                                  most important result.
instruction prescribed under subsection (a) of this section, students in Grades 3-12 study and
recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created
equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among
are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments
instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."

(c) Knowledge and skills.
                                                                                                  Comment [Jon Rolan13]: JR: If the
(1) History. The student is to understands how constitutional government, as developed in         student already understood we wouldn't
                                                                                                  have to teach him.
America and expressed in the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and
the U.S. Constitution, developed in the United States, has been influenced by people, ideas,
people, and historical documents. The student is expected to:

   (A) explain major political ideas in history including natural law, natural rights, divine
right of kings, social contract theory, and the rights of resistance to illegitimate
 government; and                                                                                    Comment [Jon Rolan14]: Comment [A6]:
                                                                                                    Per Dr. Dreisbach. From the Declaration of
                                                                                                    Independence. [Rule of law?]
    (B) identify major intellectual, philosophical, political, religious traditions that informed
the American foundingconstitutionalism, including Judeo-Christian (especially biblical
                                                                                                    Comment [Jon Rolan15]: Comment [A7]:
law)ancient Hebrew, Greek, and Romand law, English Common Law and constitutionalism,                BSG-Moved from above for clarity and
Enlightenment, and Republicanism, as they speak                                                     continuity

to issues ofconcerning libertyies, rights, and responsibilities of individuals with respect to
officials.                                                                                          Comment [Jon Rolan16]: JR: It is
                                                                                                    constitutionalism that all this led to.
                                                                                                    The Founding was implementation of that.
                                                                                                    Comment [Jon Rolan17]: JR: Hebrew,
                                                                                                    Greek, and Roman law were all important,
                                                                                                    and shared common origins.
                                                                                                    Comment [Jon Rolan18]: JR: Need to make
                                                                                                    clear these are complementary to powers of
                                                                                                    Comment [Jon Rolan19]: Comment [A8]:
                                                                                                    SBOE&ER-Written with Dr.
                                                                                                    Dreisbach. Also, SBOE
   (C) identify the individuals whose principles of laws and government institutions and ideas       Comment [Jon Rolan20]: JR: Moses did
                                                                                                     not really address institutions.
informed the American founding documents, including those of Moses,
                                                                                                     Comment [Jon Rolan21]: Comment [A9]:
William Blackstone, Edward Coke, John Lilburne, John Locke, Algernon Sidney, and Charles
                                                                                                     SBOE & ER, including Gail Lowe
de Montesquieu;
                                                                                                     Comment [Jon Rolan22]: JR: Coke was the
  (D) identify the contributions of the political philosophies of the Founding                       most influential on the leading Founders.

Fathers, including John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James                           Comment [Jon Rolan23]: JR: Lilburne and
                                                                                                     the other Levellers were the main
Madison, George Mason, Roger Sherman, and James Wilson, on the development of the                    antecedents of the Founders.
U.S. Government;                                                                                     Comment [Jon Rolan24]: JR: Sidney was
                                                                                                     also a major influence.

   (E) examine debates and compromises that impacted the creation of the                             Comment [Jon Rolan25]: Comment [A10]:
                                                                                                     ER-Per Dr. Dreisbach. Mason
founding using historical documents and examples of previous republics; and                          = Virginia Declaration of Rights, Sherman
                                                                                                     = Great
                                                                                                     Compromise, etcetera, Wilson = 3/5
   (F) identify significant individuals in the field of government and politics including            Compromise
George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, Andrew                        and proponent of democracy during
Jackson, Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt, and Ronald                         Convention.
                                                                                                     Comment [Jon Rolan26]: JR: The Founders
                                                                                                     were heavily influenced by the example of
(2) History. The student is to understands the roles played by individuals, political parties,       earlier experiments in self-government.
interest groups, and the media in the U.S. political system, past and present. The student is        Comment [Jon Rolan27]: JR: Should not
expected to:                                                                                         neglect critical role of Franklin.
                                                                                                     Comment [Jon Rolan28]: Comment [A11]:
                                                                                                     ER-Written with Dr. Dreisbach. The
   (A) give examples of the processes used by individuals, political parties, interest               committee tried to identify major national
groups, or the media to affect public policy, including logical fallacies, propaganda methods,       figures representing trends within the
                                                                                                     American federal system. F. Roosevelt and
marketing, organizing, and lobbying, and how they exhibit the public choice problem; examine         Reagan are there to be foils of one
various solutions that have been tried, such as separation of powers, checks and balances, life      another and represent opposite ideas
                                                                                                     within American government.
tenure for judges, and sortition to select jurors; and
   (B) analyze the impact of political changes brought about by individuals, political               Comment [Jon Rolan29]: Comment [A12]:
                                                                                                     Wanted to include “selected others;”
parties, reform movements, interest groups, or the media, past and present.                          however, this would have fallen under ...
                                                                                                     Comment [Jon Rolan30]: JR: Need to get
(3) Geography. The student understands how geography can influence U.S. political divisions          more specific on this point.

and policies. The student is expected to:                                                            Comment [Jon Rolan31]: JR: Reform
                                                                                                     movements are especially instructive and
                                                                                                     should be examined.
   (A) analyze the political significance to the United States of the location and                   Comment [Jon Rolan32]: Comment [A13]:
geographic characteristics of selected places or regions such as Cuba and Taiwanareas or high        BSG-These changes were made to narrow the
                                                                                                     scope of the geography strand and have it...
and low rainfall, varying soil fertility, mineral deposits, proximity to markets, natural harbors,
                                                                                                     Comment [Jon Rolan33]: JR: Focus should
mountain passes, navigable streams, and protection from wide oceans; and                             be on U.S. Geography and how it affects
understand how population shifts affect voting patterns;                                             U.S. government.
                                                                                                     Comment [Jon Rolan34]: Comment [A14]:
                                                                                                     This allows the students to examine
   (B) examine political boundaries to make inferences regarding the distribution of                 geographical patterns in the context of ...
political power; and                                                                                 Comment [Jon Rolan35]: Comment [A15]:
                                                                                                     This allows the students to see the
                                                                                                     difference between large and small states...
  (C) explain how political divisions are crafted and how they are affected by Supreme
Court decisions, such as Baker v. Carr.                                                  Comment [Jon Rolan36]: Comment [A16]:
                                                                                         BSG-This allows the students
                                                                                         to see how the Supreme Court protects an
                                                                                         individual’s rights. SBOE- Re: comment of
                                                                                         Gail Lowe, chairman, while this could
                                                                                         apply to government, this applies here to
                                                                                         human geography and voting patterns (rural
                                                                                         v. urban), etcetera.
(4) Geography. The student is to understands why certain places or regions are important to
the United States. The student is expected to:                                                   Comment [Jon Rolan37]: Comment [A17]:
                                                                                                 BSG-This was changed to return the focus
                                                                                                 to the US and government.
  (A) identify the significance to the United
States of the location and key natural resources of selected global places or regions; and       Comment [Jon Rolan38]: Comment [A18]:
                                                                                                 BSG-This is about how other areas of the
                                                                                                 world affect us which brings back into
  (B) analyze how United States foreign policy affects                                           focus the intent of the previous 4(A) and
selected places and regions.
                                                                                                 Comment [Jon Rolan39]: Comment [A19]:
                                                                                                 BSG-This is about how the United States
(5) Economics. The student is to understands the roles played by local, state, and national      impacts other areas of the world.

governments in both the public and private sectors of the U.S. free enterprise ( capitalismt,
market) system. The student is expected to:                                                      Comment [Jon Rolan40]: Comment [A20]:
                                                                                                 BSG-This is to introduce current
                                                                                                 terminology and aligning with the
    (A) explain how government fiscal, monetary, and regulatory policies                         Economics course and per ER.

influence the economy at the local, state, and national levels;
                                                                                                 Comment [Jon Rolan41]: Comment [A21]:
   (B) identify the sources of revenue and expenditures of the U. S. government and              BSG-Shows the linkage between government
                                                                                                 and economics courses
analyze their impact on the U.S. economy; and

  (C) compare the role of government in the U.S. free enterprise system ( capitalismt, free      Comment [Jon Rolan42]: Comment [A22]:
                                                                                                 BSG&ER-This is to introduce current
market) and other economic systems.                                                              terminology and aligning with the
                                                                                                 Economics course and per ER.
(6) Economics. The student is to understands the relationship between U.S. government
and the economy. The student is expected to:                                                     Comment [Jon Rolan43]: Comment [A23]:
                                                                                                 This is more general and aligned with the
                                                                                                 economics’ course.
   (A) examine how the United States government uses economic resources in foreign policy;
                                                                                                 Comment [Jon Rolan44]: Comment [A24]:
                                                                                                 This is more coherent in how it is
   (B) understand the roles of the executive and legislative branches in setting international   applied.

trade and fiscal policies.
                                                                                                 Comment [Jon Rolan45]: Comment [A25]:
(7) Government. The student is to understands the American beliefs and principles reflected      This reinforces 7(A)

the U.S. Constitution and why these are significant. The student is expected to:                 Comment [Jon Rolan46]: Comment [A26]:
   (A) explain the importance of a written constitution;

  (B) evaluate how the federal government serves the purposes set forth in the Preamble
to the U.S. Constitution;

   (C) analyze how the Federalist Papers, such as Number 10 and Number 51 , explain the       Comment [Jon Rolan47]: Comment [A27]:
                                                                                              SBOE-Gail Lowe, et al., such as McLeroy.
principles of the American constitutional system of government;                               We have selected two of those requested
                                                                                              because this is only a one semester course
                                                                                              and time is a factor.
   (D) evaluate constitutional provisions for limiting the role of government, including
republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular
 sovereignty, a difficult amendment process, grand and trial juries, and individual rights;
                                                                                              Comment [Jon Rolan48]: Comment [A28]:
  (E) describe the constitutionally-prescribed procedures by which the                        ER-Written with Dr. Dreisbach

U.S. Constitution can be changed; and analyze the
                                                                                              Comment [Jon Rolan49]: Comment [A29]:
role of the amendment process in a constitutional government; and                             BSG-This makes it clear and measurable and
                                                                                              allows students to identify the beliefs
                                                                                              and principles in action.
  (F) identify how the American beliefs and principles reflected in the
Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution contribute to a national identity and,
are embodied in the United States today, and influence nations elsewhere.
                                                                                              Comment [Jon Rolan50]: JR: Influence of
                                                                                              our constitutionalism on other countries
(8) Government. The student is to understands the structure and functions of the government   and peoples needs to be examined.

created by the U.S. Constitution. The student is expected to:                                 Comment [Jon Rolan51]: Comment [A30]:
                                                                                              This was to tie the power of the court
                                                                                              into (14C). Students are asked to analyze
  (A) analyze the structure and functions of the legislative branch of government,            interpretations which are a result of
                                                                                              judicial review.
including the bicameral structure of Congress, the role of committees, and the procedure
for enacting laws;

                                                                                              Comment [Jon Rolan52]: JR: The opinion
   (B) analyze the structure and functions of the executive branch of government,             in Marbury is important to examine.
including the constitutional powers of the president, the growth of presidential power,       Comment [Jon Rolan53]: Comment [A31]:
and the role of the Cabinet and executive departments;                                        BSG-For clarity

                                                                                              Comment [Jon Rolan54]: Comment [A32]:
   (C) analyze the structure and functions of the judicial branch of government, including    BSG-This was moved to clarify that it is
the federal court system, types of jurisdiction, and judicial review, with examination of     an executive agency and not a regulatory
Marbury v. Madison;

   (D) identify the purpose and analyze the opereation of selected independent executive
                                                                                              Comment [Jon Rolan55]: Comment [A33]:
agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and              BSG-This was needed to clarify the
regulatory                                                                                    difference between the executive agency
                                                                                              and the regulatory commissions.
commissions , including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Occupational Safety
and Health Administration (OSHA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC), and discuss which if any of them would have been
                                                                                              Comment [Jon Rolan56]: JR: Could make a
considered constitutional by the Founders;                                                    better selection. Suggest Federal Trade
                                                                                              Commission (FTC), Securities and Exchange
                                                                                              Commission (SEC) Federal Reserve System,
   (E) explain how certain provisions of the U.S. Constitution provide for separation of powers
and checks and balances among the several levels and three branches of government;                Comment [Jon Rolan57]: JR: Balances are
                                                                                                  among separated powers. Always want to
                                                                                                  mention both.

   (F) explain the major responsibilities of the federal government for domestic andforeign
policy, such as national defense; and                                                             Comment [Jon Rolan58]: Comment [A35]:

   (G) compare the structures, and functions, of the Texas state government to the
federal system; and processes of the national, state, and local governments in the United
States federal system.                                                                            Comment [Jon Rolan59]: Comment [A36]:
                                                                                                  This was used to combine (H) and (I).

(9) Government. The student is to understands the concept of federalism. The student is
expected to:

   (A) explain why the Founding Fathers created a distinctly new form of federalism and
adopted a federal system of government instead of a unitary system;

   (B) categorize government powers as national, state, or sharedconcurrent, and examine the
territorial jurisdictions of each;                                                                Comment [Jon Rolan60]: JR:
                                                                                                  “concurrent” is the correct term.

   (C) analyze historical and contemporary conflicts over the respective roles of national        Comment [Jon Rolan61]: Comment [A38]:
                                                                                                  Allows for both historical and
and state governments; and                                                                        contemporary conflicts

   (D) understand the limits on the national and state governments in the U.S.
federal system of government, and for each past, current, or possible future governmental
activity, discuss whether it is constitutional or unconstitutional and why.

(10) Government. The student is to understands the processes for filling public offices in the
U.S. system of government. The student is expected to:
                                                                                                  Comment [Jon Rolan62]: JR: Should
   (A) compare different methods of filling public offices, including elected and                 examine alternative methods that have been
 appointed offices, at the local, state, and national levels, including various methods of
                                                                                                  Comment [Jon Rolan63]: Comment [A39]:
election, appointment and sortition; and                                                          Redundant and now more measurable.

    (B) explain the process of electing the President of the United States ,and analyze the       Comment [Jon Rolan64]: Comment [A40]:
                                                                                                  SBOE-Gail Lowe, analysis of the Electoral
Electoral College, and discuss alternative methods of nominating candidates and selecting         College includes and requires an
electors.                                                                                         assessment of benefits.

(11) Government. The student is to understands the role of political parties in the U.S.
system                                                                                            Comment [Jon Rolan65]: JR: Need to
                                                                                                  examine alternatives that have been tried.
of government. The student is expected to:

   (A) analyze the functions of political parties
 and factions within parties and their role in the electoral process at local, state, and national   Comment [Jon Rolan66]: JR: Parties have
                                                                                                     their own parties within them.
                                                                                                     Comment [Jon Rolan67]: Comment [A41]:
                                                                                                     Combined (A) and (C)
  (B) explain the two-party system and evaluate the role of third parties in the
United States; and
   (C) identify opportunities for citizens to participate in political party activities at
local, state, and national levels.

(12) Government. The student is to understands the similarities and differences that exist
among the U.S. system of government and other political systems. The student is expected to:

   (A) compare the United States constitutional republic to historical and contemporary
forms of government such as monarchy, a classical republicaristocracy, authoritarian,
direct democracy, theocracy, tribal, and other republicsforms;                                  Comment [Jon Rolan68]: Comment [A44]:
                                                                                                ER-Moved info from 1(B) to here to
                                                                                                consolidate the different forms of
   (B) analyze advantages and disadvantages of federal, confederate, and unitary systems        government

of government, and treaty organizations; and
                                                                                                Comment [Jon Rolan69]: JR: Need to
   (C) analyze advantages and disadvantages of presidential and parliamentary systems of        examine all the standard models.

government.                                                                                     Comment [Jon Rolan70]: JR: Needed for

(13) Citizenship. The student is to understands rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution.     Comment [Jon Rolan71]: Comment [A45]:
student is expected to:                                                                         Comment [Jon Rolan72]: JR: Need to be
                                                                                                taught to question the lawfulness of
                                                                                                official acts.
    (A) understand the roles of limited government and the rule of law to in the protection
                                                                                                Comment [Jon Rolan73]: Comment [A46]:
of individual rights, and that an unconstitutional statute or regulation is not law;            SBOE-Added per Gail Lowe; Unalienable”
                                                                                                per Thomas Jefferson, 1776

   (B) identify and define the sources of various rights, and how powers of officials
unalienable and rights are each restrictions on the other, with examination of Madison's        Comment [Jon Rolan74]: JR: Need to
introduction to the Bill of Rights;                                                             examine the relation between rights and
                                                                                                powers more deeply.
                                                                                                Comment [Jon Rolan75]: Comment [A47]:
   (C) identify the freedoms and rights guaranteed by each amendment in the Bill of             BSG-Clarification, First Amendment is in
Rights, including the unenumerated rights of the Ninth Amendment, from historical sources;      the Bill of Rights. SBOE-Property rights,
                                                                                                which was a concern of McLeroy, are
                                                                                                included in the Bill of Rights.
   (D) analyze United States Supreme Court interpretations of rights
guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution in selected cases including: Engel v. Vitale,
Schenck v. U.S., Texas v. Johnson, Miranda v. Arizona, Gideon v. Wainwright,
Mapp v. Ohio, and Roe v. Wade.                                                                  Comment [Jon Rolan76]: JR: There is no
                                                                                                better way to understand rights than by
                                                                                                identifying the unenumerated ones.
   (E) explain the importance of due process rights to the protection of individual rights      Comment [Jon Rolan77]: Comment [A48]:
and in limiting the powers of government, and how they relate to “privileges and immunities”;   BSG&ER-Addition of Roe v Wade per expert
                                                                                                testimony. Additional cases are
and                                                                                             significant to individual rights.

                                                                                                Comment [Jon Rolan78]: Comment [A50]:
   (F) recall the conditions and debates that produced the 14th amendment, describe the            Comment [Jon Rolan79]: JR: The debates
                                                                                                   are especially instructive.
selective incorporation of rights in the Billof Rights, and analyze its impact on the scope of
fundamental rights in the Bill ofRights and on federalism .                                        Comment [Jon Rolan80]: Comment [A51]:
                                                                                                   ER-These three ideas are put together on
                                                                                                   purpose because they flow together
(14) Citizenship. The student is to understands the difference between personal and civic          well,one builds upon the preceding. It is
                                                                                                   not recommended that you separate these
responsibilities. The student is expected to:                                                      into three separate points. Written with
                                                                                                   Dr. Dreisbach.

   (A) explain the difference between personal and civic responsibilities;

   (B) evaluate whether and/or when the obligation of citizenship requires that personal
desires and interests be subordinated to the public good; and

   (C) understand the responsibilities, duties, and obligations of citizenship, such as being
well informed about civic affairs, serving in the military and militia service, voting,
servingservice on a grand or trial jury, observing and helping to enforce the laws, paying
lawful taxes, and serving the public good.

   (D) explain the role of the independent grand jury not only for indictment but also for
hearing public complaints and investigation and reporting of public problems;                      Comment [Jon Rolan81]: JR: Grand jury
                                                                                                   needs special attention.

   (E) explain the role and operation of a trial jury in civil and criminal cases, including the
review of the legal decisions of the bench, and protection of the rights of all parties from
misconduct by officials.                                                                           Comment [Jon Rolan82]: JR: Trial jury
                                                                                                   needs special attention.

(15) Citizenship. The student is to understands the importance of voluntary individual
participation in the U.S. democratic republic society. The student is expected to:

   (A) analyze the effectiveness of various methods of participation in the political
process at local, state, and national levels, including research, letter writing, litigation,
lobbying, testifying, publicizing, organizing, public demonstration, voting, and contending for
public office;

   (B) analyze historical and contemporary examples of citizen movements to bring about
political change or to maintain continuity; and

   (C) analyze understand the factors that influence an individual's political attitudes and       Comment [Jon Rolan83]: Comment [A54]:
                                                                                                   More relevant to student understanding
(16) Citizenship. The student is to understands the importance of the expression of
differentpoints of view in a democratic republic society. The student is expected to:

   (A) analyze examine different points of view of political parties and interest groups on
important contemporary issues, such as League of United Latin American Citizens
LULAC), the National Rifle Association (NRA), National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); and                                                       Comment [Jon Rolan84]: JR: Should not
                                                                                                 discuss specific private groups unless
                                                                                                 they have played a significant historical
   (B) analyze the importance of protections of religion, petition, assembly, free speech and    role, for the same reason we don't mention
                                                                                                 particular religious denominations.
press in a democratic
                                                                                                 Comment [Jon Rolan85]: Comment [A56]:
society.                                                                                         SBOE
                                                                                                 Comment [Jon Rolan86]: JR: Can't just
(17) Culture. The student is to understands the relationship between government policies and     omit one of the five rights in the First
the culture of the United States. The student is expected to:
                                                                                                 Comment [Jon Rolan87]: Comment [A57]:
                                                                                                 ER-Per Barton’s expertise
   (A) evaluate a United States government policy or court decision that has affected a          Comment [Jon Rolan88]: Comment [A59]:
particular racial, ethnic, or religious group, such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the      SBOE-Wording changed per Gail Lowe
U.S. Supreme Court cases of Hernandez v. Texas and Grutter v. Bollinger; and
                                                                                                 Comment [Jon Rolan89]: Comment [A60]:
                                                                                                 BSG-Merged 18(A) and (C)for better
   (B) explain changes in American culture brought about by government policies                  clarification and guidance
such as voting rights, the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill of Rights) ,
and racial integration.                                                                          Comment [Jon Rolan90]: Comment [A61]:
                                                                                                 BSG- Broad strokes – who students are now.
(18) Science, technology, and society. The student is to understands the role the government
plays in developing policies and establishing conditions that influence scientific discoveries   Comment [Jon Rolan91]: Comment [A62]:
and technological innovations. The student is expected to:                                       BSG-Clarification

   (A) analyze understand how U.S. constitutional protections, such as patents, copyrights,
and trademarks, have fostered and government policies fostering competition and
entrepreneurship; and, have resulted in scientific discoveries and technological innovations.    Comment [Jon Rolan92]: Comment [A64]:
                                                                                                 BSC-Clarification and focus on the U.S.
   (B) identify examples of government-assisted research that, when shared with the
                                                                                                 JR: This should be left in.
private sector, have resulted in improved consumer products such as computer and
communication technologies.
(19) Science, technology, and society. The student is to understands the impact of advances
science and technology on government and society. The student is expected to:

  (A) analyze understand the potential impact on society of recent scientific discoveries
and technological innovations; and

   (B) evaluate the impact of the Internet and other electronic information on the political     Comment [Jon Rolan93]: Comment [A66]:
                                                                                                 More contemporary and
process.                                                                                         relevant

20) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use
information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is
expected to:

   (A) analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect
relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making
generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;

  (B) create a productreport on a contemporary government issue or topic using critical          Comment [Jon Rolan94]: JR: Product?
                                                                                                 Report is more clear.
methods of inquiry and citing sources;
                                                                                                 Comment [Jon Rolan95]: JR: Need to
                                                                                                 learn how to write scholarly papers.
   (C) analyze and defend a point of view on a current political issue;                          Comment [Jon Rolan96]: Comment [A67]:
                                                                                                 ER-More measurable per ER

   (D) analyze and evaluate the validity of information, arguments and counterarguments
                                                                                                 Comment [Jon Rolan97]: Comment [A68]:
from primary and secondary sources for bias, propaganda, point of view, and frame of             Per public comment submitted
reference;                                                                                       to committee

                                                                                                 Comment [Jon Rolan98]: Comment [A69]:
   (E) evaluate government data using charts, tables, graphs, and maps; and                      CRS

  (F) use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as
maps and graphs.
(21) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The
student is expected to:

   (A) use social studies terminology correctly;

   (B) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation;

   (C) transfer information from one medium to another, including written to visual and
statistical to written or visual, using computer software as appropriate; and

   (D) create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

 (22) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills,
working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

   (A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and
consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a
solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

   (B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather
information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a

Source: The provisions of this §113.35 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22
TexReg 7684.

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