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Chapter 06


									Chapter Six

 Primary Data

    Chapter Six
        Chapter Six Objectives

To develop a basic understanding of observational research.

To learn the approaches to observational research.

To understand the advantages and disadvantages of observational research.

To explore the types of human observation.

To understand the types of machine observation and their advantages and

To explore the impact of scanner-based research on the marketing research

To learn about observation research on the Internet.

                                  Chapter Six
             Nature of Observation Research

         The systematic process of recording patterns of
         occurrences   or     behaviors     without normally
         communicating with the people involved.

         • The needed information must be either observable or inferable;

         • The behavior should be repetitive, frequent, or in some manner predictable;

         • The behavior must be relatively short in duration.

                                        Chapter Six
Nature of Observation Research

Natural vs. Contrived:
   • Is the setting made up by the researcher or are you
   observing a naturally occurring event?

Open vs. Disguised:
   • Does the subject know the purpose of the research?

Structured vs. Unstructured:
    • Is the researcher taking detailed notes or is the researcher
    making more general observations?

Garbologist - “Forensic Observation”:
   • Going through people’s “garbage” to analyze
   consumption patterns. Sometimes used as generic term
   for forensic observation – the clues people leave behind.

                         Chapter Six
Nature of Observation Research

    • Eye movement recorders – Pulpilometer;
    • Voice pitch analysis;
    • People monitors in TV;
    • Traffic counters;
    • Audits – Qualitative & Quantitative
    • People Reader / Meter;
    • Physiological measurement;
         devices – “lie detectors”
    • Galvanic skin responses;
    • Electroencephalograph;
    • Rapid Analysis Measurement System (RAMS);               Resources Inc.

    • Scanners - such as the grocery “BehaviorScan”.

    • The study of human behavior in its natural context,
    involving observation of behavior and physical setting.

                      Chapter Six
          Nature of Observation Research

• You see what people actually do - rather than what they say they do;
• Firsthand information is less prone to biases;
• The observational data can be executed quickly and relatively accurately;
• Electronic collection such as scanners is more efficient than manual counts;
• Clients can also observe their customers along with the researcher.

             • Only physical or behavior can be measured;
             • Can’t measure attitudes, beliefs, intentions, or feelings;
             • Not always a good representation of the general population;
             • Interpretation is somewhat subjective depending on observation type;
             • Data analysis is generally more qualitative than quantitative;
             • It can be expensive and time consuming if subjects not readily available;
             • Data can be time sensitive making predictive analysis tricky.
                                     Chapter Six
                    Mystery Shopping

                       People who pose as customers and shop at
                       a company’s own stores or those of its
                       competitors to collect data about
                       customer-employee interactions and to
                       gather observational data; they might also
                       compare prices, displays, and the like.

Click for More Information

                                 Chapter Six
         Mystery Shopping Levels

The mystery shopper calls/contacts the business with a
script with questions and notes the experience.

The mystery shopper visits the business and makes a quick
purchase with little or no customer-employee interaction.

                         Chapter Six
              Mystery Shopping Levels

The mystery shopper visits the business for a more involved experience to
include a scripted scenario to gauge the customer-employee interaction.
Level III usually does not involve a major purchase - although detailed
discussion about the product or services will likely occur.

The mystery shopper visits the business with great knowledge about the
products. This knowledge can be used to test the employees. A purchase -
and/or issues related to the purchases - might likely be involved.

                                 Chapter Six
           Conducting Mystery Shopping

                      • Measuring employee training;
                      • Preparing for or monitoring new competition ;
                      • Comparison shopping;
                      • Recognizing good employees;
                      • To build a profile of the shoppers’ patters of behavior.

                • Audits:
                    • Examination and verification of product sales;
                • One-Way-Mirror-Observation:
                    • Practice of watching behaviors and activities      from behind a

                •   ESOMAR - formerly the European Society for Opinion Research
                        offers mystery shopping guidelines.
  Through                                        Click for Information

                                   Chapter Six
 Observation Research on the Internet

Predictive Consumer Intelligence:
   • Web site should mirror the customers’ buying process;
   • Click sequence / patterns should enhance predictive capability.

Conversation Trackers:
   • Used to develop a cohesive message from thousands of
       conversation threads in newsgroups, chatrooms, listservs,
       message boards, etc.

                             Chapter Six
Mystery Shopping
Observation Methods
Observation Research Defined


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