Violence Against Women _ Girls Strategy

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					  The Bradford
Domestic Abuse
   Partnership



  Bradford Tackling Violence
   Against Women and Girls:
      An Integrated Strategy
     for the Bradford District

                     2010-2013
 Bradford Violence
 Against Women
                                   N
 Forum (bVAWF)          NATIONAL
                       PROBATION
                         SERVICE
Foreword




We are pleased to present Bradford’s strategy for tackling violence against women
and girls. This strategy has been developed in partnership with statutory and voluntary
sector agencies directly involved in reducing all forms of violence against women and
girls, either through direct service provision, commissioning of services, or through
strategic planning.

A great deal of very good work has been carried               good practice, Bradford Domestic Abuse
out since the implementation of the Bradford                  Partnership has revised the Domestic Abuse
Domestic Abuse Strategy 2007 – 2010 and                       Strategy 2007/10 and developed this Bradford
Bradford has become an example of good                        Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls
practice in its delivery of services, multi-agency            Strategy 2010 – 2013.
working and strategic planning.
                                                              The complexity of the problem and its far-reaching
In January 2009, the Equality and Human Rights                effects demand a broad response. This strategy
Commission published ʻMap of Gaps 2: The                      represents a partnership commitment to
                                                              addressing the issue. It includes proposals from
Support Services in Britain’. Bradford was                    organisations dealing with health and education,
Postcode Lottery of Violence Against Women

commended by the Commission as being the                      housing, local government and transport, as well
best local authority in England for violence against          as criminal justice. It recognises the invaluable
women service provision. This recognises the                  and pioneering role played in developing support
diversity of services for women across the district.          services by specialists in the voluntary sector.

Bradford has continued to develop provision for               We want to continue to support agencies in the
those victims most at risk of serious assault                 delivery of services and recognise that it is the
through its Multi-Agency Risk Assessment                      responsibility of all agencies to work together to
Conferences and district-wide Independent                     improve policies, procedures and working
Domestic Violence Advocacy services.                          practice, to achieve consistent and co-ordinated
                                                              responses and better outcomes for those women
In April 2009 Bradford received accreditation for             and girls affected by violence and abuse.
Specialist Domestic Violence Courts operating
district-wide at both Bingley and Bradford                    Sustaining and further developing voluntary sector
Magistrates Courts. These courts offer a wrap-                service provision is essential if violence against
around service for victims, ensuring that they are            women and girls is to be seriously addressed
supported throughout the criminal justice process.            and eliminated.

In line with the publication in November 2009 of
the cross-government ‘Together we can end
violence against women and girls: A Strategy’, in
which Bradford is highlighted as an example of
                                                              Moira Wilson
                                                              Chair Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership




Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy                                                   1
                                                                                                                  Table of Contents




We pledge to support the Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership in the delivery of                                                        Foreword                                                                      1
this strategy, through our partnership working and our commitment to significantly                                                     Executive summary                                                             4
reducing violence against women and girls across the whole of the Bradford district:



                                                                                                                  01                   Section one
                                                                                                                                       Overview
                                                                                                                                       National policies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     9
Imran Hussain                                                                                                                          National indicators                                                          10

Deputy Leader of Labour Group                                                                                                          Local context                                                                11
Cllr Imran Hussain

Portfolio Holder Safer Communities




                                                                                                                  02                   Section two
                                                                                                                                       Priorities: The ʻPsʼ
                                                                                                                                       Perspective, policy and procedures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    15
                                                                                                                                       Prevention                                                                   16
Moira Wilson                                         Simon Morritt

Bradford Metropolitan District Council / Bradford    NHS Bradford & Airedale
                                                                                                                                       Provision, protection and prosecution                                        17
Strategic Director Adult and Community Services      Chief Executive

Domestic Abuse Partnership & Bradford
Safeguarding Adults Board




Chief Superintendent Alison Rose                     Kath Tunstall
                                                                                                                  03                   Section three
                                                                                                                                       Objectives
                                                                                                                                       Objective 1: Reduce violence against women and girls in Bradford
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21

West Yorkshire Police / Bradford District                                                                                              Objective 2: Continue to improve access, provision and take up of services   23
Chief Superintendent                                 Strategic Director Services to Children and

Community Safety Partnership (CSP)                   Bradford Metropolitan District Council                                            Objective 3: Address the health, social and economic consequences
                                                     Young People

                                                                                                                                                    of violence                                                     27
                                                                                                                                       Objective 4: Protect women and girls at risk                                 30
                                                                                                                                       Objective 5: Ensure effective offender management                            33


                                                                                                                                       Summary                                                                      36
Sally Dean                                           Yemi Fagborun

Co-chair Bradford Violence Against Women Forum       Co-chair Bradford Violence Against Women Forum                                    Appendix 1 Glossary                                                          36
Sally Dean                                           Yemi Fagborun




2                                                   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy                                        3
Executive summary




Since the implementation of the Bradford Domestic Abuse Strategy 2007 – 2010, first
time reporting of domestic violence to the police has increased, repeat victimisation
has decreased and the percentage of serious violent crimes identified as domestic
violence related has decreased. This strategy aims to continue this positive trend
towards reducing violence against women and girls across the whole of the
Bradford district.
The Home Office has identified national indicators
to measure the impact that local authorities and
                                                      Objective 2:                                                 Objective 3:                                                  Objective 5:
partner organisations are having on violence
against women and girls within their areas.                                                                                                                                      5a. Address violence against women and girls
                                                      Continue to improve access, provision and take               Address the health, social and economic                       Ensure effective offender management

These will be used to measure the impact and          2a. Ensure equitable access to high quality                                                                                    through multi-agency meetings
                                                      up of services                                               consequences of violence against women and

success of this strategy.                                 support services across the district                     3a. Work with partners in the health sector to                5b. Reduce prostitution by focusing on those
                                                                                                                   girls

                                                      2b. Improve responses to rape and sexual assault                  ensure that policies incorporate all forms of                profiting from the sexual exploitation of women
This document provides both a strategic                   in Bradford                                                   violence against women and girls and measure                 and girls and providing support services to help
perspective and an overarching policy/                2c. Enable agencies to respond to the needs of                    their implementation                                         women and girls exit and recover from
procedural framework, and contains specific               children and young people experiencing                   3b. Address the financial impacts of violence against             prostitution and sexual exploitation
                                                          violence through better awareness of                          women and girls                                          5c. Enhance the effectiveness of community-
objectives with respect to the priority areas of
                                                          safeguarding issues and promotion of                     3c. Ensure that the Bradford Housing Strategy                     based interventions with perpetrators
                                                          safeguarding procedures                                       addresses violence against women and girls               5d. Prevent young men and boys becoming
prevention, provision, protection and
                                                      2d. Provide training for relevant professionals                                                                                perpetrators through early intervention and
prosecution.
                                                          across Bradford                                                                                                            implementing existing safeguarding procedures
The objectives identified are:                        2e. Ensure information is available and accessible
                                                          for friends and family so they are better                Objective 4:
                                                          equipped to help women and girls experiencing
                                                          violence
                                                      2f. Provide a range of services which meet the               4a. Respond to the needs of at risk and marginalised
                                                                                                                   Protect women and girls at risk
Objective 1:
                                                          needs of Bradfordʼs diverse and changing                     women and girls
                                                          communities                                              4b. Improve support services and provision at a
                                                                                                                       local level, working with partners in localities
Reduce violence against women and girls in

1a. Implement actions to prevent violence against                                                                  4c. Increase public confidence, victim support and
Bradford

    women and girls                                                                                                    satisfaction
1b. Educate young people on positive
    relationships and protective behaviours

                                                                                                                   It should be noted that any incidents involving children or young people should always follow
                                                                                                                   child protection procedures and that any incidents involving vulnerable adults should follow
                                                                                                                   adult protection procedures.

                                                                                                                   A full delivery plan has been developed in order to ensure that this strategy is delivered and
                                                                                                                   that actions are measured.



4                                                    Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy                                                     5
Section
          01
           Overview       8
     National policies    9
       Local context     11
Overview                                                                                                           National policies



                                                                                                                                                                                                        01
Making Bradford safer for all of the district’s citizens is one of the priorities of the                           The second millennium saw a resurgence of Government interest in various aspects
Safer Communities Partnership. By providing strategic leadership in Bradford, the                                  of violence against women and girls including but not restricted to:
Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership aims to make a real difference to women and
girls who live with the fear and suffer the reality of violence.

                                                                                                                           The Home Office and Crown Prosecution
Violence damages women and girls and has far-         Similarly, Bradfordʼs Safeguarding Adultʼs Board                     Service Rape Action Plan 2002, with the
                                                                                                                                                                                 Forced Marriage Civil Protection Act 2007

reaching consequences for families, children,         has developed protocols for dealing with violence                    Sexual Offences Act 2003 coming into                  The Specialist Domestic Violence
communities and society as a whole. Violence          and abuse perpetrated against older and                              force in May 2004                                     Courts (SDVC) programme continued to
against women and girls is both a form of             vulnerable adults. These mechanisms should be                                                                              expand and reached a total of 98 courts by
discrimination and a violation of human rights. It    used whenever a vulnerable adult is suspected                                                                              April 2008
is both a cause and consequence of gender             of being a victim of abuse.                                          Act 2004 and the Home Office National
                                                                                                                           Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims

inequality and there are connections across all                                                                            Report for Domestic Violence plan of
                                                                                                                           action 2005/06
                                                                                                                                                                                 Working Together to Safeguard Children

forms of violence against women and girls; among      Protecting women from violence and enabling
                                                                                                                                                                                 2006 (revised issue March 2010)

adult female victims of intimate violence, 33%        them to protect themselves, either through the
                                                                                                                           The Home Office A Coordinated
experienced more than one type of abuse, most         criminal justice system or through increased
                                                                                                                                                                                 Child Protection, domestic violence and

commonly partner abuse and sexual assault             safety measures, gives women greater capacity
                                                                                                                           Prostitution Strategy (2006)                          parental substance misuse 2008

(British Crime Survey 2007/8). The only effective     to protect their children. Therefore, the term                       a summary of responses to the
way to confront violence against women and            ʻwomenʼ is used in this document to include any                      consultation on the possession of
                                                                                                                                                                                 Safeguarding Disabled Children: Practice

girls is to work together in partnership.             children which the woman may have in her care.
                                                                                                                                                                                 Guidance (July 2009)
                                                                                                                           extreme pornographic material

Whilst this document covers violence against          Every year thousands of women and girls                              The Home Office Cross-government
women and girls, it must be stressed that violence    throughout the UK experience some form of
and abuse perpetrated against girls under 18          violence including; rape, domestic violence, forced
                                                                                                                           action plan on sexual violence and

years of age is a child protection issue and all      marriage, stalking, sexual harassment, sexual
                                                                                                                           abuse 2007

incidents of actual or suspected violence and         exploitation and trafficking, or so called ʻhonourʼ
abuse should be reported to the appropriate           based violence.
authorities and dealt with through the mechanisms                                                                  Following extensive consultation during 2009, the Government published ʻTogether we
already established by Bradfordʼs Safeguarding        Violence against women and girls is taken very
                                                                                                                   can end violence against women and girls: A Strategy’, bringing together all policy
Childrenʼs Board.                                     seriously in Bradford, and in 2009 the Equality
                                                                                                                   documents in to one strategic framework.
                                                      and Human Rights Commission commended
                                                      Bradford for providing the best level of service
                                                      provision in England for women and girls
                                                      experiencing violence (End Violence Against
                                                      Women Coalition and the Equality and Human
                                                      Rights 2009).




8                                                    Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy                                                9
National indicators                                                                                                 Local context



                                                                                                                                                                                                          01
National indicators relevant to violent crime including perception indicators:                                      Providing services is only possible if women and girls report or disclose the violence
                                                                                                                    they experience. During 2008/09 in Bradford:


     The following have been identified by the Home    There are other national indicators which are
     Office as national indicators to measure the      monitored by other partnerships which                                                                                      sexual assault on females aged 13 years
                                                                                                                            approximately 30% of all violent crime
     impact that local authorities and partner         interventions to reduce violence against                                                                                   and over reported to the police increased
                                                                                                                            reported to the police was domestic violence
     organisations are having on violence against      women and girls will have some impact up on.                                                                               from 122 in 2007/08 to 143 in 2008/09
                                                                                                                            related
     women and girls within their areas:               For example those monitored by the Safer
                                                       Communities Delivery Group include but are                                                                                 referrals to Surviving Trauma After Rape
                                                                                                                            there were 7,426 incidents of domestic
         NI 26 Specialist support to victims of a      not limited to:                                                                                                            (STAR) West-Yorkshire from the Bradford
                                                                                                                            violence reported to the police, with 83%
         serious sexual offence                                                                                                                                                   area increased from 27 in 2008 to 44 in 2009
                                                                                                                            involving female victims. The remaining 17%
                                                            NI 15 Serious violent crime rate
                                                                                                                            includes incidents where, although the victim
         NI 31 Re-offending rate of registered sex                                                                                                                                Domestic homicide in Bradford reduced
                                                                                                                            is identified as male, some of these men
         offenders                                          NI 20 Assault with injury crime rate                                                                                  from 5 homicides in 2006/07 to 3 homicides
                                                                                                                            have also been identified as perpetrators in
                                                                                                                            other incidents                                       in 2007/08 and 1 homicide in 2008/09
         NI 32 Repeat incidents of domestic                 NI 30 Re-offending rate of prolific and
         violence                                           priority offenders
                                                                                                                            children were present at over 3,000 domestic
                                                                                                                            violence incidents reported to the police
         NI 34 Domestic violence – murder              Similarly, those monitored by Bradford
                                                       Safeguarding Children Board include but are
                                                                                                                            there were 126 incidents of forced marriage
                                                       not limited to:
                                                                                                                            (actual or threatened) reported to the police
                                                                                                                            (72% of the West Yorkshire total)
                                                            NI 69 Children who have experienced
                                                            bullying
                                                                                                                            incidents of rape of females aged 16 and
                                                                                                                            over reported to the police remained the
                                                            NI 70 Hospital admissions caused by
                                                                                                                            same for 2008/09 as 2007/08 (105 incidents)
                                                            unintentional and deliberate injuries to
                                                            children

                                                            NI 71 Children who have run away from
                                                            home/care overnight




10                                                    Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy                                                  11
Section
                        02
                    Priorities: The ʻPsʼ   14
  Perspective, policy and procedures       15
                             Prevention    16
Provision, protection and prosecution      17
Priorities: The ʻPsʼ                                                                                         Perspective, policy and procedures



                                                                                                                                                                                                      02
This document provides both a strategic perspective and an overarching policy/procedural
framework and contains specific objectives with respect to the priority areas of prevention,
                                                                                                             Violence against women and girls cuts across boundaries of culture, ethnicity, age,
                                                                                                             wealth and geography, affecting women and girls of all ages and all backgrounds.
provision, protection and prosecution.

                                                                                                             Violence against women and girls encompasses,                 Bradfordʼs Safeguarding Childrenʼs Board has
                                                                                                             but is not limited to: rape, sexual assault and               protocols and procedures which outline actions
                                                                                                             sexual abuse; domestic violence; forced and                   to be taken when any child under the age of 18
        Perspective                                Policy & Procedures                                       child marriage; crimes in the name of ʻhonourʼ;               is suspected of experiencing violence or abuse;
                                                                                                             sexual harassment (in the workplace and in the                emphasising that the protection of children is
        Gender Equality                            Integrated strategy on                                    public sphere); trafficking in women and girls                everyoneʼs business. Better use of these protocols
                                                   violence against women and
                                                   girls                                                     and sexual exploitation (including prostitution).             and procedures will increase the protection offered
        Human Rights                                                                                                                                                       to girls across the district.
                                                   Agreed definition                                         The Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership will
                                                                                                             fail to protect women and girls if action is not              The General Recommendation 19 of the
        Due Diligence                              Research & disaggregated                                  grounded in a coherent and solid perspective                  Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination
                                                   statistics                                                and policy framework. Locating perspective and                Against Women (1992) provides a definition of
        Nondiscrimination                          Analysis of causes of violence                            policy as the necessary foundations and drivers               Violence Against Women and the 1993
                                                   against women and girls                                   of an integrated strategy places prevention at                Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against
                                                                                                             the centre rather than the margin of the approach             Women provided further clarification of what a
                                                   Mainstreaming of violence                                 to tackling violence against women and girls.                 definition should include. Taking these two
                                                   against women and girls into                                                                                            descriptions of violence against women, this
                                                   all policy areas                                                                                                        strategy adopts the following definition:




                                                                                                               Violence against women and girls is violence and abuse directed against a woman
                                                                                                               or girl because she is a woman or girl or that affects women and girls
 Prevention                 Provision            Protection                     Prosecution                    disproportionately and is any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is
 Education                  Education            Support                        Data monitoring
                                                                                                               likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to a woman
                                                 networks
 Work with                  Work with                                           Models of good
                                                                                                               or girl, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty,

 perpetrators               perpetrators         Civil law                      practice
                                                                                                               whether occurring in public or private life.

                                                                                Procedural justice
 Public                     Public               Safety in
                                                                                for victims/survivors
 awareness                  awareness            public spaces
                                                                                Holding perpetrators
 Self-defence of            Self-defence of      Nondiscrimination              accountable
 women and                  women and
 girls                      girls                                               Non-discriminatory




14                                             Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy                                                   15
Prevention                                                                                                          Provision, protection and prosecution



                                                                                                                                                                                         02
Violence against women and girls is rooted in negative attitudes that have been                                     In addition to obligations to prevent violence, local authorities have a duty to ‘take
perpetuated over time allowing abusers to inflict violence against women and girls                                  appropriate and effective action concerning acts of violence against women’,
without consequence.                                                                                                including provision of redress and support services.



Local authorities have a responsibility to address     and valuable and are able to play a role in                  The Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership will
violence against women and girls under the linked      meeting the differing needs of men and women as              take steps to provide protection and support to
agendas of equalities and human rights. To act         required by the gender duty. Services specifically           those who bear the brunt of violence. Those with
with due diligence requires that local authorities     for different groups of black and minority ethnic            the power to transform the cultures that
demonstrate they are exercising active attention to    (BME) women are legal and fulfil their role, under           perpetuate violence against women and girls
violations of human rights. This Violence Against      the Gender Duty, to address their specific needs.            must work together. This strategy encourages
Women and Girls Strategy demonstrates Bradford         An Equality Impact Assessment has been                       partners to work together to achieve positive
Councilʼs commitment to fulfilling the obligations     completed during the development of this strategy            outcomes.
of due diligence. However, this strategy moves         and is available on request.
beyond a paper exercise and locates prevention
at its core in an attempt to move towards the UN       Violence against women and girls impacts upon                     Provision of services, especially in health
stated goal of eliminating violence against women      other social issues, including youth crime, poverty,              and social care; and providing women and
and girls and creating a district where women and      unemployment and health inequalities. Tackling                    girls with a place of safety, and a fresh start
girls not only feel safe but are safe.                 violence against women and girls more effectively                 protection through the criminal justice
                                                       will help achieve other priorities. Integrating                   system that works, when itʼs needed.
The principle of non-discrimination is inherent in     violence against women and girls into other
all human rights. Recognising equality and             policy priorities will enhance violence prevention.               The provision of services needs to be
diversity issues, this strategy recognises that not                                                                      coordinated within commissioning and
all women have access to fair and equal                                                                                  funding streams. The main commissioners
outcomes. Women and girls who are known to                                                                               in Bradford are working together to move
be especially vulnerable to violence and who are                                                                         towards joint commissioning, which will
marginalised such as women involved                                                                                      ensure consistency and quality of service
prostitution, women from Black and Minority                                                                              provision as well as opportunities for
Ethnic communities, lesbians, disabled women,                                                                            development work to be implemented.
women with mental health or substance abuse
issues, and some young women in care will
require specialised approaches. The principle of
non-discrimination requires targeted measures
including ensuring all women and girls have equal
access to protection, justice and support. The
Equality and Human Rights Commission, which
polices the Gender Equality Act 2006, has
stressed that women-only services are both legal




16                                                    Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy                              17
  Section
                        03
                            Objectives    20
                           Objective 1:   21
              Reduce violence against

                           Objective 2:   23
          women and girls in Bradford

          Continue to improve access,

                           Objective 3:   27
     provision and take up of services

        Address the health, social and
 economic consequences of violence

                           Objective 4:   30
               against women and girls



                           Objective 5:   33
       Protect women and girls at risk

Ensure effective offender management
Objectives
                                                                                                                       Reduce violence against women and girls
                                                                                                                       Objective 1:

                                                                                                                       in Bradford



This document is based on five objectives building on the framework developed by                                       The Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership will develop a range of measures to reduce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                03
the End Violence Against Women coalition and endorsed by the Equality and Human                                        the prevalence of violence against women and girls with a strong emphasis on
Rights Commission.                                                                                                     changing attitudes.

                                                                                                                       Our response will address violence against women              Bradford has already been recognised as a leader
                                                                                                                       and girls as a whole, with its roots in gender                in providing services for women experiencing
                                                                                                                       inequality. The Bradford Domestic Abuse                       violence. It can become a beacon in preventing
     Objective 1:                                        Objective 3:
                                                                                                                       Partnership will promote an ambitious approach                violence against women and girls, building on
                                                                                                                       within which Bradford will continue to develop                the elements for an effective approach that are
     Reduce violence against women and girls in          Address the health, social and economic

     1a. Implement actions to prevent violence                                                                         innovative policy and practice. Bradford will                 already in place through collaboration,
     Bradford                                            consequences of violence against women

         against women and girls                         3a. Work with partners in the health sector to
                                                                                                                       continue to develop services which have been                  cooperation and facilitation.
                                                         and girls

     1b. Educate young people on positive                    ensure that policies incorporate all forms of
         relationships and protective behaviours             violence against women and girls and                      acknowledged as providing the women and girls
                                                             measure their implementation                              of Bradford with the best level of service                    The Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership will
                                                         3b. Address the financial impacts of violence                 provision in England (End Violence Against                    maintain:
                                                             against women and girls                                   Women coalition and the Equality and Human
                                                         3c. Ensure that the Bradford Housing Strategy                 Rights Commission 2009).                                          a voluntary sector which is at the forefront of
     Objective 2:
                                                             addresses violence against women and girls                                                                                  developing responses to violence against
                                                                                                                                                                                         women and girls
     Continue to improve access, provision and

     2a. Ensure equitable access to high quality                                                                       The Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership will:
     take up of services

         support services across the district
                                                         Objective 4:                                                                                                                    statutory sector responses, including
     2b. Improve responses to rape and sexual assault                                                                       prevent violence happening in the first place                facilitating Multi-Agency Risk Assessment
         in Bradford                                     4a. Respond to the needs of at risk and                            by changing attitudes and beliefs                            Conferences, upholding safeguarding
                                                         Protect women and girls at risk

     2c. Enable agencies to respond to the needs of          marginalised women and girls                                   intervene at an early stage when violence                    procedures and providing specialist teams
         children and young people experiencing          4b. Improve support services and provision at a                    does occur                                                   investigating sexual crimes
         violence through better awareness of                local level, working with partners in localities               deal effectively with perpetrators to stop                   a highly performing local authority leading
         safeguarding issues and promotion of            4c. Increase public confidence, victim support
         safeguarding procedures                                                                                            future violence                                              on violence against women and girls
                                                             and satisfaction
     2d. Provide training for relevant professionals                                                                        support agencies to help women and girls
         across Bradford                                                                                                    rebuild their lives and reduce the risk of
     2e. Ensure information is available and                                                                                further violence
                                                         Objective 5:
         accessible for friends and family so they are
         better equipped to help women and girls         5a. Address violence against women and girls
                                                         Ensure effective offender management

         experiencing violence                               through multi-agency meetings
     2f. Provide a range of services which meet the      5b. Reduce prostitution by focusing on pimps
                                                                                                                       1a. Implement actions to prevent violence against women and girls

         needs of Bradfordʼs diverse and changing            and traffickers and providing support services            Changing the attitudes that underpin violence                 respondents from all backgrounds and genders
         communities                                         to help women and girls exit and recover                  against women and girls is crucial. Attitudes                 considered it acceptable in some circumstances
                                                             from prostitution and sexual exploitation                 condoning violence against women and girls or                 for a man to hit or slap his wife or girlfriend in
                                                         5c. Enhance the effectiveness of community-                   blaming women for being abused are wide spread.               response to her being dressed in ʻsexyʼ or
                                                             based interventions with perpetrators                     Many people are unaware of how common violence                revealing clothes in public; 41% of respondents
                                                         5d. Prevent young men and boys becoming                       against women and girls is and uphold beliefs that            who said that they would not take action if they
                                                             perpetrators through early intervention and               excuse the perpetrators and blame the victims.                knew or suspected that a female neighbour was
                                                             implementing existing safeguarding
                                                                                                                                                                                     a victim of violent abuse from their partner, would
                                                             procedures
                                                                                                                       An opinion poll conducted on behalf of the Home               not take action because they considered ʻit was
                                                                                                                       Office in February 2009 found that 20% of                     not any of their businessʼ.


20                                                       Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy                                                   21
Objectives
                                                                                                                      Continue to improve access, provision and
                                                                                                                      Objective 2:

                                                                                                                      take up of support services

                                                                                                                                                                                                               03
NSPCC research ʻPartner Exploitation and                 Bradford Safeguarding Children Board has
Violence in Teenage Intimate Relationshipsʼ (2009)       produced protocols and procedures which have
                                                                                                                      The Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership will improve the safety, wellbeing and

found that “Girls, compared to boys, reported            been implemented to reduce the harm to children
                                                                                                                      freedom of women and girls through access to better services that meet the needs

greater incidence rates for all forms of violence.       at risk of sexual exploitation, including holding
                                                                                                                      of Bradford’s diverse communities. Our goal is to build capacity across the voluntary

Girls also experienced violence more frequently          multi-agency meetings to help protect young
                                                                                                                      sector and help family and friends of victims, to whom women and girls often turn

and described a greater level of negative impacts        people from being sexually exploited.
                                                                                                                      first to provide informed support.
on their welfare”. In addition “Boys minimised their
own use of violence as “messing around”. Boys            Reducing demand is fundamental to ending
also reported the violence as mutual, although           prostitution. The vast majority of men do not buy
                                                                                                                      2a. Ensure equitable access to high quality support services across the district

they often used disproportionate force compared          sex. The minority of men who do, need to be                  Bradford has a high reporting rate of domestic                Bradford already has a well resourced voluntary
to their female partners”. The research also found       challenged, through the law, licensing and                   violence to the police. However, most women and               sector providing specialised provision for women
that where there had been violence in a young            regulation, public awareness programmes and                  girls do not report violence to the police and rely           and girls who experience violence. Ensuring that
personʼs relationship, “the majority of young people     prevention work in schools. Making better use of             on friends, family and the womenʼs voluntary                  these services are maintained is essential if
either told a friend or told no one about the            the powers for regulating health establishments,             sector for support. Independent community based               Bradford is to remain at the forefront of protecting
violence; only a minority informed an adult”.            saunas and lap dancing clubs will challenge                  womenʼs support services, including provision                 women and girls.
                                                         attitudes which contribute to the acceptance and             specifically for minority communities, are a vital
Bradford has recognised how ongoing public               tolerance of prostitution and will complement the            part of our response to violence against women
awareness and education campaigns can directly           introduction of new legislation, making the                  and girls.
help women and girls leave violent situations;           purchasing of sex illegal in England (Enacted in
however campaigns to date have not been                  November 2009, Section 53A of the Policing and
strategically aimed at changing attitudes about          Crime Act makes it illegal to ʻpay for sexual
violence towards women and girls. Therefore              services of a prostitute subjected to forceʼ).
                                                                                                                      2b. Improve response to rape and sexual assault in Bradford

publicity aimed at ending the tolerance of violence                                                                   Reported rapes, sexual assaults, and incidents of             assaulted. West Yorkshire does not currently
against women and girls needs to be implemented                                                                       other serious sexual violence have all increased              have a SARC. The development of a SARC
at a local level, addressing issues within localities                                                                 in Bradford over the last twelve months. Whilst               which would serve Bradford is being considered
as well as those that affect women and girls.                                                                         nationally services available to victims are limited          at a West Yorkshire level and a county-wide
                                                                                                                      and threatened by a lack of long term sustainable             partnership has been established. However,
                                                                                                                      funding, Bradfordʼs Rape Crisis and Sexual Abuse              SARCs do not offer the same service as rape
                                                                                                                      Survivors Service have recently expanded its                  crisis centres and their work should be viewed
1b. Educate young people on positive relationships and protective behaviours

National research has shown that a sizeable              Educating young people and changing attitudes                services. Maintaining this provision will be of               as complementary to that of rape crisis centres,
minority of young people hold views condoning            is crucial to eradicating violence against women             greater importance as reporting of rape and                   rather than a replacement.
violence against women and girls, particularly           and girls in the long term. The voluntary sector in          sexual assault increases.
coercive sex. Prevention work should start early.        Bradford has been at the forefront of developing
Many young people feel that they do not have             primary prevention initiatives. The Housing                  In recent years the government has focused on
enough information or support to deal with               Trailblazer Project will supplement this work, but           developing Sexual Assault Referral Centres
issues of interpersonal violence, although the           the commitment of the statutory sector is essential          (SARCs). SARCs were set up to improve
majority of secondary students and over half of          to properly implement them.                                  evidence gathering to assist police investigations
those in primary schools (52 per cent) wanted                                                                         and to provide support and medical care to people
lessons covering issues such as domestic                                                                              who have recently been raped or sexually
violence (Mullender et al, 2002).


22                                                      Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy                                                    23
Objectives                                                                                                           Objectives



                                                                                                                                                                                                            03
2c. Enable agencies to respond to the needs of children and young people                                             2d. Provide training for relevant professionals across Bradford

                                                                                                                     The statutory sector supports and co-ordinates a                  cover the law and policy
    experiencing violence through better awareness of safeguarding issues and

                                                                                                                     number of useful specialist services, such as                     go beyond raising awareness to identifying
    promotion of safeguarding procedures

Research has established clear links between            The Bradford Safeguarding Children Board will                Specialist Domestic Violence Courts. These have                   desired service responses (Cabinet Office,
domestic violence and child abuse, for example          make sure all people who work with children, and             led to magistrates and court staff receiving                      1999, Living Without Fear)
detailed analysis of 40 Serious Case Reviews by         their families and carers know how important it is           improved and enhanced training. Professionals
Brandon et al (June 2009) found nearly three            to keep all children in Bradford safe.                       in a wide range of other statutory services - such            Improved training is a key element of improving
quarters of the children lived with past or present                                                                  as GPs, midwives, social workers, employment                  statutory responses to violence against women
domestic violence.                                      The Bradford Safeguarding Children Board will                advisers, police officers, teachers etc, also come            and girls. Bradford already has mainstreamed
                                                        help all staff and professionals to work together            into contact with women and girls who have                    multi-agency domestic violence training, as well
The Action Plan produced by the government in           and know the rules about keeping children safe.              experienced violence. Specialist domestic violence            as specific training on Multi-Agency Risk
response to Lord Lamingʼs ʻThe Protection of            They will understand the importance of listening             training is available for these professionals. The            Assessment Conferences (MARACs) and Legal
Children in England: Progress Reportʼ emphasises        to children, especially when children are worried            government has suggested that training for                    Remedies for Domestic Violence. Child protection
the need to find research-based best practice to        about themselves or others.”                                 professionals should:                                         and safeguarding adult training includes an
respond effectively to children whose lives are                                                                                                                                    exploration of the links with domestic violence.
affected by domestic violence.                          The Bradford Children and Young Peopleʼs Plan                     increase understanding of violence against
                                                        2009-2012 sets clear priorities in respect of the                 women and girls, its nature, scale and impact            Further training opportunities need to be
The overall responsibility for ensuring the             Staying Safe Outcome for children in focussing                    assist service providers in identifying                  identified appropriate to the needs of those who
effectiveness of the safeguarding services offered      on creating a “ safe environment by minimising                    violence against women and girls                         may come in to contact with women and girls who
to children rests with the Bradford Safeguarding        abuse and neglect” and sets the explicit goal of                  build skills and knowledge about preventative            experience violence.
Children Board. All agencies directly involved          reducing the number of children and young people                  approaches, early interventions and reducing
with ensuring the welfare of children are committed     experiencing bullying.”                                           the long-term impacts of violence
to the outcomes for children contained in the Every
Child Matters Strategy. The Boardʼs strategic plan
for 2007-10 gives a clear and unequivocal
commitment to ensuring that all agencies are
                                                                                                                     2e. Ensure information is available and accessible for friends and family so that they

clear about their responsibilities to protect all
                                                                                                                         are better equipped to help women and girls experiencing violence

children whose development may be compromised                                                                        Most women and girls turn to friends and family                   believe that the woman should keep the
by the parenting they receive. The Boardʼs                                                                           first for help and support. Whilst many friends                   family together; remaining in the marriage
Statement of Intent is very clear on this point:                                                                     will do their best to help, the lack of advice and                despite the violence
                                                                                                                     information for the public can result in responses
“The Bradford Safeguarding Children Board will                                                                       rooted in myths and stereotypes that tend to                  Similarly with respect to sexual violence there
work towards keeping children in Bradford under                                                                      minimise the impact and seriousness of the                    is an common tendency to hold women and girls
the age of 18 years, safe from harm. We will strive                                                                  violence, blame the victim and excuse the                     responsible for what has happened through
to make sure that every child feels secure, well                                                                     perpetrator. In situations of ongoing violence,               questioning their actions, clothing or trust of
cared for and able to reach their full potential. We                                                                 friends and family can:                                       others.
will support all staff to help families and carers
achieve this.                                                                                                             become frustrated if the woman does not
                                                                                                                          leave her violent partner


24                                                     Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy                                                25
Objectives
                                                                                                                         Address the health, social and economic
                                                                                                                         Objective 3:

                                                                                                                         consequences of violence against women
                                                                                                                         and girls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  03
For women dealing with legacies of previous                 A new Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women
abuse, friends may not understand the long-term             and Girls Directory of Services, is being produced
                                                                                                                         The Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership will support measures that reduce the

impact that abuse can have and feel that she                and work with voluntary and statutory agencies
                                                                                                                         long-term consequences of violence for women and girls who experience it, improve

should ʻget over itʼ. Even where friends are                to improve the availability of information and
                                                                                                                         their life chances and support them in rebuilding their lives. The Bradford Domestic

sympathetic, they may be unaware of the support             resources to the public so that they are able to
                                                                                                                         Abuse Partnership will champion integrated support services for the most marginalised

that may be available.                                      support women and girls more effectively, will
                                                                                                                         and at risk women and girls and will give a voice to survivors in shaping policy and
                                                            continue.
                                                                                                                         delivery.

                                                                                                                         3a. Work with partners in the health sector to ensure that policies incorporate all
2f. Provides a range of services which meet the needs of Bradford’s diverse and
                                                                                                                             forms of violence against women and girls and effectively measure their
    changing communities
                                                                                                                             implementation
Womenʼs experiences of violence may be                           older women may think it is too late for them
influenced by other aspects of their identity and                to change anything                                      Violence against women and girls is a significant             births; Domestic violence training is delivered to
circumstances such as: ethnicity, age, disability,               agencies may be more reluctant to                       health issue. As well as immediate impacts such               midwives in the district and midwives and health
sexuality, religion/belief, gender identity, poverty             intervene in BME communities out of a                   as broken bones and bruising, violence against                visitors across the district have access to the
and social class. Understanding how these                        mistaken approach to cultural sensitivity               women and girls can also have long-term and                   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and
intersect with violence is crucial to developing                                                                         even permanent impacts on mental and physical                 Girls Directory of Services.
appropriate responses. They create additional               Some groups of women and girls may be at                     health.
barriers to accessing services and achieving                greater risk of experiencing violence.                                                                                     Almost a third of domestic violence starts in
safety. For example:                                        For example:                                                 NHS organisations are often the first point of                pregnancy and existing violence often escalates
                                                                                                                         contact for women and girls who have experienced              during it (Women and Equality Unit). Department
     whilst one of the Bradford refuges can offer                certain forms of violence, such as female               violence, although they may not disclose the                  of Health guidance recommends routine inquiry
     full wheelchair access, there is a lack of                  genital mutilation, forced marriage and                 violence directly. Health organisations can play              about domestic violence in maternity services and
     (physical) accessibility within the other                   ʻhonourʼ based violence are closely linked to           an important role in preventing violence against              although there is evidence that this is happening
     refuges in the district                                     particular ethnic/cultural/ religious groups            women and girls by intervening early, providing               within some services in the district, this appears
     lesbians may fear homophobia if they                        many refugee women have experienced                     treatment and information and referring women                 to be ad-hoc and needs to be addressed. Routine
     disclose their experiences of violence                      sexual violence in their countries of origin            and girls to other services. Violence against                 enquiry should be extended to cover a wider
     the availability of appropriate interpreting                including being subjected to rape as a tactic           women and girls needs to be integrated into all               range of forms of violence in more of the health
     services can be inconsistent for women and                  of war/ conflict                                        areas of care including emergency services,                   settings likely to be in contact with women and
     girls                                                       a disproportionate number of domestic                   mental health services, substance misuse                      girls who have experienced violence.
     women and girls may find it even more                       homicides involve recent migrants as victims            services, health visiting and reproductive health
     difficult to disclose sexual violence, particularly         and/or perpetrators                                     and maternity services.                                       Routine enquiry and all support and referral
     in cultures where concepts of family ʻhonourʼ               disabled women and girls are more likely to                                                                           mechanisms must take account of the needs of
     are focused on the female role                              be sexually assaulted during their lifetime             Health services should ensure that women and                  women and girls who do not speak English.
     women with uncertain immigration status may                 at least two thirds of victims of elder abuse           girls have access to information about the support            Informal interpreting arrangements by womenʼs
     be trapped in situations of violence, unable                are women                                               available, for example Bradford & Airedale                    partners, children and friends can make it almost
     to access protection because they have no                   rape, sexual assault and sexual bullying /              Community Health Service includes information                 impossible for women to disclose violence.
     recourse to public funds                                    harassment are more common among girls                  within the pre-birth information packs for all new
     recent migrants may be unaware of their                     and young women
     rights and the services available to them


26                                                         Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy                                                  27
Objectives                                                                                                         Objectives



                                                                                                                                                                                                             03
Health agencies in Bradford have recognised the       Sector. The NHS also has a role in
need to continue to improve the NHS response          commissioning specialist support services such as
                                                                                                                   3c. Ensure that the Bradford Housing Strategy addresses violence against women

to women and girls experiencing violence and          services for victims of rape or sexual exploitation.
                                                                                                                       and girls

have produced a Tackling Violence Against             Health agencies in the district are active partners          Many women who experience ongoing violence                    women are the minority of rough sleepers, ʻsofa
Women and Girls Strategy for the Bradford Health      in the Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership.                  in and around where they live want the violence               surfersʼ and excluded groups generally, they are
                                                                                                                   to stop, so they can remain in their homes safely.            subject to the threat of and actual physical and / or
                                                                                                                   The development of sanctuary schemes,                         sexual violence whilst living on the streets and in
                                                                                                                   injunctions and interventions with perpetrators               unsettled accommodation. They therefore present
3b. Address the financial impacts of violence against women and girls                                              has enabled more women to achieve this. There                 with specific needs that are often not adequately
                                                                                                                   remains a need for better access to outreach and              met by existing hostel and day centre services.
Violence against women can have a wide range          Civil protection orders are available in relation to
                                                                                                                   floating support services that will assist women
of negative financial consequences. A violent         domestic violence (non-molestation and
                                                                                                                   in the longer term, thereby breaking the cycle of             Actions to improve womenʼs access to housing
partner may stop a woman from working,                occupation orders) and harassment and forced
                                                                                                                   violence and recovery. For some women there                   include:
studying or training; making her more dependent       marriage (injunctions, restraining orders and
                                                                                                                   is still a need to flee and/or leave their local area
on the abusive partner. Many women are denied         Forced Marriage Protection Orders). However the
                                                                                                                   in order to achieve safety and the chance to                      maintain the Bradford domestic violence crisis
access to economic resources because their            costs can be prohibitive for women who are not
                                                                                                                   start again.                                                      intervention scheme so that victims of violence
abusive partners take control of their bank           eligible for legal aid and there are gaps in
                                                                                                                                                                                     preferring to stay in their homes can do so
accounts and refuse to let them have money of         availability of community-based legal advice for
                                                                                                                   Violence against women is a significant cause of                  safely
their own. Many also face debts as a consequence      those who are eligible. Working in partnership
                                                                                                                   homelessness and the fear of losing oneʼs home                    encourage social landlords to ensure that
of the abuse they had experienced with abusive        with the advice sector can offer better support to
                                                                                                                   can become another barrier to women leaving                       timely moves are available for women
partners forcing them to take out loans, credit       women who require financial and legal aid as a
                                                                                                                   violent situations. Nationally, 40 per cent of young              escaping violence, making best use of tenure
cards and overdrafts in their name. Lack of           consequence of the violence and financial abuse.
                                                                                                                   homeless women cite sexual abuse and/or                           options, within both social and private sectors
financial alternatives can trap women in abusive
                                                                                                                   domestic violence as the direct reason for their                  ensure rough sleeping services consider the
relationships and may force them into prostitution
                                                                                                                   homelessness. Violence from within the home                       specific needs of women and girls and foster
and the wider sex industry.
                                                                                                                   and / or from a known person remains a leading                    better links with specialist womenʼs support
                                                                                                                   cause of homelessness in Bradford. In 2008/09                     organisations
Domestic violence can lead to women losing their
                                                                                                                   by far the largest group of applicants accepted as                encourage social landlords to ensure their
jobs as they struggle to cope with the impact of
                                                                                                                   being owed a duty under housing / homelessness                    housing policies recognise the need of women
injuries and anxiety. The mental health impacts
                                                                                                                   legislation were single parents with dependant                    experiencing violence and monitoring
of violence against women can make it difficult
                                                                                                                   children (48%), many of whom will have                            performance in relation to their services
for women to work and limit their prospects for
                                                                                                                   experienced violence from within the family and /                 ensure the statutory homelessness services
employment. Lack of employment can lead to
                                                                                                                   or at the hands of a partner; 33% of accepted cases               recognise the specific needs of women
women losing their homes, which in turn could
                                                                                                                   cited violent relationship breakdown and / or                     experiencing violence and that greater use is
result in repeated episodes of homelessness.
                                                                                                                   violence from an associated person as the main                    made of specialist services to support their
Living in a refuge or hostel may make it harder
                                                                                                                   cause of their homelessness.                                      resettlement
for women to maintain existing jobs.
                                                                                                                                                                                     encourage refuges and other housing support
                                                                                                                   In addition to the statutory service provision it is              schemes to provide structured re-settlement
                                                                                                                   important to note that other homelessness                         services for women moving in to the
                                                                                                                   amongst women can be hidden and they often                        community
                                                                                                                   have limited contact with services. Although


28                                                   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy                                                     29
                                                                                                                      Objectives
Protect women and girls at risk
Objective 4:



                                                                                                                                                                                                               03
The Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership will work with the criminal justice system                                    4a. Respond to the needs of at risk and marginalised women and girls

                                                                                                                      When a girl under the age of 18 years is identified           the women and girls at greatest risk of repeat
to deter crimes of violence against women and girls and provide full, effective and

                                                                                                                      as being at risk of violence or abuse linked with             victimisation and many require intensive, long-
timely protection. The partnership will ensure that those most at risk of serious violence
                                                                                                                      substance misuse, safeguarding children                       term support in order to recover from the trauma
are given the extra support they need via Multi-Agency Risk Assessment Conferences.
                                                                                                                      procedures should always be implemented.                      they have experienced.


Children under the age of 18 who are at risk of          The government has set a number of targets for               Drugs and alcohol can be a means of coping with               The Corston Report (2007) identified histories of
significant harm due to domestic violence would          the criminal justice system (CJS) for 2008-11                experiences of violence. Some abusers introduce               victimisation as underpinning much of female
be subject to assessment under section 47 of the         including to:                                                women and girls to drugs as a means of                        offending. It called for “a radical new approach...
Children Act. They will then be the subject of an                                                                     controlling them. Many substance misuse                       a woman-centred approach”, based around the
Initial Child Protection Case Conference to                   improve the effectiveness and efficiency of             agencies have failed to recognise the role of                 development of specialised community-based
determine the need for a Child Protection Plan                the CJS in bringing offences to justice                 violence in womenʼs substance misuse problems.                womenʼs centres as an alternative to prison for
to safeguard their welfare.                                   increase public confidence in the fairness              The situation is changing in Bradford, particularly           vulnerable women. Such centres would address
                                                              and effectiveness of the CJS                            in relation to domestic violence. Substance misuse            the roots of offending and reduce exclusion and
The Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership will                  increase victim satisfaction with the police            organisations consistently attend Bradfordʼs                  isolation through specialised and long-term
ensure that those marginalised women and girls                and with the CJS                                        Multi-Agency Risk Assessment Conferences.                     interventions and gateways to mainstream
who require specialist support are able to access it.         consistently collect, analyse and use good                                                                            services. The Together Women Project in Bradford
                                                              quality ethnicity data to identify and address          Womenʼs organisations, such as Bradford Working               is an example of such a centre; working in
During 2008/09, Specialist Domestic Violence                  race disproportionality in the CJS                      Womenʼs Project and Bradford Rape Crisis &                    partnership with other specialist agencies to
Courts wre established across the district.                                                                           Sexual Survivors Service have a long history of               provide programmes for those women at risk of
                                                         The CPS has set targets nationally for its approach          working with the most vulnerable and marginalised             offending and who have experienced violence.
West Yorkshire Police have consistently                  to violence against women and girls within this              women and girls, many of whom face multiple
implemented a positive arrest policy against             framework. The national CJS strategic plan for               barriers to rebuilding their lives. These are often
suspects of domestic violence. A better approach         2008-11 recognises importance of bringing serious
to investigation and prosecution of domestic             offences including domestic violence and sexual
violence cases has been put into practice.               offences to justice.                                         4b. Improve support services and provision at a local level, working with partners in

Despite this progress, the vast majority of victims      Across West Yorkshire the Local Criminal Justice
                                                                                                                          localities
                                                                                                                      The national focus in recent years has been on                Women and girls at risk of ongoing violence from
and perpetrators still have no contact with the          Board is improving partnership working and will
                                                                                                                      providing support linked to the CJS process or                the same perpetrator also need access to
criminal justice system and confidence in the            take on a stronger governance role for the SDVCs.
                                                                                                                      to high risk victims, for example, Independent                protection through the civil courts.
system is undermined by low detection and                In Bradford the strategic links with the Bradford
                                                                                                                      Domestic Violence Advisors (IDVAs) and
conviction rates, particularly in the arrest,            Safer Communities Partnership (Crime & Disorder
                                                                                                                      Specialist Domestic Violence Courts (SDVCs).                  Working within communities so protection and
investigation and prosecution of rape and sexual         Reduction Partnership) are being strengthened.
                                                                                                                      Many women and girls who have experienced                     support can be tailored to the specific needs of
violence.                                                This will enable better partnership working and
                                                                                                                      violence have needs that go far beyond the CJS,               those communities is essential if violence against
                                                         will provide greater commitment to implementing
                                                                                                                      such as health, housing, employment and debt                  women and girls is to be reduced. A one size fits
                                                         new and existing initiatives.
                                                                                                                      issues. Support linked to improving CJS outcomes              all approach will not work in a district as diverse
                                                                                                                      should be integrated with a wider range of support            as Bradford.
                                                                                                                      options for survivors.



30                                                      Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy                                                   31
Objectives
                                                                                                                      Ensure effective offender management
                                                                                                                      Objective 5:



                                                                                                                                                                                                               03
4c. Increase public confidence, victim support and satisfaction                                                       The Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership believes perpetrators should stop the violence

Most women and girls do not report violence to           In order to improve confidence in the system and
                                                                                                                      and be held to account for the acts they have committed. The Bradford Domestic

the police and the majority of those who do,             satisfaction for victims it is important that where
                                                                                                                      Abuse Partnership aims to improve the effectiveness of the criminal justice system.

withdraw their complaints. For women and girls to        serious crimes are committed lessons are learned             Where women do not want to access criminal                    against women and girls recognised as
have confidence in the CJS, reporting violence           and practice improved. These will be identified              justice systems, the Bradford Domestic Abuse                  unacceptable in any community and perpetrators
must increase their access to safety, support and        through the implementation of Serious Case                   Partnership will ensure that will have access to              of such crimes must know that they will be brought
justice and not expose them to further victimisation.    Reviews, Domestic Homicide Reviews and Serious               appropriate civil remedies and support services.              to justice.
Some rape victims have described the process,            Untoward Incident Reports. The responsibility for            The partnership is working hard to have violence
especially the trial, as a ʻsecond assaultʼ.             carrying out these reviews sits:

Specialist Domestic Violence Courts (SDVCs) and               Bradford Safeguarding Children Board,
                                                                                                                      5a. Address violence against women and girls through multi-agency meetings

the work of the Independent Domestic Violence                 where it is identified that a child or young            Multi-agency operational meetings such as Multi-              In specific cases the multi-agency Child Protection
Advisors (IDVAs) has improved responses for                   person has been a victim                                Agency Risk Assessment Conferences (MARACs),                  Case Conference are convened to look at children
victims of domestic violence. The work of the                                                                         Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements                   who are likely to suffer significant harm i.e. their
Independent Sexual Violence Advisor needs to                  Bradford Safeguarding Adults Board, where               (MAPPAs) and Prostitution Tactical Group                      expected development would be impaired due to
be recognised and more fully integrated into the              it is identified that a vulnerable adult has been       meetings provide a new way to bring together                  domestic violence in the parental relationship. In
CJS process, so that victims of rape and sexual               the victim                                              different partners to engage in constructive                  these cases the likely outcome would be a multi-
assault can receive the same support as victims                                                                       information sharing and problem solving.                      agency Child Protection Plan which ensures the
of domestic violence. West Yorkshire Police has               Strategic Health Authority, where it is identified                                                                    childʼs welfare is safeguarded. The Bradford
established teams specialising in investigating               that health have had significant dealings with          Multi-Agency Risk Assessment Conferences are                  Safeguarding Children Board have funded full time
rape and sexual assault cases. This will have a               the victim                                              essential for protecting those victims of domestic            post on a fixed term basis to free up staff time to
number of key benefits in the investigation of                                                                        violence identified as at highest risk of serious             allow increased involvement in multi-agency bodies
offences and improved response to victims.                    Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership,                    harm or death. MARACs involve key agencies,                   like MARAC. This will ensure that practice in this
                                                              where a domestic homicide is identified                 police, probation, education, child and adult                 area is informed by up to date thinking and that
The rate of domestic homicide in Bradford has                 that adheres to the Home Office definition              services, health, housing and the voluntary sector,           information that can protect children is used as
reduced in recent years. However, the high rate               (which includes individuals who are of have             working together on an individual victimʼs case to            effectively as possible.
of attrition in relation to domestic violence, rape           been in an intimate relationship)                       share information to identify key actions aimed
                                                                                                                                                                                    Multi-agency strategic meetings, such as the
and sexual assault undermine public confidence                                                                        at providing greatest protection. Bradford holds
                                                                                                                                                                                    Bradford Violence Against Women Forum, Bradford
in the system. This lack of confidence results in                                                                     two MARAC meetings a month. one in Bradford
                                                                                                                                                                                    Domestic Abuse Partnership, Bradford Prostitution
victims not coming forward and perpetrators not
                                                                                                                                                                                    Strategic Partnership, Bradford Safeguarding
being brought to justice, leaving them to re offend.                                                                  Local data shows that since MARACs were
                                                                                                                                                                                    Adults Board and the Bradford Safeguarding
                                                                                                                      implemented district-wide the repeat victimisation
                                                                                                                                                                                    Children Board provide an opportunity for voluntary
                                                                                                                      rate for incidents reported to the police has
                                                                                                                                                                                    sector agencies to engage with senior
                                                                                                                      decreased, as have the number of domestic
                                                                                                                                                                                    representatives from the statutory sector. Agencies
                                                                                                                      related serious violent crime incidents. Ensuring             use the multi-agency meetings to tackle local
                                                                                                                      that MARACs continue will require sustainable                 issues and identify any areas where they need
                                                                                                                      funding from partner agencies.                                more support. They also provide an opportunity
                                                                                                                                                                                    for the implementation and exchange of good
                                                                                                                                                                                    practice.


32                                                      Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy                                                    33
Objectives                                                                                                          Objectives



                                                                                                                                                                                                              03
5b. Reduce prostitution by focusing on those profiting from the sexual exploitation                                 5c. Enhance the effectiveness of community based interventions with perpetrators

                                                                                                                    The majority of perpetrators of violence against              West Yorkshire Probation Service runs the
    of women and girls and by providing support services to help women and girls

                                                                                                                    women and girls never come to the attention of                Integrated Domestic Abuse Programme (IDAP)
    exit and recover from prostitution and sexual exploitation

                                                                                                                    the criminal justice system. When they do it is               for perpetrators, with support for the victim offered
The sexual exploitation of girls under 18 years of     Operation Pentameter is a national multi-agency              important that interventions are appropriate if re-           by voluntary sector agencies. Self-referral
age is a child protection issue and any girls          initiative set up by the police to reduce trafficking        offending is reduced and victim confidence                    programmes with integrated womenʼs support have
identified as being at risk should be referred         by providing a safe exit for women and children              increased. The role of domestic violence                      also been supported by the Bradford Domestic
through child protection procedures.                   forced in to the sex industry and prosecuting                perpetrator programmes is to increase the safety              Abuse Partnership.
                                                       traffickers. The Bradford Domestic Abuse                     of those experiencing domestic violence through
Prostitution, trafficking and sexual exploitation      Partnership recognises the good work the police              rehabilitation for offenders to reduce re-offending.
are serious problems that the Bradford Domestic        have done in disrupting traffickers and freeing              Not all men attending domestic violence perpetrator
Abuse Partnership will address through the             victims. The Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership             programmes will end their abuse, but perpertrator
Bradford Prostitution Strategic Partnership. The       will support future initiatives and will assist in           programmes may reduce risk and enable women
Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership wants to           national, regional and local actions aimed at                and girls to end relationships more safely.
see more perpetrators arrested, prosecuted and         reducing the impact of these crimes.
convicted and more women and girls assisted in
exiting and recovering from their experiences
within the sex industry.
                                                                                                                    5d. Prevent young men and boys from becoming perpetrators through early
                                                                                                                        intervention and implementing existing safeguarding procedures

The Bradford Prostitution Strategic Partnership                                                                     The links between domestic violence and child                 A number of researchers have pointed to the
works to a shared outcome-focused action plan.                                                                      abuse are well established. Negative                          possibility of children being diverted from copying
The Partnership set up the Bradford Prostitution                                                                    consequences for children and young people                    the negative behaviour of the adults around them
Tactical Group to share information and carry out                                                                   include reduced educational attainment, increased             by the presence of more positive role models.
case conferencing to help those involved in                                                                         involvement in anti-social behaviour, street/                 ʻWorking Together 2010ʼ specifically addresses
prostitution to work towards a planned exit through                                                                 playground violence and running away. These                   how the Common Assessment Framework (CAF)
removing barriers, such as lack of access to                                                                        connections need to be integrated into the                    fits with the safeguarding system to ensure that
housing and drug and alcohol services.                                                                              practice of child protection agencies in Bradford.            no children get lost between systems. This will
                                                                                                                                                                                  allow an organised response based on an agreed
                                                                                                                    Safeguarding practice in respect of children has              multi-agency assessment which should provide a
                                                                                                                    increasingly focussed on early intervention as a              sound basis on which to help children and families.
                                                                                                                    way of diverting children from situations that
                                                                                                                    compromise their development and require
                                                                                                                    complex interventions later in their lives. The
                                                                                                                    introduction of systems such as the Common
                                                                                                                    Assessment Framework (CAF) and Contactpoint
                                                                                                                    identify children early enough to intervene
                                                                                                                    effectively. Other measures, for example anti–
                                                                                                                    bullying initiatives are also trying to achieve the
                                                                                                                    same goal.



34                                                    Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy   Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy                                                     35
Summary
                                                          Glossary
                                                          Appendix 1




In 2009 the Bradford District Abuse Partnership           BSCB       Bradford Safeguarding Children Board
was recognised as a national leader in the field of
domestic violence and in recent years the district        CJS        Criminal Justice System
has made significant progress in protecting women
                                                          CPS        Crown Prosecution Service
and girls against violence and abuse.
                                                          FGM        Female Genital Mutilation
Important advancements have included
developing district-wide Independent Domestic             IDAP       Integrated Domestic Abuse Programme
Violence Advocacy, establishing Multi-Agency
Risk Assessment Conferences and introducing               IDVA       Independent Domestic Violence
Specialist Domestic Violence Courts.                                 Advocacy Services (IDVAs)

However, violence against women and girls still           ISVA       Independent Sexual Violence
presents the district with considerable challenges,                  Advocacy Services (ISVAs)
especially in relation to rape, sexual assault and
prostitution.                                             MAPPA Multi Agency Public Protection
                                                                Arrangements
Difficult economic times are looming and
subsequent social impacts on individuals and              MARAC Multi-Agency Risk Assessment
families are likely to result in increases in violence          Conferences
and abuse. Resourcing our districtʼs response
                                                          SARCs Sexual Assault Referral Centres
will be critical if the Partnership is to reduce the
long-term catastrophic human and financial                SDVC       Specialist Domestic Violence Courts
consequences.

This strategy signals the Bradford Domestic Abuse
Partnership's commitment to meeting the
challenges ahead and sets out an integrated and
collective strategic approach to addressing this
important community safety issue.

The Partnershipʼs subsequent delivery plan will
provide a mechanism for implementing the strategy
and will include an assessment framework
pinpointing areas requiring greater emphasis.

The Bradford Domestic Abuse Partnership would
like to thank all the agencies, organisations and
individuals who have been involved in providing
services and leading on work to tackle violence
against women and girls within our district.

We look forward to working with all our partners to
put this new strategy into practice and making
Bradford as safe as possible for all women and girls.


36                                                       Bradford Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy

				
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