18 b Pocket parks and trees STAGE 1 Concept Proposal RTF by 3CVp5o2Z




 Title:         London’s Great Outdoors: Delivering the Mayor’s manifesto commitments on green
                spaces, ‘pocket parks’ and trees



 Executive Summary:
 The overarching aim of this project is to build on the success of the Mayor’s Street Trees and Help a
 London Park initiatives through investing an additional £6 million of funding into London’s street
 trees and green spaces to:
      Meet the Mayor’s manifesto commitments
      Improve quality of life for Londoners by enhancing the environment of local neighbourhoods
         and thereby helping to attract more inward investment into the capital
      Secure match-funding from boroughs and funding agencies, and to leverage private sector
      Promote community participation and volunteering and equip people with skills that they can
         transfer to the workplace
      Implement London Plan policy and objectives in the Mayor’s Climate Change Adaptation
         Strategy Air Quality Strategy and Health Inequalities Strategy

 This paper covers the proposal to deliver this in two work streams:

 1. Creating 100 pocket parks and supporting delivery of the All London Green Grid
 Providing local communities with better quality spaces that increase opportunities for healthy living,
 relaxation, play, food growing and contact with nature, thereby:
      Securing at least £4million match-funding
      Aiming to secure a total investment of £12million (through additional leverage and
      Securing approximately £1,800,000 per annum in benefit transfer value1
      Attenuating over 74,800 cubic meters of stormwater

 2. Street Trees
 Plant an additional 10,000 street trees and support community tree-planting, thereby:
     Securing at least £1million in match-funding
     Aiming to secure a total investment of £4million (through additional leverage and

1 Based  on assumption that urban green space provides £54,000/ha/yr in benefits including, amongst other things, reductions in
healthcare costs, uplift in rental and property value etc. Valuing the external benefits of undeveloped land. DCLG/Eftec 2005.

   Securing, over time and per annum, 10 tonnes of pollutant removal and 945,000 cubic meters
    of stormwater attenuation


1.      Introduction, background and rationale for the investment

This investment sits within the context of the Mayor’s vision for London's Great Outdoors - improving
London’s street scene and public realm, revamping neglected corners of the capital, and creating
cleaner, greener and more pleasant public spaces for Londoners to enjoy.

The specific proposals set out are for the investment of £6million of GLA funds over 3 years to support
the delivery of the Mayor’s manifesto commitments for green spaces, ‘pocket parks’ and trees, which
support delivery of the All London Green Grid2. They follow and would add to the achievements
through previous and ongoing programmes: the Mayor’s Street Trees, Help a London Park, and public
realm projects supported by Transport for London, the Outer London fund, and the Mayor’s
Regeneration Fund.

The Mayor’s Street Trees and Help a London Park - the urban greening initiatives delivered under the
London’s Great Outdoors banner during the Mayor’s first term - delivered 10,000 street trees in 36
locations across 29 boroughs, and improvements to 11 rundown parks and green spaces. The budget
for this first term programme was £10million, and match-funding and leverage of c. £21million was
secured. Both these initiatives ended in March 2012.

Enhancing the public realm and greening the capital improves the usability and the look and feel of the
city, making it a more pleasant place for residents and visitors, and an environment in which businesses
can thrive. Furthermore, maximising the benefits of London’s ‘green infrastructure’ contributes to
maintaining and improving London’s image as the world’s greenest big city, driving up the capital’s
rank in world surveys of liveable cities thereby attracting inward investment creating jobs and growth.

Urban greening (green roofs, street trees, etc) and green infrastructure (enhancing the quality and
function of parks and green spaces) are cost-effective ways of addressing climate change adaptation and
other environmental improvements. A recent assessment of the Victoria Business Improvement District
suggests that the 1225 street trees in the BID divert up to 112,400 cubic meters of storm water runoff
from the local sewer systems every year. This alone is worth an estimated £49,000 in carbon and
energy savings every year by offsetting the considerable costs associated with pumping and treatment
of wastewater.

Research points to: a willingness by those renting or buying commercial property to pay at least 3 per
cent more to be in close proximity to green space3; consumer behaviour is positively correlated with
streetscape greening4; and that in London an improvement in local neighbourhood design quality can
add an average of 5.2 per cent to residential prices and an average of 4.9 per cent to retail rents5.

Recognising the economic value of the benefits provided by green spaces and the natural environment
are consistent with the objectives set out in the Government’s White Paper on the natural environment
published in June 20116, which identifies the need to “properly value the economic and social benefits of
a healthy natural environment while continuing to recognise nature’s intrinsic value.” The White paper
has led to the establishment of an Ecosystems Market Task Force and a Natural Capital Committee to
advise Government on the economics of ‘ecosystems services’

2 The All London Green Grid (ALGG) is the green infrastructure framework for London. Green infrastructure is the
multifunctional, interdependent network of open and green spaces that, through appropriate design and management, can
provide arrange of services and benefits including: flood management; urban cooling; improving physical and mental health;
walking and cycling routes; ecological connectivity; and food growing.
3 Open Space: an asset without a champion. Gensler/Urban Land Institute 2011
4 Wolf (2003) Public response to the urban forest in inner-city business districts. Journal of Arboriculture
5 Paved with gold - the real value of good street design. CABE 2007
6 The Natural Choice: securing the value of nature. Defra 2011

The proposals for spend set out in this paper are part of a wider programme of direct delivery, advocacy,
and community activation. This broader programme includes:
       Direct delivery through projects funded by the Mayor’s regeneration and transport
         Outer London Fund and Mayor’s Regeneration Fund
         Transport for London’s funded borough projects, through LIPS and Major Scheme grants
          that improve public realm.
         Transport for London’s directly delivered projects that improve local movement and the
          public realm
       Supporting and influencing partners and stakeholders, including:
         working with boroughs, and key agencies and land-owners, to support the delivery of
          projects set out in the All London Green Grid – London’s green infrastructure framework
         working with various civil society partners through the Mayor’s RE:LEAF initiative to
          increase London’s tree cover through advice, support and resourcing for community-based
          projects and initiatives;
         working with boroughs, architects and developers, and central London business
          improvement districts to increase the uptake of urban greening measures such as green roofs
          and walls;
         advocating the green infrastructure, urban greening, trees and woodlands, and biodiversity
          policies in the London Plan to ensure delivery through the land-use planning process.

Central to the programme is a desire to support the Mayor’s commitment to invest in initiatives that
can help ensure young Londoners take advantage of the jobs London is creating. The parks and trees
programme will be reliant on volunteering and community participation, which promotes community
cohesion and equips people with skills that they can transfer to the workplace. Consequently, the links
between the programme and the ongoing Team London initiative will be strengthened.

a) What is the aim of the project and what are the objectives?

Aim               To make London the world’s greenest big city by investing in a new programme of
                  green space and public realm improvements

Objective 1       Improve London’s parks and green spaces
                      create 100 pocket parks7 providing people with better quality spaces across
                        London; increasing opportunities for getting together, healthy living, relaxation,
                        play, food growing and contact with nature
                      support the delivery of 4-6 strategic projects identified in the All London Green

Objective 2       Increase London’s tree cover
                      plant 10,000 street trees8 to improve the capital’s street-scene and deliver other
                         benefits in the longer-term such as air quality improvements and urban cooling

7 Pocket parks are considered to be small areas of calm and inviting green space for all people to enjoy making
neighbourhoods more attractive places to live, work and invest. Pocket parks could be: improvements to an underused space
within an existing park; enhancement of an unattractive amenity space within a housing estate or high street; or, a new green
space created through regeneration or development. They should create opportunities for informal play and relaxation, and
make a contribution to, for example, conserving wildlife, growing food, nurturing trees, cooling the city and capturing
                        establish a community tree and woodland grant scheme to support local
                          community tree-planting projects to help meet the Mayor’s target on increasing
                          tree cover by 5 per cent by 2025

b) Which Mayoral objective(s) will it help deliver?

The investment will give certainty to the delivery of the Mayor’s specific manifesto commitments for
his second term:
     to create 100 pocket parks
     to plant 10,000 street trees

These commitments on parks and trees were included in the ‘Growing London’s Economy’ chapter of
the Mayor’s manifesto; part of a package of measures to create jobs, investment and security through
business, housing and environmental pledges.

Offering a city with a clean and green environment, excellent and improving public spaces will help to
drive inward investment to London. The capital has become one of the centres of global commerce,
attracting the best talent from around the world. But today’s mobility of people and capital has created a
fierce competition among cities. To thrive economically, we must create a setting where international
corporations and talented entrepreneurs want to be. One of the fundamentals is quality of life. It is no
longer a vague nicety but a tangible feature that business leaders consider when deciding where to
locate or expand: where do talented workers want to live, in an age when they can choose to live

This investment links to a number of Mayoral commitments and strategies including:

     to push forward the All London Green Grid and the aims expressed in the ALGG Supplementary
       Planning Guidance.
     to progress the London’s Great Outdoors programme
     to increase tree planting in and adjacent to streets helping to reduce exposure to particulates as
       identified in the Air Quality Strategy
     to increase green cover helping to ameliorate the urban heat-island effect and reduce storm-
       water run-off – as identified in the Climate Change Adaptation Strategy
     to encourage more use of green space encouraging active lifestyles by contributing to initiatives
       to combat childhood obesity – as identified in the Health Inequalities Strategy

The investment links to the Mayor’s London Plan policies on:

     Green Infrastructure - The Mayor will pursue the delivery of green infrastructure by working in
      partnership with all relevant bodies… to apply the principles of the East London Green Grid to
      green infrastructure across London
     Public Realm - London’s public spaces should be secure, accessible, inclusive, connected, easy to
      understand and maintain, relate to local context, and incorporate the highest quality design,
      landscaping, planting, street furniture and surfaces.
     Urban Greening - The Mayor will promote and support urban greening, such as new planting in
      the public realm to contribute to the adaptation to, and reduction of, the effects of climate
     Parks and green space - The Mayor supports the creation of new open space in London to ensure
      satisfactory levels of local provision to address areas of deficiency.

8Street trees are large trees planted in the pavement or in soft spaces (verges, amenity green spaces) that make a visual
contribution to the street scene and/or provide shade or other benefits alongside streets and highways
    Trees & Woodlands - Trees and woodlands should be protected, maintained, and enhanced,
     following the guidance of the London Tree and Woodland Framework (or any successor

c) What benefits, outcomes or impact will directly result from this investment?

Summary of Impact
The investment in green spaces, pocket parks and trees will improve London’s street scene and wider
public realm, creating cleaner, greener and more pleasant public spaces for Londoners and visitors to
enjoy. The programme will be set up to:

       support local partnerships involving boroughs, community groups, civil society and local
        businesses – supporting and encouraging the localism agenda
       encourage volunteering and community participation in projects - supporting the Mayor’s
        Team London objectives
       leverage sponsorship and match-funding - ensuring value for money and encouraging
        philanthropy and corporate social responsibility
       deliver strategic interventions at a local level – demonstrating leadership and London-wide

   Progress implementation of the All London Green Grid – the Mayor’s green infrastructure
     framework for London
   Improvement of London’s open space network
   Increase in London’s tree cover

    10,000 street trees planted
    100 pocket parks created

How it will be achieved
Set out below is the proposal for how the investment will be allocated to deliver the outcomes.
The proposal is based on the following assumptions:

       A budget of £6 million has been allocated for the period April 2012 to March 2015 to deliver
        the Mayor’s manifesto commitments
       The commitment to create 100 pocket parks includes a mix of project types including park
        improvements, makeovers of underutilised amenity space, increasing access to inaccessible
        spaces, enhancing the street scene through soft landscaping and, possibly, supporting the
        creation of a handful of roof gardens in the most densely developed parts of the city
       The commitment to plant an additional 10,000 street trees includes trees planted in soft spaces
        that contribute to the street scene

NB The information here outlines the proposed delivery mechanisms. The details are provided in the
accompanying Stage 2 paper.

Objective 1 - Improving London’s green spaces and public realm, including the commitment to establish
100 pocket parks, and to progress the All London Green Grid, would be achieved through two

       The All London Green Grid process has resulted in the production of 11 area frameworks,
        prepared by local area partnerships of boroughs and their partners. These identify and prioritise
        green infrastructure projects and assist their delivery by identifying project synergies and
        opportunities for partnership approaches to accessing fund and resources. The 11 ALGG area
        framework partnerships would be invited to bid for funding to help push forward delivery of:
         4-6 large priority projects that are key to making significant improvements to London’s
           green space network. Grants in the range of £250,000-£500,000 will be offered.
         50 or more pocket parks that make a significant contribution to improving local
           environmental quality. Grants of up to £50,000 will be offered.

        This would provide a flexible approach to the scale and number of projects supported.

        Total budget spend = £3.5million.

       Via an open call targeted at community based organisations to support delivery of at least 25
        pocket parks with grant funding ranging from £5,000 to £20,000. Community based projects
        would be encouraged, as would pocket parks that can be achieved as add-ons to already live
        larger projects, that can help improve and manage underused spaces to optimise their
        contribution to delivering All London Green Grid objectives and other improvements to the
        public realm.

        Total budget spend = £0.5million.

NB Both elements would require partners to identify a minimum of 100 per cent match funding, and
commit to long-term maintenance. We also expect these projects to leverage funding and resources
such that the total investment in projects aims to a secure a similar ratio as achieved by the Help a
London Park programme ie £2 for every £1 of Mayoral funding.

[Note: The delivery mechanisms outlined above would result in the delivery of at least 75 pocket parks.
The remaining 25 pocket parks would be delivered through the large number of relevant GLA Group
funded projects that we are able to influence (OLF, MRF and TfL funded schemes). In addition
advocacy, influencing the delivery of others, and influencing the outcomes of spatial planning decisions,
especially strategic planning applications referred to the Mayor, would be used where possible to
strengthen the delivery effort].

Objective 2 – Increasing London’s tree cover, including planting 10,000 street trees would be achieved

       An evolution of the previous Mayor’s Street Tree programme that would support street tree
        planting in soft spaces (ie verges, amenity greens, etc) which contribute to the street scene.
        Grants of between £100-£200 per tree would be made available to boroughs, social housing
        providers, business improvement districts, and other organisations involved in managing the
        public realm. Applicants would be encouraged to work with local communities to identify
        locations that contribute to enhancing and defining neighbourhoods, creating a similar legacy to
        Victorian and Edwardian tree planting programmes.

        Total budget allocation = £1.7million.

   A RE:LEAF community grant scheme that will help deliver the Mayor’s target to increase tree
    cover by 5 per cent by 2025. Community groups would be provided grant funding to support tree-
    planting projects in parks, amenity green spaces, etc. Grants of between £2k - £20k would be made
    available to community groups. This would complement £100,000 worth of partnership projects in
    London funded by the Forestry Commission.

       Total budget allocation = £0.3million.

NB For both elements applicants would be required to provide a minimum of 50 per cent match-
funding, and commit to long-term maintenance.

d) Why is the investment necessary?
Increasing the quantity, quality and accessibility of London’s green spaces and public realm helps to
reinforce London’s image as an attractive city to live and work in. Urban greening and public realm
enhancements add value to property, increasing tax yield to contribute to public services, and helps us
continue to attract tourists and encourage employment and inward investment. They support healthy
living by providing spaces for recreation and relaxation; and they help the city adapt to the impacts of
climate change.

Although London’s public realm, green spaces and trees are critically important to our well-being and
the city’s economic prosperity they are consistently undervalued in conventional economic analysis and
decision-making because the range of functions they promote are not fully appreciated and their ability
to provide these functions are not yet fully realised.

In his first term the Mayor initiated programmes on improving run-down parks, planting street trees,
supporting struggling high streets, creating spaces for growing food and establishing an improved
network of green spaces across London. This investment builds upon these programmes.

e) Why should the GLA make this investment?
The Mayor has made a manifesto commitment to plant an additional 10,000 street trees, create 100
pocket parks and protect and enhance London’s green infrastructure through advocating and
supporting the All London Green Grid. He has also made a strong commitment to the London’s Great
Outdoors vision.

A direct investment by the GLA is required because, although the network of parks, trees and public
spaces are increasingly recognised as functioning as an integrated green infrastructure, the funding and
management of this infrastructure is undertaken in a relatively disproportionate and piecemeal way.
Without this investment, and leadership from the Mayor both in terms of policy and practical support,
it is less likely that there would be a strategic approach to protecting and enhancing London’s green

This investment would support and complement other programmes such as the Outer London Fund
and Mayor’s Regeneration Fund to deliver on the Mayoral commitment on jobs and growth.

f) Which GLA team leads on delivery? Which other relevant GLA policy teams should be
involved, have they been engaged in the development, and supportive of, this proposal?

Delivery will be led by the Urban Greening team working closely with the Design for London team
who administer the Outer London Fund and Mayor’s Regeneration Fund, both in the Development &
Environment Directorate.

However, because the programme has close synergies with the wider London’s Great Outdoors
programme delivery would be undertaken in close conjunction with the Capital Projects and Transport
for London through their public realm improvement programme, with oversight through a London’s
Great Outdoors programme board.

The project has been developed as an integral part of the development of the London’s Great Outdoors
programme. In March 2012 briefing papers were provided to Daniel Moylan (then Deputy Chair of

TfL) and Kulveer Ranger (the Mayor’s former Environment Advisor). A further briefing was provided
to Matthew Pencharz (the Mayor’s Environment Advisor) in May 2012.

Additional policy input will come from the Climate Change Adaptation Team and the Air Quality team.

GLA Economics has provided advice on the economic benefits of the investment and will assist in
monitoring and evaluation of the impact of the investment.

A proposed All London Green Grid Advisory Group and the Mayor’s Design Advisory Panel will be
asked to advise on strategic issues and opportunities, and to lend support to the programmes.

g) What is the total cost of the project? Is this scalable? How will the project be resourced?
A similar set of objectives and specific commitments were made during the Mayor’s first term of office.
These were delivered through the development and implementation of the East London Green Grid and
the delivery of the Mayor’s Street Tree and Help a London Park initiatives.

The Mayor’s Street Trees, and Help a London Park initiatives had a combined budget of £10 million
over 4 years, with 1.5 FTE staff resource for programme management in conjunction with Government
agency (Forestry Commission) and civil society (Groundwork) partners.

This proposal would be resourced in a similar way but adjusted to deliver a new set of objectives within
the budget allocation of £6million. It is expected that an equivalent scale of delivery can be achieved by:
     strengthening our working relationships with our key partners to ensure that their resources
        are more clearly aligned with delivery of Mayoral objectives;
     requiring increased match-funding/sponsorship/ leverage;
     linking to existing projects and programmes;
     broadening the scope of street tree planting to include planting in soft spaces adjacent to streets.

* Discussions with Head of Commercial Partnerships indicate that corporate sponsorship is not likely to
secure more than circa 10 per cent of the total direct funding. However, there may be opportunities for
value-in-kind contributions to secure marketing and promotion of the programme rather than direct
funding. All options will be explored but this cannot be guaranteed.

The call on GLA staff resource - expected to be around 1.2 FTE - can be covered by the Environment
Team and Design for London team, and associated budgets.

No other spend from the GLA Group is required to deliver the specific commitments to plant 10,000
trees and create 100 pocket parks. However, the broader delivery of the programme will require other
GLA Group programmes to identify opportunities for supporting the programme objectives through
their own project delivery, and for officer time to be allocated to collaboration.

A smaller scale project could be delivered for a smaller investment. However, the Mayor’s manifesto
made a specific commitment to deliver a further 10,000 street trees, 100 pocket parks, and
improvements to green space.

h) Is this a one-off investment? A pilot project? Will there be continuing financial obligations or
continued expectations that stem from this investment?
This is a one-off investment for the current Mayoral term, building upon the parks and trees initiatives
(now complete), other public realm projects delivered during the Mayor’s first term, and complementing
the ongoing work through OLF, MRF and TfL programmes.

There would be no continuing financial obligations. Ongoing maintenance would fall to project
i) How can we know if the investment has been successful and what are the mechanisms for
recovery of the investment where the conditions are not satisfied?
The investment will have been successful if:
     the specific manifesto commitments (10,000 further street trees, 100 pocket parks) are met, or
       exceeded, within the budget allocation;
     the proposed match-funding is provided and additional leverage is secured;
     the programme maximise synergies with the wider London Great Outdoor’s initiative;
     the programme has a high public profile as part of London’s Great Outdoors;
     the All London Green Grid is recognised as the framework for investments by others and
       partners and stakeholders align their own delivery to ensure implementation of the All London
       Green Grid.

Monitoring and reporting mechanisms developed for the Mayor’s Street Tree, Help a London Park and
Outer London fund projects, and existing mechanisms for reporting on London’s Great Outdoors
initiative, will be modified and utilised for this new programme.
In all cases in order to ensure that the project will be delivered according to the GLA standards and
requirements, payments will be made upon completion of each individual task and the terms and
conditions of the appointment will include remedies for the consultant failing to deliver.

j) What assumptions have been made?
Assumptions have been made about the ability and willingness of borough, Government agency and
civil society partners to align their projects and programmes to help deliver the Mayor’s commitments
and objectives. The experience of the complementary and predecessor initiatives, the ongoing
partnership work with partners and stakeholders to develop the All London Green Grid framework and
the Outer London Fund, and the success of collaboration with TfL on public realm and local movement
projects all suggest that this is a reasonable assumption.

Further assumptions have been made regarding the ability to secure match-funding and leverage. Again
the experience of the complementary and predecessor initiatives suggest that the level of leverage
anticipated is realistic.

k) What is the proposed timetable? Are there existing deadlines or constraints to be aware of
and what are the key next steps?

A detailed timetable is set out in the accompanying Stage 2 paper.

A potential constraint may be the hiatus caused by key GLA staff being redeployed to Olympic duties
from mid-July to mid-September. This may delay the project sign-off process following IPB approval.

2          Assessment and impact of the investment

Expected outcomes

Objective 1          Improve London’s green spaces Benefit/                           Expected benefits
                         create 100 pocket parks outcome/                            Based on an average pocket park of
                           providing local           impact                           0.2 hectares, enhanced to include
                           communities with better                                    better quality green space and
                           quality spaces that                                        increased tree cover, the following
                           increase opportunities                                     quantifiable benefits can be
                           for getting together,                                      assumed for 100 pocket parks 9
                           healthy living,
                           relaxation, play, food                                          £1,800,000 per annum in
                           growing and contact                                              benefit transfer value10
                           with nature                                                     74,800m3 stormwater
                         support the delivery of 4-                                        attenuated valued at
                           6 strategic projects                                             £26,300 per annum
                           identified in the All
                           London Green Grid                                          In addition generic values
                                                                                      attributed to pocket park and green
                                                                                      space improvements include:
                                                                                           A willingness by those
                                                                                              renting or buying
                                                                                              commercial property to
                                                                                              pay at least 3% more to be
                                                                                              in close proximity to green
                                                                                           Average house prices in a
                                                                                              ward increasing by 0.3 to
                                                                                              0.5 per cent for every 1 per
                                                                                              cent increase in the amount
                                                                                              of greenspace12
                                                                                           An average medical cost
                                                                                              difference between active
                                                                                              and inactive persons of
                                                                                              $250 per annum13
                                                                                           A monetary value of
                                                                                              volunteering based on the
                                                                                              minimum wage of £5.37
                                                                                              per hour

                                                                                         100 pocket parks created
                                                                                         100 community groups
                                                                                         4-6 strategic projects
                                                                                         The ALGG process pushed

9   Calculations based on the Green Infrastructure Valuation Toolkit www.bit.ly/givaluationtoolkit
10.Valuing    the external benefits of undeveloped land. DCLG/Eftec 2005. Public space, city park = £54,000/ha/yr

11 Open Space: an asset without a champion. Gensler/Urban Land Institute 2011
12 Valuing Greenness: green spaces, house prices and Londoners’ priorities. GLA 2003
13 Measuring the Economic Value of a City Park System. The Trust for Public Land. 2009


                                                                                       100% match-funding =
                                                                                       Plus potential for other
                                                                                          investment and sponsorship
                                                                                          of c.£4million
Objective 2       Increase London’s tree cover    Benefit/                        Expected benefits based on values
                      plant 10,000 street trees outcome/                         derived from an I-tree assessment
                         to improve the capital’s impact                          of the trees in the public realm in
                         street-scene and deliver                                 the Victoria Business Improvement
                         other benefits in the                                    District14 the 10,000 street trees
                         longer-term such as air                                  will, over time, provide the
                         quality improvements                                     following benefits:
                         and urban cooling                                             10 tonnes pollutant
                      establish a community                                              removal valued at £765k
                         tree and woodland grant                                          per annum
                         scheme to support local                                       945,000m3 stormwater
                         community tree-                                                  attenuated valued at £342k
                         planting projects                                                per annum
                                                                                       7200 tonnes carbon stored
                                                                                          valued at £369k per annum
                                                                                       160 tonnes carbon
                                                                                          sequestered valued at £8k
                                                                                          per annum
                                                                                  NB For the purpose of the cost-benefit
                                                                                  analysis below a discount rate of 3.5% per
                                                                                  annum has been assumed and average
                                                                                  maintenance costs assumed.

                                                                                  Expected outcomes:
                                                                                     10,000 trees planted
                                                                                     3,000 streetscapes improved
                                                                                     150 community groups

                                                                                      50% match-funding =
                                                                                      Plus potential for other
                                                                                        investment and sponsorship
                                                                                        of £1million

Non-quantifiable benefits

               Supporting community cohesion and building enthusiasm and pride in London localities.

14The I-tree assessment of Victoria BID collected data on 1225 trees ranging from newly planted street trees to mature trees
in open spaces. The benefits identified here are an extrapolation based on these figures, and an assumption the newly planted
trees will provide a similar level of benefit as they mature.
               There are peer-reviewed studies which show that both property crime and violent crime are
               reduced significantly by the presence of vegetation. e.g. Kuo and Sullivan. Environment and crime in
               the inner city: Does vegetation reduce crime? Environment and Behaviour, 33, 343. 2001.

              Reducing the cost of health budgets by improving air quality and providing space for
               relaxation and recreation.
               Modeling found that 547 ha. of mixed greenspace within a 10 x 10 km square of East London (ie
               5% of 100 square kilometres) could significantly reduce pollution with an estimated effect of two
               deaths and two hospital emissions avoided per year. Tiwary et al. An integrated tool to assess the role of
               new planting in PM10 capture and the human health benefits: A case study in London. Environmental
               Pollution 2009.

            Contributing to the tourism economy by improving the look and feel of London as a green
               In regard to whether local parks and open spaces are considered as important - the data from
               public attitude surveys records higher scores in London and the North West, which are the two
               most highly urbanised regions in England. Best Value Performance Indicators. Audit Commission. 2006

              Enhancing biodiversity
               The intrinsic value of nature is one of the most difficult benefits to describe and quantify. But
               membership of wildlife and landscape organisations is a good proxy indicator of the value people
               attach to contact with nature. The National Trust has over 2 million members and RSPB has over
               1 million members

Cost benefit outline:

GLA Group               £6,000,000 split over 3 years as:
                        2012/2013 - £400,000
                        2013/2014 - £2,800,000
                        2014/2015 - £2,800,000

Other                   £46,000 per annum for 10,000 street trees15
                        £120,504 per annum maintenance costs for 100 pocket parks
                        Based on London Parks Benchmarking project’s average cost for park management of £6,252 ha
                        per annum for parks

                        £5,000,000 match-funding from partners (comprising £4,000,000 for the parks
                        element and £1,000,000 for the trees element)
                        NB This is not included as a benefit in the cost-benefit analysis as such funding is necessary to
                        deliver the project. However, it is a benefit to the project as without the Mayor’s trees and parks
                        programme this money may not be spent on London’s green infrastructure.

Financial benefits      Objective 1
(which and how          The financial benefits of this element cannot be specifically quantified because the
many)                   financial benefits and costs are dependent upon size, function and use of each
                        pocket park and improved green space.

                        Objective 2
                        The financial benefits of the Street Trees element of this objective can be

15London Tree and Woodland Grant Scheme Standard Costs, Forestry Commission, 2010. Figure based on 3 years
establishment costs for 10,000 trees and maintenance cost for 10% of trees over 10 year period
                         Based on an average active life16 of a street tree of 25 years, and the values
                         (discounted at the appropriate rate) extrapolated from the I-tree assessment of the
                         Victoria BID, the financial benefits of planting 10,000 street trees is £16,730,000.
                         The planting costs are £2,550,000 (comprising £1, 700,000 of Mayoral funds and
                         £850,000 of partner funds). The average annual maintenance costs (born by
                         partners) are £46,000 which, over 25 years (applying a appropriate discount rate)
                         gives a present value for maintenance costs of £830,691. Therefore total costs are
                         £3,380,691 (see calculation provided by GLA Economics in Appendix to Stage 2

Other benefits                contributing to the tourism economy by improving the look and feel of
(provide details                London as a green city
below)                        reducing the cost of health budgets by improving air quality and providing
                                space for relaxation and recreation
                              supporting community cohesion and skills development through
                                community action and volunteering
                              enhancing biodiversity
                              strengthen collaboration with the boroughs and build enthusiasm and pride
                                in London localities

Cost-Benefit Ratio       Objective 1 - It is problematic to undertake a cost-benefit analysis of the pockets
(GLA Group)              parks programme due to the variability in size, function, deliverables and
                         maintenance costs for each park. However, an evaluation of East London Green
                         Grid projects17 supported by the Thames Gateway Parklands Programme
                         indicated that a leverage of £4.93 to every £1 of London Development Agency
                         investment was achieved. Assuming that an element of the leverage was in fact
                         match-funding (and therefore a cost rather than a benefit) this still suggests a
                         positive Cost-Benefit ratio

                         Objective 2 - the Cost-Benefit Ratio for this element is 1:4.9

Project impact
and value for             The market failure arguments for this proposal are fairly clear: there are public
money:                    goods reasons to create parks and plant trees to green the urban streetscape as
GLA Economics             improvements to the urban realm; and the trees also correct significant negative
comments on this          externalities by reducing pollution, including carbon capture and ameliorating the
proposal including        effects of stormwater. “Pocket Parks” are a fairly new concept so evidence on the
considerations as to      scale of benefits they provide is difficult to find and should be provided by the
whether it                evaluation of this investment. Overall, the value for money of the Objective 1
addresses the cause       activity may be difficult to assess therefore. For Objective 2, calculations in the
of a market failure       Stage 2 proposal being submitted together with this suggest significant net
and whether social        benefits.
or economic
benefits outweigh
the costs of the

16   ie the period when it has a mature canopy and therefore providing maximum benefits
17   East London Green Grid: Programme Review 2007-2010. Mayor of London/London Development Agency. 2010

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