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					Ethiopian Information and Communication Technology Development Agency




Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service
Providers and ICT Trainers

Working Document

March 2007




                   Consultancy and        and             Computing
Partners           Information Services         CUSTOR    PLC
Table of Contents



  1     Introduction                                                                 1

  2     Objective and Scope of Study                                                 3

  3     Study Methodology                                                            4

  4     Review of International Experiences in Classification of ICT Occupations     5
  4.1   ILO- International Standard Classification of Occupations                    5
  4.2   Occupational Classification System in the USA                               14
  4.3   European Union ICT Skills and Qualifications Frameworks                     16
  4.4   ICT Classification Structure for Australia and New Zealand                  20
  4.5   Vendor neutral and Vender-specific certifications                           24

  5     Classification of ICT Occupations in Ethiopia                               26
  5.1   Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (MoLSA)                               26
  5.2   Federal Civil Service Agency (FCSA)                                         26
  5.3   Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED)                        26
  5.4   Occupational Standards for ICT Technicians                                  38

  6     Competency Certification Experiences in other Sectors                       40
  6.1   Licensing and registration of advocates by Ministry of Justice              44
  6.2   Certification of Engineers and Architects by Ministry of Works and Urban    45
        Development
  6.3   Certification of Management Consultants by Ethiopian Management Institute   47
  6.4   Certification of Electricians by Ethiopian Electric Agency                  49
List of Figures, Tables and Annexes


Figures

Figure 1   ISCO-88 Classification of Computing Occupations                                 7
Figure 2   United States Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)                       15
Figure 3   Comparisons of ISCO-88 ICT skill level and their corresponding                 16
           European


Tables

Table 1    ISCO-88 major groups and skill level and ISCED Categories                       6
Table 2    ICSO-88 ICT Occupational Classifications, Qualifications and Tasks Performed    8
Table 3    International Classification of ICT Occupations of ISCO-88                     18
Table 4    Comparison of equivalence of European ICT skills frameworks: biat GAHFA        19
           Model, Career Space, e-skills UK SFIA and ISCO-88
Table 5    ANZSCO ICT Occupational Classifications and Skill Levels                       22
Table 6    ICT Job Positions and Education and Experiences Requirements in MoFED          27
Table 7    Skill Level and Duties of ICT Technicians                                      39
Table 8    Summary Review of Competency Certification in other Organization               40
Table 9    Criteria for Competency Evaluation of Management Consultants by EMI            48



Annexes

Annex A    List of Vendor-specific Certifications
Annex B    Draft Occupational Standards developed by TEVT
Annex C    Sample ICT Job Classifications and Descriptions
Annex D    Code of Conduct for EICTDA ICT Competency Certificate Holders
1       Introduction
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has emerged as the main driver of
development.   ICT encompasses the broad fields of data/information processing and
communications by means of computer and telecommunication techniques.

Cognizant of ICT as enablers of broad-based social and economic development, the Government
of Ethiopia (GoE) is taking measures to address major ICT challenges in the Country, which
include poor infrastructure, inadequate skilled workforce and high telecommunication costs, and
to enhance its growth, among other things, by encouraging investment in the sector with focus on
infrastructure and human resources development.

The priority areas of the National ICT Policy are building up of telecommunications
infrastructure; establishment of reliable, secure and affordable national information network;
provision of leased line for value added service network and public information gateways;
sectoral and institutional in-house network capacity building; development of ICT human
resource; contents applications development; diffusion and dissemination of ICT services and
products; ensuring data security; setting of standards; and promotion of research and
development in ICT.

The measures taken by the GoE include formulation of the national ICT4D policy as a
framework for the facilitating the Country’s ICT-led socio-economic development programme.
The objectives of the ICT4D policy framework are to:

                 promote human resource development;
                 facilitate public administration and service delivery, including the introduction of
                  electronic government (e-government) and governance;
                 promote ICT in educational development at all levels of the educational system;
                 use ICT for the development of sectors such as agriculture, health, industry and
                  trade;
                 develop infrastructure including telecommunications and physical infrastructure;
                 facilitate private sector development including electronic commerce (e-commerce),
                  electronic trade (e-trade) and foreign direct investment;
                 promote research and development in ICT; and
                 establish enabling legal and regulatory framework for smooth development of the
                  ICT sector.

In order to achieve these policy objectives, the GoE, with the assistance of the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP), has formulated a well-articulated, comprehensive and
detailed ICT4D action plan for the period 2006 to 20101.

The Government recognizes that an enabling policy and regulatory environment is a necessary
condition for a well-functioning, competitive growth of the ICT markets. Any gaps in regulatory
framework are likely to seriously constrain the efficiency and development of the ICT industry. It

1    The Federal Republic of Ethiopia, Ministry of Capacity Building, The National ICT for Development
     (ICT4D) Five Years, Action Plan for Ethiopia [2006 – 2010], Draft (Version 4.02), May 2006.


    Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 1
is on this background that the Ethiopian Information and Communication Development Agency
(EICTDA), in line with the powers vested to it by Proclamation No. 360/20032, has initiated a
National ICT Competency Certification Programme. The Programme aims to lay the basis for a
well-functioning ICT market and is expected to enhance the efficient and effective development
and utilizations of ICT in the Country. The study was undertaken under a consultancy service
agreement entered into between the Ethiopian Information and Communication Technologies
Development Agency and Partners Consultancy and Information Services in association with
CUSTOR Computing PLC.

Structure of the Report

The final Study reports are organized into two volumes. This Volume I, Main Report,
summarizes the main findings and recommendations and is structured as follows. The purpose
and intents of the certification programme are outlined in section 2. Then Section 3 briefly
discusses the study background, including country context, national policies and strategies, a
review of the ICT sector in Ethiopia and national ICT policies, strategies and programs and
action plans. This is followed a review of international experiences in classification of ICT
occupations in Section 4. Section 5 describes classification of ICT occupations in Ethiopia. This
is followed by a review of competency certification experiences in other sectors in Ethiopia in
Section 6. Section 7 outlined the proposed certification designations for ICT Professionals, ICT
Service Providers and ICT Trainers and the requirements for certification thereof. Finally section
8, outlines the proposed implementation arrangement and human and financial resources
requirements. The Competency Certification guidelines are presented in annexes 1 -3.

The Second Volume, Working Document, details the study methodologies, data and information
collected.




2
     The EICTDA is mandated by Proclamation No. 360/2003 to formulate ICT policy and strategy, initiate laws,
     formulate codes and directives, issue standards, facilitate the building of national ICT and design ICT
     education and training programmes, coordinate and support ICT Research and Development.
    Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 2
2        Objective and Scope of Study
The main objective of the Study is to “develop guidelines for competency certification of
ICT professionals, ICT Service providers and ICT Trainers”. The ICT competency
certification programme will contribute to the achievement of the National ICT Policy
objectives through facilitating the optimum exploitation information and communication
technologies for national development.

The certification programme is expected to enhance the efficiency and effectives in ICT
development and utilizations. More specifically, the Programme of is intended, among other
things, to:

              •    provide some assurance to the general public that a holder of ICT competency
                   certificate is appropriately qualified to provide ICT services, and ICT training;

              •    provide job seekers identifiable career paths, skill sets and credentials that are
                   nationally recognized;

              •    encourage private sector investment in the provision of ICT Services and ICT
                   Training;

              •    ensure that ICT service providers meet national ICT standards;

              •    ensure that ICT training programmes meet national standards;

              •    ensure that ICT workers receive appropriate and up-to-date training;

              •    provide incentive for individuals to develop careers in the ICT sector;

              •    offer standards necessary for educators and trainers to better prepare
                   individuals to meet today's ICT related job requirements;

              •    facilitate cost-effective attainment of competent ICT workers in a shorter
                   period of time; and

              •    maximize efficiency in recruiting, hiring, training and promoting employees;
                   ICT service provision and ICT training.




 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 3
3        Study Methodology
The Study utilized a number of methodologies. These included:

            1.      review of international experiences in competency certification for ICT
                    professional, ICT service Providers, and ICT Trainers;

            2.      review of the experiences, problems and lessons learned in certification of
                    professionals, service providers and trainers in other sectors in Ethiopia;

            3.      identification, grading and classification of ICT professional occupations, ICT
                    Services, and ICT training areas based adaptable to the local context;

            4.      determine the types and grades of certificates to be issued; defining the
                    requirements for each type of certificate;

            5.      review of related policies and laws;

            6.      drafting of competency Certification Guidelines;

            7.      presentation of draft guidelines to in expert consultation meeting; and

            8.      preparation of second draft guidelines incorporating the comments of the
                    expert consultation meeting participants on the first draft guidelines.




 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 4
4        Review of International Experiences in Classification of ICT
         Occupations
4.1      ILO- International Standard Classification of Occupations
One of ILO’s tasks is to develop international standards and guidelines to help countries
improve their labour administration as well as the quality, reliability and comparability of
their labour statistics. To these ends, the ILO publishes international standard classification
of occupations (ISCO). In 1952, it published International Classification for Migration and
Employment Placement, with detailed descriptions of 1,727 occupations based on the
national classifications of eight industrialized countries. Later in 1958, an expanded version,
ISCO-58, was published. ISCO-58 contained detailed group definitions (major, minor and
unit groups) and descriptions of 1,345 occupational categories within each unit group.

A revised version of ISCO-58 was published in 1968 (as ISCO-68) with a revised structure
and expanded number of described occupational categories (1,506). The third and most
recent version, ISCO-88, was adopted in November 1987 and approved by the ILO’s
Governing Body in February 1988.

In ISCO-88 occupations are organised in a hierarchical framework. At the lowest level is the
unit of classification - a job - which is defined as “a set of tasks and duties which are (or can
assigned to be) carried out by one person”. Jobs are grouped into occupations according to
the degree of similarity in their constituent tasks and duties. The decisive factor for
determining how an occupation should be classified is the nature of the skills that are
required to carry out the tasks and duties of the corresponding jobs. Two dimensions of the
skill concept are used in the definition of ISCO-88 groups: Skill level, and skill-
specialization.

Skill level is defined as a function of the range and complexity of tasks performed in an
occupation and is measured by:

                   the level or amount of formal education and training;
                   the amount of previous experience in a relevant occupation; and
                   the amount of on-the-job training required to confidently perform the set of
                    tasks required for that occupation.

Skill specialization is defined as a function of the following four factors:

                   Field of knowledge required;
                   Tools and equipment used;
                   Materials worked on; and
                   Goods and services produced or provided.

Skill level references are not made in the definitions of two major groups: Legislators, senior
officials and managers, and Armed forces, because other aspects of the type of work were
 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 5
considered more important as similarity criteria, i.e. policy making and management
functions, and military duties, respectively. The other eight ISCO-88 major groups are
delineated with reference to four broad skill levels. These four ISCO skill levels have been
defined in terms of the educational levels and categories of the International Standard
Classification of Education (ISCED).

At the highest level (level 4) are professional occupations, middle and senior managerial
occupations and specialist managerial jobs. These are occupations which require a degree or
equivalent or a corresponding amount of work experience. At level 3 are jobs requiring high-
level vocational education and training, but not equivalent to a degree. Level 2 encompasses
a wide range of occupations, all of which require a good standard of general education. Most
occupations classified at this level will also provide further work-based training to new
entrants. Level 1 Occupations do not usually require formal educational qualifications but
may have an associated short period of formal experience-related training. Table 1 lists
ISCO-88 major groups by skill levels and the corresponding ISCED categories.

                                                   Table 1
                           ISCO-88 major groups and skill level and ISCED Categories
                                     ISCO
                                      skill
        Major group                   level    ISCED Categories
 1      Legislators, senior              -     -
        officials and managers
 2      Professionals                  4th     ISCED categories 6 and 7, comprising education which
                                               begins at the age of 17 or 18, lasts about three, four or more
                                               year, and lead to a university or postgraduate university
                                               degree or the equivalent.
 3      Technicians and                3rd     ISCED category 5 comprising education which begins at the
        associate professionals                age of 17 or 18, last about four year, and leads to an award
                                               not equivalent to a first university degree.
 4      Clerks                         2nd     ISCED categories 2 and 3, comprising the first and second
 5      Service workers and                    stages of secondary education. The first stage begins at the
        shop and market sales                  age of 11 or 12 and lasts about three years, while the second
        workers                                stage begins at the age of 14 of 15 and also lasts about three
 6      Skill agricultural and                 years. A period of on-the-job training or experience may be
        fishery workers                        necessary, sometimes formalized in apprenticeships. This
 7      Craft and related workers              period may supplement the formal training or may replace it
 8      Plant and machine                      partly or, in some cases, wholly.
        operators and assemblers
 9      Elementary occupations          1st    ISCED category 1, comprising primary education which
                                               generally begins at ages 5-7 years and lasts about 5 years.
 0      Armed forces                     -     -


Figure 1 provides relevant ICT occupational groups within the ISCO-88. The major tasks
and qualification required for each of the occupational areas are also summarized in Table 2.




 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 6
                          Figure 1- ISCO-88 Classifications of Computing Occupations



               Major and Minor Groups                         Unit Groups



  1                 Computing Service
                   Department Managers
                         (1236)



                  Computing Professionals
  2                       (213)


                                                                Analyst communications/computers
                             Computer Systems                   Analyst database/computers
                                                                Analyst systems/computers
                           Designers and Analysts               Database administrator
                                  (2131)                        Designer, systems/computers
                                                                Engineer, computer systems

                          Computer Programmers                  Programmer
                                 (2132)                         Programmer, communications
                                                                Programmer, database


                              Other Computing                  Engineer, computer applications
                            Professionals (2139)




    3                Computer Associate
                     Professionals (312)



                            Computer Assistants                 Assistant, computer/programming
                                                                Assistant, computer/systems analysis
                                 (3121)                         Assistant, computer/users' services


                            Computer Equipment                  Operator, computer peripheral equipment
                                Operators                       Operator, computer peripheral equipment/high-
                                 (3122)                         speed printer


                              Electronics and
                           Telecommunications
                          Engineering Technicians
                                  (3114)



                           Computer/Electronics,
                          Mechanics and Servicers
                                 (7243)




           Source: International Standard Classification of Occupations: ISCO- 88; Geneva, International Labour Office (ILO); 1990




Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document                    Page 7
                                                           Table 2
             ICSO-88 ICT Occupational Classifications, Qualifications and Tasks Performed
        Major/Minor        Occupations/Related            Qualifications/
No.     Group              occupations                    Tasks Preformed            Tasks

1.      Computing         1. Department                   Computing Services         1. Planning, directing and
        Services             Manager,                     Department                     coordinating the computing
        Department           Computing Services           Managers plan,                 services of the enterprise or
        Managers                                          direct and co-                 organization;
        (1236)                                            ordinate the               2. Directing the selection,
                                                          computing services             installation, use and
                                                          of the enterprise or           maintenance of computing
                                                          organization, under            equipment and software and the
                                                          the broad guidance             purchase of externally provided
                                                          of the directors and           computing services;
                                                          chief executives,          3. Planning the overall data
                                                          and in consultation            processing policies of the
                                                          with managers of               enterprise or organization and
                                                          other departments or           coordinating the search for
                                                          sections.                      alternatives;
                                                                                     4. Controlling expenditure and
                                                                                         ensuring the efficient use of
                                                                                         resources;
                                                                                     5. Establishing and directing daily
                                                                                         operations and administrative
                                                                                         procedures;
                                                                                     6. Planning and directing daily
                                                                                         operations;
                                                                                     7. Overseeing the selection,
                                                                                         training and performance of
                                                                                         staff
                                                                                     8. Representing the department in
                                                                                         its dealing with other parts of
                                                                                         the organization or with outside
                                                                                         bodies;
                                                                                     9. Performing related tasks;
                                                                                     10. Supervising other workers.


2.      Computing          1. Computer systems            Computing                  1.   Conducting research into the
        Professionals         designers and               professionals                   theoretical aspects of and
        (213)                 analysts (2131)             conduct research,               operational methods for the use
                           2. Computer                    plan, develop and               of computers, such as computer
                              programmers                 improve computer-               architecture and design, data
                              (2132) and                  based information               structures and databases,
                           3. Other computing             systems, software               algorithms. artificial intelligence,
                              professionals               and related                     computer languages, data
                              (2139)                      concepts, develop               communication and robotics;
                                                          principles and             2.   evaluating, planning and
                                                          operational methods             designing hardware and software
                                                          as well as maintain             configurations for specific
                                                          data dictionary and             applications;
                                                          management                 3.   designing, writing, testing and

Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document             Page 8
                                                          systems of databases            maintaining computer programs;
                                                          to ensure integrity        4.   preparing scientific papers and
                                                          and security of data.           technical reports, documentation
                                                                                          and manuals. Supervision of
                                                                                          other workers may be included.

2.1     Computer           1.   Analyst                   Computer systems           1.   Researching into the principles
        Systems                 communications/co         designers and                   and operational methods of
        Designers               mputers                   analysts conduct                computers and computer-based
        and Analysts       2.   Analyst                   research, improve or            systems for information
        (2131)                  database/computers        develop computing               communication and processing,
                           3.   Analyst                   concepts and                    planning, design, process control
                                systems/computers         operational                     and production: development
                           4.   Database                  methods, and advise             and maintenance of computer
                                administrator             on or engage in their           software, as well as data
                           5.   Designer,                 practical                       structures and databases,
                                systems/computers         application.                    algorithms, artificial intelligence
                           6.   Engineer, computer                                        and robotics;
                                systems                                              2.   Maintaining data dictionary and
                                                                                          management systems of
                                                                                          databases to ensure validity and
                           Some related                                                   safety of data:
                           occupations are:                                          3.   Contributing to and keeping up
                                                                                          with technical developments of
                           1. Engineer, computer                                          computers, peripherals,
                              applications (2139)                                         computing methods and
                                                                                          software, their potential and
                           2. Technician,                                                 limitations:
                              computer (3121)                                        4.   Analyzing computer users'
                                                                                          requirements by consultation to
                                                                                          determine hardware and software
                                                                                          configurations and development
                                                                                          needs and preparing cost-benefit
                                                                                          analyses:
                                                                                     5.   Writing programming
                                                                                          specifications and preparing
                                                                                          technical reports and instruction
                                                                                          manuals specifying methods of
                                                                                          operation and maintenance of the
                                                                                          computer hardware and software
                                                                                          configurations;
                                                                                     6.   Designing, writing, maintaining
                                                                                          and updating software which
                                                                                          controls the overall functioning
                                                                                          of computers and which links
                                                                                          hardware and computer
                                                                                          applications software;
                                                                                     7.   Designing and implementing
                                                                                          communication networks
                                                                                          between different computer
                                                                                          installations;
                                                                                     8.   Developing improved methods
                                                                                          and instruments, including
                                                                                          computer languages, for writing,
                                                                                          documenting and maintaining
                                                                                          computer software;
Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document            Page 9
                                                                                     9.    Preparing scientific papers and
                                                                                           reports;
                                                                                     10.   Performing related tasks;
                                                                                     11.   Supervising other workers.


2.2     Computer               1. Programmer              Computer                    1. Studying program intent output
        Programmers            2. Programmer,             programmers write,             requirements, nature and sources
        (2132)                    communications          test and maintain              of input data, internal checks and
                               3. Programmer,             computer programs              other controls required in
                                  database                to meet the: needs of          consultation with Computer
                                                          users of computer              systems designers and analysts
                                                          systems.                       and subject-matter specialists;
                                                                                      2. Preparing detailed logical
                                                                                         workflow charts and diagrams
                                                                                         and establishing sequence of
                                                                                         steps for data input and computer
                                                                                         processing operations;
                                                                                      3. Writing and providing detailed
                                                                                         documentation of computer
                                                                                         programs and testing programs
                                                                                         to eliminate errors;
                                                                                      4. Maintaining computer programs
                                                                                         and their documentation to take
                                                                                         account of changed input or
                                                                                         output specifications or hardware
                                                                                         configurations;
                                                                                      5. Performing related tasks;
                                                                                      6. Supervising other workers.

2.3     Other              1. Engineer, computer          This group consists         1.    Designing and implementing
        Computing             applications                of computing                      computer software applications
        Professionals                                     professionals which               and computer operating
        (2139)                                            are not usually                   systems;
                                                          classified as               2.    Maintaining and updating
                                                          computing                         computer software applications
                                                          professionals.                    and computer operating
                                                                                            systems;
                                                          For instance, here          3.    Installing computers and
                                                          should be classified              performing diagnostics on
                                                          those who have a                  computer hardware;
                                                          general knowledge           4.    Performing related tasks;
                                                          of both computer            5.    Supervising other workers.
                                                          hardware and
                                                          software.


3.      Computer           1. Computer assistants         Computer associate          1. assisting users of micro-
        Associate             (3121)                      professionals                  computers and standard
        Professionals                                     provide assistance to          software systems at installation
        (312)              2. Computer                    users of micro-                and when problems occur;
                              equipment operators         computers and               2. installing new computer
                              (3122)                      standard software              programs on particular
                                                          packages, control              hardware and operating systems
                                                          and operate                    configurations and installing
                                                          computers and                  new peripheral units: making
Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document           Page 10
                                                          peripheral                     minor changes and adjustments
                                                          equipment and carry            to existing programs to update
                                                          out limited                    and maintain them;
                                                          programming tasks           3. operating and controlling
                                                          connected with the             computers and peripheral
                                                          installation and               equipment: organizing
                                                          maintenance of                 computing jobs;
                                                          computer hardware           4. keeping log of computing
                                                          and software.                  operations: performing back-up
                                                                                         operations: activating industrial
                                                                                         robots, programming them for
                                                                                         specific functions and
                                                                                         controlling their operation.
                                                                                      5. They may receive guidance
                                                                                         from Managers or
                                                                                         Professionals. Supervision of
                                                                                         other workers may be included.

3.1     Computer           1. Assistant,                  Computer assistants        1. Assisting users of micro-
        Assistants            computer/program            provide assistance to         computers and standard
        (3121)                ming                        users of micro-               software systems at installation
                           2. Assistant,                  computers and                 and when problems occur;
                              computer/systems            standard software          2. Installing new computer
                              analysis                    systems at                    programs on particular
                           3. Assistant,                  installation and              hardware and operating systems
                              computer/users'             when problems                 configurations;
                              services                    occur, install new         3. Installing new peripheral units
                                                          computer programs             and making necessary
                                                          on particular                 parameter adjustments in
                           Some related                   hardware and                  operating systems and drives;
                           occupations are:               operating systems          4. Installing, maintaining and
                                                          configurations,               updating computer programs by
                           1. Mechanic,                   install new                   making minor changes and
                              electronics/comput          peripheral units and          adjustments to them, under the
                              er (7243)                   maintain and update           guidance of computing
                                                          existing programs             professionals;
                           2. Technician,                 by making minor            5. Maintaining and updating
                              engineering/electro         changes and                   documentation of computer
                              nics (3114)                 adjustments to them           programs and installations;
                                                          under the guidance         6. Applying knowledge of
                                                          of Computing                  principles and practices in the
                                                          professionals.                area of programming and
                                                                                        computing in order to identify
                                                                                        and solve problems arising in
                                                                                        the course of their work ;
                                                                                     7. Performing related tasks;
                                                                                     8. Supervising other workers.

3.2     Computer           1. Operator, computer          Computer                   1.   Operating and controlling
        Equipment             peripheral equipment        equipment operators             peripheral and related computer
        Operators          2. Operator, computer          operate and control             equipment which is used to
        (3122)                peripheral                  peripheral and                  record, store, transmit and
                              equipment/high-             related computer                process digital data and to
                              speed printer               equipment used for              display data as letters, numbers
                                                          recording, storing,             or graphs on screen, paper or
                                                          transmitting and                film, as requested by users;
Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document         Page 11
                           Some related                   processing digital         2.    Organizing computing jobs as
                           occupations are:               data and for                     specified by users to ensure
                                                          displaying data as               timely, safe and efficient
                           1. Mechanic,                   letters, numbers or              execution;
                              electronics/compute         graphs on screen,          3.    Mounting magnetic tapes and
                              r (7243)                    paper or film.                   disks as needed for processing
                                                                                           or recording data in machine
                           2. Technician,                                                  readable form and keeping
                              engineering/electron                                         library of disks and tapes;
                              ics (3114)                                             4.    Keeping log of computing
                                                                                           operations:
                                                                                      5.   Performing back-up operations
                                                                                           according to regular
                                                                                           procedures:
                                                                                      6.   Applying knowledge of
                                                                                           principles and practices of
                                                                                           computers and peripheral
                                                                                           equipment in order to identify
                                                                                           and solve problems arising in
                                                                                           the course of their use and
                                                                                           making minor repairs and
                                                                                           adjustments:
                                                                                      7.   Performing related tasks:
                                                                                      8.   Supervising other workers.

        Broadcasting       1. Operator,                   These operators             1. Controlling transmitting and
        and                   broadcasting                control technical              broadcasting systems and
        Telecommun            equipment                   functioning of                 satellite systems;
        ications/          2. Operator,                   equipment for               2. Controlling communications
        Network               telecommunication           transmitting                   systems, satellite services and
        Equipment          3. Operator,                   broadcasts of pre-             multiplex systems;
        Operator              transmitting                recorded or live            3. Applying knowledge of
        (3132)                equipment                   images and sounds,             principles and practices of
                                                          as well as                     broadcasting,
                           Some related                   telecommunications             telecommunications terminals
                           occupations are:               signals on land and            and transmission systems, in
                                                          sea or in aircraft.            order to identify and solve
                           1. Mechanic,                                                  problems arising in the course
                              electronics/compute                                        of their work and maintain
                              r (7243)                                                   equipment;
                                                                                      4. Keeping logs of operations;
                           2. Technician,                                             5. Performing related tasks;
                              engineering/electron                                    6. Supervising other workers.
                              ics (3114)


        Electronics        1.   Technician,               Electronics and             1. Providing technical assistance
        and                     engineering/electro       telecommunications             connected with research and the
        Telecommun              nics                      engineering                    development of electronic and
        ications           2.   Technician,               technicians perform            telecommunications equipment.
        Engineering             engineering/teleco        technical tasks                or testing prototypes:
        Technicians             mmunications              connected with              2. Designing and preparing
        (3114)                                            electronic and                 blueprints of electronic circuitry
                                                          telecommunications             according to the specifications
                                                          engineering                    given:
                                                          research, as well as        3. Preparing detailed estimates of
Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document         Page 12
                                                          with the design,                 quantities and costs of materials
                                                          manufacture                      and labour. required for the
                                                          assembly,                        manufacture and installation of
                                                          construction,                    electronic and
                                                          operation,                       telecommunications equipment
                                                          maintenance and                  according to the specifications
                                                          repair of electronic             given:
                                                          equipment and               4.   Providing technical supervision
                                                          electronic and                   of the manufacture, utilization,
                                                          electromechanical                maintenance and repair of
                                                          telecommunications               electronic equipment and
                                                          systems.                         telecommunications systems to
                                                                                           ensure satisfactory performance
                                                                                           and compliance with
                                                                                           specifications and regulations:
                                                                                      5.   Applying technical knowledge
                                                                                           of electronic and
                                                                                           telecommunications
                                                                                           engineering principles and
                                                                                           practices in order to identify
                                                                                           and solve problems arising in
                                                                                           the course of their work:
                                                                                      6.   Performing related tasks;
                                                                                      7.   Supervising other workers.

        Computer/El        1.   Mechanic,                 Electronics/                1. Examining equipment,
        ectronics,              electronics/comput        Computer                       computer hardware and other
        Mechanics               er equipment              mechanics and                  electronic devices such as radio
        and Servicers      2.   Servicer,                 servicers, service             or television, tape recorders,
        (7243)                  electronics/              and repair computer            video cassette recorders, and
                                computer                  equipment other                other audio-visual equipment;
                                equipment                 electronic                  2. Replacing defective parts and
                                                          equipments.                    making adjustments and
                                                                                         repairs;
                                                                                      3. Performing related tasks:
                                                                                      4. Supervising other workers.


Source: International Standard Classification of Occupations: ISCO-88; Geneva, ILO, 1990.




Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document          Page 13
4.2      Occupational Classification System in the USA

The Standard Occupational Classification system used in the United States of America (SOC,
2000) classified occupations based upon work performed, skills, education, training, and
credentials. The SOC classifies occupations/worker at four levels of aggregation. These are:
1) major group; 2) minor group; 3) broad occupation; and 4) detailed occupation. All
occupations are clustered into one of the following 23 major groups:

              1.    Management Occupations
              2.    Business and Financial Operations Occupations
              3.    Computer and Mathematical Occupations
              4.    Architecture and Engineering Occupations
              5.    Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations
              6.    Community and Social Services Occupations
              7.    Legal Occupations
              8.    Education, Training, and Library Occupations
              9.    Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations
              10.   Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations
              11.   Healthcare Support Occupations
              12.   Protective Service Occupations
              13.   Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations
              14.   Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations
              15.   Personal Care and Service Occupations
              16.   Sales and Related Occupations
              17.   Office and Administrative Support Occupations
              18.   Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations
              19.   Construction and Extraction Occupations
              20.   Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations
              21.   Production Occupations
              22.   Transportation and Material Moving Occupations
              23.   Military Specific Occupations

Occupations with similar skills or work activities are grouped at each of the four levels of
hierarchy. Within the major groups are 96 minor groups, 449 broad occupations, and 821
detailed occupations. The SOC 2000 further classifies Computer Occupations into the
following 20 minor groups:

         1.    Computer Specialists
         2.    Computer Programmers
         3.    Computer Software Engineers
         4.    Computer Support Specialists
         5.    Computer Systems Analysts
         6.    Database Administrators
         7.    Network and Computer Systems Administrators
         8.    Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts
         9.    Miscellaneous Computer Specialists
 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 14
                                      Figure 2
              United States Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)

SOC Major Groups                                                        Computer Applications

  11-0000 Management Occupations                                          15-1000 Computer Specialists
  13-0000 Business and Financial                                          15-1010 Computer and Information
           Operations Occupations                                                 Scientists, Research
  15-0000 Computer and
                                                                          15-1011 Computer and Information
           Mathematical Occupations
                                                                                  Scientists, Research
  17-0000 Architecture and Engineering
           Occupations                                                    15-1020 Computer Programmers
  19-0000 Life, Physical, and Social                                      15-1021 Computer Programmers
           Science Occupations                                            15-1030 Computer Software
  21-0000 Community and Social                                                    Engineers
           Services Occupations                                           15-1031 Computer Software
  23-0000 Legal Occupations                                                       Engineers, Applications
  25-0000 Education, Training, and                                        15-1032 Computer Software
           Library Occupations                                                    Engineers, Systems
  27-0000 Arts, Design, Entertainment,                                            Software
           Sports, and Media
                                                                          15-1040 Computer Support
           Occupations
                                                                                  Specialists
  29-0000 Healthcare Practitioners and
           Technical Occupations                                          15-1041 Computer Support
  31-0000 Healthcare Support                                                      Specialists
           Occupations                                                    15-1050 Computer Systems Analysts
  33-0000 Protective Service Occupations                                  15-1051 Computer Systems Analysts
  35-0000 Food Preparation and Serving                                    15-1060 Database Administrators
           Related Occupations                                            15-1061 Database Administrators
  37-0000 Building and Grounds Cleaning                                   15-1070 Network and Computer
           and Maintenance Occupations                                            Systems Administrators
  39-0000 Personal Care and Service                                       15-1071 Network and Computer
           Occupations
                                                                                  Systems Administrators
  41-0000 Sales and Related Occupations
                                                                          15-1080 Network Systems and Data
  43-0000 Office and Administrative
           Support Occupations                                                    Communications Analysts
  45-0000 Farming, Fishing, and Forestry                                  15-1081 Network Systems and Data
           Occupations                                                            Communications Analysts
  47-0000 Construction and Extraction                                     15-1090 Miscellaneous Computer
           Occupations                                                            Specialists
  49-0000 Installation, Maintenance, and                                  15-1099 Computer Specialists, All
           Repair Occupations                                                     Other
  51-0000 Production Occupations
  53-0000 Transportation and Material
           Moving Occupations
  55-0000 Military Specific Occupations



Source: http://stats.bls.gov/soc/




Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 15
4.3       European Union ICT Skills and Qualifications Frameworks
The European Union variant of the International Standard Classification of Occupations
(ISCO-88), referred to as ISCO 88 (COM), was developed for harmonization of national
occupational classifications across the European Union. ISCO 88 (COM) represents the most
detailed level of ISCO-88. However, unlike ISCO-88, the European ICT Skills and
qualification frameworks define the following skill levels for ICT occupations:

         ICT Skill Level 6 in correspondence to qualification level 5M (second cycle degree or
          Masters);
         ICT Skill Level 5 in correspondence to qualification level 5B (first cycle degree or
          Bachelors);
         ICT Skill Level 4 in correspondence to qualification level 4 (advanced or specialist);
         ICT Skill Level 3 in correspondence to qualification level 3 (core or technician); and
         ICT Skill Level 2 in correspondence to qualification level 2 (basic or assistant).

The European Framework for ICT Skills and Framework of ICT Qualification are defined on
the basis of ICT employment system and ICT education and Training system, respectively.
The European Union ICT Skills and Qualifications framework and corresponding ISCO-88
skill level are shown in Figure 3.

                                                Figure 3
           Comparisons of ISCO-88 ICT skill level and their corresponding European ICT Skills




                                                           European
                       ICT Skill Level                  Correspondence                ICT Qualification Level

               ISCO-88             Skill
                                  level 6                                             Qualification
                level -
                                  (work)                                                level 5M
                                                                                       (MA/SCD)                EC
                                                            Skill level                                       2004
               ISCO-88                                                                                       Level D
                 Skill             Skill                corresponding to              Qualification
                level 4           level 5                                               level 5B
                                  (work)               Qualification level             (BA/FCD)

               ISCO-88             Skill                                              Qualification            EC
                 Skill            level 4                                               level 4               2004
                level 3           (work)                                                (VET)                Level C
                                                        Overall orientation:
                                   Skill                  International               Qualification
                                  level 3          (ISCO 1988 – ISCED 1997)             level 3
               ISCO-88            (work)                     Europe                     (VET)                  EC
                 Skill                                (SEDOC 1985 – ISCO                                      2004
                level 2            Skill             (COM) 1990 - EC 2004)            Qualification          Level B
                                  level 2                                               level 2
                                  (work)                                                (VET)




 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document             Page 16
The ISCO-88 (COM) defines a number of ICT Business areas. These are outlined in Table
and together with their corresponding skill levels. Thus, Sales and marketing managers,
computing services managers, and Production and operations managers have ICT skill level
6 (i.e., second cycle degree or Masters).

Computing Professionals could have ICT Skill level 6 (second cycle degree or Masters) or
Skill level 5 (first cycle degree or Bachelors). ICT Technicians and associate professionals
are grouped under skill levels 4 (advanced or specialist) and Skill level 3 (core or technician).
Finally, Craft and related trades workers have skill levels 3 and 2 (basic or assistant).

The European ICT skills frameworks define a number of ICT work areas. These include ICT
Marketing, Consulting and Sales; ICT Business and Project Management; ICT Systems and
Application Development; ICT Integration and Administration; ICT Infrastructure and
installation; and ICT Support and Systems Service. Table 4 provides details of the fields of
activities under each of the ICT work areas.




 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 17
                                                                    Table 3
                                            ISCO-88 (COM) ICT Business areas and Skill Levels
Major Groups        Minor Groups                         Unit Groups                         Skill               Skill       Skill       Skill
                                                                                            Level 2             Level 3     Level 4      Level

                                ICT Business Area:                                         Skill       Skill       Skill     Skill       Skill
                Information and communication Technology (ICT)                            Level 2     Level 3     Level 4   Level 5     Level 6
Legislators,        Other specialist                                                                                                      
senior officials    managers               Sales and marketing managers
and managers        (ISCO 123)             (ISCO 1233)
(ISCO 1)                                                                                                                                  
                                           Computing services managers
                    Production and         (ISCO 1236)
                    operations managers
                                                                                                                                          
                    (ISCO 214)             Production and operations managers
                                           in … communication
                                           (ISCO 1226)
Professionals       Computing                                                                                                            
(ISCO 2)                                   Computer systems designers, analysts
                    Professionals
                                           and programmers
                    (ISCO 213)
                                           (ISCO 2131)
                                                                                                                              
                                              Computing professionals not                                                                 
                                              elsewhere classified
                                              (ISCO 2139)
                   Architects, engineers                                                                                                 
                   and related                Electronics and telecommunications
                   professionals              engineers
                   (ISCO 214)                 (ISCO 2144)
Technicians        Physical and                                                                                     
and associate      engineering science        Electronics and telecommunications
professionals      technicians                engineering technicians
(ISCO 3)           (ISCO 311)                 (ISCO 3114)
                   Computer associate                                                                               
                                              Computer assistants
                   professionals
                                              (ISCO 3121)
                   (ISCO 312)
                                                                                                                    
                                              Computer equipment operators
                                              (ISCO 3122)
                   Optical and electronic                                                                           
                   equipment operators        Broadcasting and telecommunication
                   (ISCO 313)                 equipment operators
                                              (ISCO 3132)
Craft and          Electrical and                                                                      
related trades     electronic equipment       Electronics mechanics, fitters and
workers            mechanics and fitters      servicers
(ISCO 7)           (ISCO 724)                 (ISCO 7242)
                                                                                                       
                                              Telegraph and telephone installers and
                                              servicers
                                              (ISCO 7244)




         Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document            Page 18
                                                           Table 4
                                   European ICT Work Areas and Fields of Activity
ICT Work Areas                     Field of Activity
ICT Marketing, Consulting                Market analysis and benchmarks
and Sales                                Advertising and Consumer promotion
                                         Customer Consulting and Acquisition
                                         Requirement, Product and System Analysis
                                         Conception and Documentation of ICT solutions
                                         Quotation processing and contracting
ICT Business and Project                 Project Resource Planning
Management                               Selection and purchasing
                                         Order Coordination and Project Support
                                         Project Monitoring and Quality Assurance
                                         Customer Support and Training
                                         Project Finalizing and billing
ICT Systems and                          Analysis and Consulting
Application Development                  System and Work Planning
                                         Design and Conception
                                         Programming and Implementation
                                         Adaptation, Testing and Release
                                         Configuration Management and Documentation
ICT Integration and                      Planning and Administration
Administration                           System Integration and Configuration
                                         Integration and System Testing and Release
                                         Documentation and Delivery
                                         Presentation, Training and Instruction
                                         System Administration and Support
ICT Infrastructure and                   Analysis and Consulting
installation                             System and Work Planning
                                         Assembly and Installation
                                         Set-up, Integration and Configuration
                                         Check, Test and Documentation
                                         Delivery and Instruction
ICT Support and Systems                  Source Management and System Adoption
Service                                  System Upgrading and Optimization
                                         System Administration and Control
                                         System Support Helpdesk and Training
                                         System Maintenance and Documentation
                                         Error Diagnosis and Troubleshooting




Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 19
4.4      ICT Classification Structure for Australia and New Zealand
As is the case with ISCO 88, the Australia and New Zealand Standard Classification of
Occupations (ANZSCO) is a skill-based classification, using the concepts of both skill level
and skill specialization to group occupations together. However, five skill levels are defined
for ANZSCO.

         Skill Level 1 - Occupations at Skill Level 1 have a level of skill commensurate with a
         Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience
         may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience
         and/or on-the-job-training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

         Skill Level 2 - Occupations at Skill Level 2 have a level of skill commensurate with at
         least one of the following:

                   NZ Register Diploma, or
                   AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma

         At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification.
         In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job-training may be required in
         addition to the formal qualification.

         Skill Level 3 - Occupations at Skill Level 3 have a level of skill commensurate with at
         least one of the following:

                   NZ Register Level 4 qualification,
                   AQF Certificate 4, or
                   AQF Certificate 3 and at least two years of on-the-job training.

         At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the qualifications listed
         above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job-training may be
         required in addition to the formal qualification.

         Skill Level 4 - Occupations at Skill Level 4 have a level of skill commensurate with
         at least one of the following:

                   NZ Register Level 2 or 3 qualification, or
                   AQF Certificate 2 or 3.

         At least one year of relevant experience may substitute for the qualifications listed
         above. In some instances relevant experience may be required in addition to the
         formal qualification.

         Skill Level 5 - Occupations at Skill Level 5 have a level of skill commensurate with
         completion of one the following:

 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 20
                   NZ Register Level 1 qualification,
                   AQF Certificate 1, or
                   compulsory secondary schooling.

         In some instances, none of the above may be required.


The following table indicates the relationship between ANZSCO ICT occupational
classifications and their corresponding skill levels. As can be observed from Table 5,
ANZSCO offers more detailed classification of ICT Occupations than the ISCO-88.

Occupations under major group ICT managers include ICT Chief Information Officer and
ICT Project Manager. ICT Professionals have skill level 1 and include such occupations as:

                   ICT Trainers,
                   ICT Business Analysts,
                   Systems Analysts,
                   Multimedia Specialists,
                   Web Developers,
                   Analyst Programmers,
                   Developer Programmers,
                   Software Engineers,
                   Database Administrators,
                   ICT Security Specialists,
                   Systems Administrators,
                   Computer Network and Systems Engineers,
                   Network Administrators,
                   Network Analysts,
                   ICT Quality Assurance Engineers,
                   ICT Support Engineers, and
                   ICT Systems Test Engineers.

ICT trainers are grouped under human resource and Training Professionals, and ICT sales
Professionals, ICT Account Managers, ICT Business Development Managers and ICT Sales
representatives under ‘Advertising and Marketing Professionals’.

Occupations at skill level 2 include Hardware Technicians, ICT Customer Support Officers,
and Web Administrators.




 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 21
                                                         Table 5
                  Table 5-ANZSCO ICT Occupational Classifications and Skill Levels
Code             Major, sub-major, minor and unit groups and occupations                                    Skill Level
135              ICT Managers
1351             ICT Managers
          135111 Chief Information Officer                                                                       1
          135112 ICT Project Manager                                                                             1

223                     Human Resource and Training Professionals
2231                    Human Resource Professionals
          223111        Human Resource Adviser                                                                   1
          223112        Recruitment Consultant                                                                   1
          223113        Workplace Relations Adviser                                                              1
2232                    ICT Trainers                                                                             1
223211                  ICT Trainer                                                                              1

225                     Sales, Marketing and Public Relations Professionals
2251                    Advertising and Marketing Professionals
          225111        Advertising Specialist                                                                   1
          225112        Market Research Analyst                                                                  1
          225113        Marketing Specialist                                                                     1
2252                    ICT Sales Professionals
225211                  ICT Account Manager                                                                      1
225212                  ICT Business Development Manager                                                         1
225213                  ICT Sales Representative                                                                 1

26                      ICT Professionals
261                     Business and Systems Analysts, and Programmers
2611                    ICT Business and Systems Analysts
          261111        ICT Business Analyst                                                                     1
          261112        Systems Analyst                                                                          1
2612                    Multimedia Specialists and Web Developers
261211                  Multimedia Specialist                                                                    1
261212                  Web Developer                                                                            1
2613                    Software and Applications Programmers
          261311        Analyst Programmer                                                                       1
          261312        Developer Programmer                                                                     1
          261313        Software Engineer                                                                        1
          261399        Software and Applications Programmers nec                                                1
262                     Database and Systems Administrators, and ICT Security
                        Specialists
2621                    Database and Systems Administrators, and ICT Security
                        Specialists
          262111        Database Administrator                                                                   1
          262112        ICT Security Specialist                                                                  1
          262113        Systems Administrator                                                                    1
263                     ICT Network and Support Professionals

Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document            Page 22
2631                    Computer Network Professionals
          263111        Computer Network and Systems Engineer                                               1
          263112        Network Administrator                                                               1
          263113        Network Analyst                                                                     1
2632                    ICT Support and Test Engineers
          263211        ICT Quality Assurance Engineer                                                      1
          263212        ICT Support Engineer                                                                1
          263213        ICT Systems Test Engineer                                                           1
          263299        ICT Support and Test Engineers nec                                                  1
2633                    Telecommunications Engineering Professionals
          263311        Telecommunications Engineer                                                         1
          263312        Telecommunications Network Engineer                                                 1

313                     ICT and Telecommunications Technicians
3131                    ICT Support Technicians
          313111        Hardware Technician                                                                 2
          313112        ICT Customer Support Officer                                                        2
          313113        Web Administrator                                                                   2
          313199        ICT Support Technicians nec                                                         2
3132                    Telecommunications Technical Specialists
          313211        Radio communications Technician                                                     2
          313212        Telecommunications Field Engineer                                                   2
          313213        Telecommunications Network Planner                                                  2
          313214        Telecommunications Technical Officer or Technologist                                2




Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document       Page 23
4.5      Vendor neutral and Vender-specific certifications
A number of companies and organization offer a wide range of generic or vender neutral or
vender independent certifications worldwide. Some of the most popular include the
following.

         CompTIA is one of the most popular vendor neutral certification suppliers. They offer
         a wide range of certifications and are widely accepted as pre-requisites for other types
         of training. The A+ has been 'accredited' as part of a Technical Certificate and is often
         seen as the benchmark for an entry level IT Professional.

         Help Desk Institute (HDI) provides four levels of certification for those working as
         part of a helpdesk team. These progress from Customer Support Specialist though
         Help Desk Analyst and Help Desk Senior Analyst to Help Desk Manager.

         There are also over 500 certifications from over 100 vendors. Some of the popular
         product certifications are Apple, CISCO, Dell, Hewlett Packard (HP), Microsoft,
         Novell, Oracle, Sun, 3 com, and IBM. Some of certifications are briefly described
         below. Annex A provides a list of vendor-specific certifications.

         Apple - Apple offers in-depth certification programs designed to create a high level of
         competency among Macintosh service technicians, help desk personnel, technical
         coordinators, system administrators and Pro users. Includes a qualification suitable
         for working those on Help Desks; Apple Certified Help Desk Specialist (ACHDS).

         CISCO - Cisco Systems, Inc. is a worldwide leader in networking for the Internet.
         Cisco Internet Protocol-based (IP) networking solutions are the foundation of these
         networks. There are four tracks and CCNA certified professionals can install,
         configure, and operate LAN, WAN, and dial access services for small networks (100
         nodes or fewer) CCNP is a more advanced qualification.

         Dell - Dell have a training site that gives access to a wide range of on line training
         programmes Dell - Training and also has a certification programme covering Servers,
         Networks and Storage Networking.

         Hewlett Packard (HP) - HP has a wide rage of certifications available under their
         Certified Professional Program. Qualifications range from 'Platform Specialists' to
         'Master Accredited System Engineer'.

         Microsoft - Microsoft has a comprehensive range of certifications covering both IT
         User and IT professionals. Some of these qualifications have links to Technical
         Certificates and delivery is available through commercial suppliers or under the
         Microsoft IT Academy programme. The Academy Programme provides a range of IT
         User (Office Specialist) and IT Professional certifications at Academic pricing. There
         is a Training Centre Locator Tool on the website. Popular certifications include MCP,
         MCSA, MCSE, Office Specialist and MMI.

 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 24
        Novell - Well known for the CNE (Certified Network Engineer) programme covering
        its Network Operating System, Novell offers additional certifications in Linux.

        Oracle - Oracle has a certification programme associated with its Oracle University
        Programme. The website contains address details for Training Providers delivering
        Oracle certifications. There are links between Oracle training and Technical
        Certificates.

        Sun - Sun has details of certification programmes for Java Technology, Application
        and Directory Server, Solaris Operating, and System Network Storage.

        IBM - A wide range of certifications, mainly product related, including Lotus and
        other software and a range of hardware.




Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 25
5        Classification of ICT Occupations in Ethiopia

5.1      Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (MoLSA)
The Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs is mandated for establishing national Standard
Classification of Occupation. The Ministry has prepared a draft Ethiopian Standard
Classification of Occupations (ESCO) based on ISCO-88.

5.2      Federal Civil Service Agency (FCSA)
The Federal Civil Service Agency is responsible for formulating human resource policies and
laws and follow-up their proper implementation. The Agency is, among other things,
mandated by The Civil Servants’ Proclamation No. 262/2002, among other things, to:

              approve organizational set-up of Government Offices,
              create and classify positions and grades,
              prepare class specification for each class of positions supervise the
               implementation of same, and
              Issue directives on classification of positions.

We contacted the Federal Civil Service Agency whether they have standard for classification
of ICT occupations for use in Government agencies. We learned that the Agency have not
developed any but are planning to do so in the near future.


5.3      Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED)
In the absence of a standard classification of ICT occupations for use by government
agencies, and in view of the fact that the Government is the major employer of ICT
personnel, sample Government agencies were selected in order to help analyze how ICT
occupations are classified. The review included ICT occupational classifications and the
requirements for the specific position in terms of education and work experience.

The Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MOFED) was one of the sample
government agencies selected for review. The Ministry has wide-ranging ICT positions. A
detailed description of the positions, job descriptions and educational and work experience
requirements are provided in Table 6.

As can be observed from the table many of the high-level ICT positions (senior programmer,
senior system analyst, senior system expert, software development administration team
leader, database administration team leader, information system administration centre head,
etc) require qualifications in computer sciences but such fields as accounting mathematics
and statistics are acceptable as substitutes.

 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 26
                                                Table 6
               ICT Job Positions and Education and Experiences Requirements in MoFED
                                                                                                           Requirements
                                                                                                                       Work
No          Position          Job                  Job Description
                                                                                                   Education        Experienc
                                                                                                                         e
1.         Senior             Programming          1. Supervises and coordinates                   B. A.,           B. Sc. – 6
           Programmer                                 programming tasks.                           B. Sc., in       Years
                                                   2. Participates in conducting detailed          Computer         M. Sc.– 4
                                                      feasibility study to carry out               Science,         Years
                                                      complicated tasks in relation to             Accounting,
                                                      programming and system                       Mathematics
                                                      designing.                                   and Statistics
                                                   3. Gives quick resolutions to
                                                      problems that might arise on the
                                                      existing systems.
                                                   4. When information is required
                                                      from the existing systems,
                                                      prepares the required program and
                                                      takes out the necessary
                                                      information.
                                                   5. Studies the logic of existing
                                                      programs and makes
                                                      improvements.
                                                   6. Corrects the designs and programs
                                                      devised by other professionals
                                                      beneath him/her at each level,
                                                      prepares detailed computer
                                                      programs.
                                                   7. To verify the programs reliability,
                                                      capacity and content, has the
                                                      program tested by taking sample
                                                      data and prepares resolutions for
                                                      problems that may be
                                                      encountered.
                                                   8. Participates in preparation of
                                                      tender specifications for computer
                                                      and other related items.
                                                   9. Performs other similar tasks upon
                                                      instruction.
2.          Assistant         Programming          1. Studies existing systems in the              B. A.,           B. Sc. – 4
            Programmer                                office.                                      B. Sc.,          Years
                                                   2. When information is required                 M. A.,           M. Sc.– 2
                                                      from the existing systems,                   M. Sc., in       Years
                                                      prepares programs in accordance              Computer
                                                      with the directives of the                   Science,
                                                      supervisor and provides required             Accounting,
                                                      information                                  Mathematics
                                                   3. Performs programming duties,                 and Statistics
                                                      upon instructions from the head,
                                                      which are required for
                                                      information organizing tasks.
                                                   4. Loads application software on the
                                                      computers found in the

     Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document       Page 27
                                                        administrative and service
                                                        departments of the office, gives
                                                        solutions to problems that occur
                                                        on the computers and other
                                                        related items.
                                                   5.   Participates in the formulation of
                                                        computer and system programs
                                                        used for information organizing
                                                        tasks as an assistant and trainer.
                                                   6.   Assists in collecting the required
                                                        information for programming and
                                                        system development planning
                                                   7.   Gives technical support when
                                                        problems are encountered during
                                                        operation.
                                                   8.   Carries out other similar tasks
                                                        upon instruction.
3.         Programmer         Programming          1.   Prepares detailed logical flow             B. A.,           B. Sc. – 10
                                                        charts.                                    B. Sc.,          Years
                                                   2.   Prepares flow charts and diagrams          M. A.,           M. Sc.– 8
                                                        as well as computer program in             M. Sc., in       Years
                                                        computer language.                         Computer
                                                   3.   Writes new programs, improves              Science,
                                                        and develops existing programs             Accounting,
                                                   4.   Prepare programs in accordance             Mathematics
                                                        with the program specifications            and Statistics
                                                        given, tests the prepared program
                                                        by taking sample data and verifies
                                                        accuracy.
                                                   5.   Removes errors and problems in
                                                        existing programs and software
                                                   6.   Performs tasks involved in the
                                                        tendering process for computers
                                                        and other related items
                                                        (specification and evaluation) and
                                                        upon delivery checks whether the
                                                        items are correct.
                                                   7.   Carries out other similar tasks
                                                        upon instruction.
4.         Junior             Programming          1.   Studies the office’s operational           B. A.,                -
           Programmer                                   systems.                                   B. Sc., in
                                                   2.   Participates as a trainee on               Computer
                                                        operations and data preparation            Science,
                                                        tasks                                      Accounting,
                                                   3.   Assists by gathers information             Mathematics
                                                        required for programming and               and Statistics
                                                        system development planning.
                                                   4.   Loads application software on the
                                                        computers found in the
                                                        administrative and service
                                                        departments of the office, tries to
                                                        give solutions to problems that
                                                        occur on the computers and if
                                                        unable to do so informs the
                                                        supervisor.

     Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document       Page 28
                                                   5. Practices preparing and designing
                                                       detailed logical flowchart.
                                                   6. Assists in presenting information
                                                       required introduce users to the
                                                       procedures prepared for either
                                                       new or improved existing
                                                       computer programs and systems
                                                       design.
                                                   7. Performs simple program logics.
                                                   8. Carries out other similar tasks
                                                       upon instruction.
5.         Senior             System Design        1. Carries out detailed feasibility             B. A.,           B. Sc. – 10
           System             and                      study on data collection,                   B. Sc.,          Years
           Analyst            Programming              organization, usage, storage and            M. A.,           M. Sc. – 8
                                                       dissemination.                              M. Sc., in       Years
                                                   2. Generates ideas for system                   Computer
                                                       analysis and design to improve              Science,
                                                       existing and introduce new                  Accounting,
                                                       systems, upon authorization                 Mathematics
                                                       implements changes.                         and Statistics
                                                   3. Participates in system analysis
                                                       and design of new projects.
                                                   4. When new systems are
                                                       implemented, prepares system
                                                       technical documents and user
                                                       manuals.
                                                   5. Monitors and records problems
                                                       caused by networking on the
                                                       computer system, gives solution
                                                       ideas to the supervisor, upon
                                                       authorization implements
                                                       resolutions.
                                                   6. Devises information exchange
                                                       formats and report forms for
                                                       system designing tasks.
                                                   7. Evaluates the level of complexity
                                                       of the systems and programs,
                                                       plans and implements easier
                                                       implementation methods.
                                                   8. When the system is implemented,
                                                       ensures that programmers and
                                                       operators are familiarized with the
                                                       detailed functions of the system.
                                                   9. Gives training on the system to
                                                       the users.
                                                   10. Prepares the specification and
                                                       evaluation of computers and other
                                                       related items for tendering process
                                                       and upon delivery checks whether
                                                       the items are correct.
                                                   11. Carries out other similar tasks
                                                       upon instruction.




     Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document       Page 29
6.         System               System             1. Assists in the study conducted on            B. A.,           B. Sc. – 8
           Analyst              Design and             the office’s entire information             B. Sc.,          Years
                                Programming            management, organization and                M. A.,           M. Sc.– 6
                                                       utilization systems by collecting           M. Sc., in       Years
                                                       and presenting information.                 Computer
                                                   2. Studies the tasks and procedures             Science,
                                                       performed by each administrative            Accounting,
                                                       and service department, records             Mathematics
                                                       and examines those that should be           and Statistics
                                                       computerized.
                                                   3. Gathers and reinforces
                                                       information needed for research,
                                                       evaluation and decision making.
                                                   4. Participates in system analysis
                                                       and design for new tasks.
                                                   5. Evaluates existing systems
                                                       indicates methods to make
                                                       improvements to the supervisor,
                                                       upon authorization implements
                                                       modification in accordance with
                                                       directives.
                                                   6. Prepares technical documents and
                                                       user manuals when a new system
                                                       is implemented.
                                                   7. Monitors and records problems
                                                       caused by networking on the
                                                       computer system, gives solution
                                                       ideas to the supervisor, upon
                                                       authorization implements
                                                       resolutions.
                                                   8. Participate, as required in the new
                                                       system and program development.
                                                   9. When the system is implemented,
                                                       ensures that programmers and
                                                       operators are familiarized with the
                                                       detailed functions of the system.
                                                   10. Gives training on the system to
                                                       the users.
                                                   11. Fulfils other similar tasks upon
                                                       instruction.
7.         Senior System        System             1. In order for the office staff to be          B. A.,           B. Sc. – 8
           Expert               Design                 users of computer technology,               B. Sc.,          Years
           (Database                                   introduces new users to Internet            M. A.,           M. Sc.– 6
           Administrator)                              and e-mail services.                        M. Sc., in       Years
                                                   2. Follows up and controls the speed            Computer
                                                       and accuracy of the office’s                Science,
                                                       website.                                    Accounting,
                                                   3. Prepares the specification and               Mathematics
                                                       evaluation of computers and other           and Statistics
                                                       related items and upon delivery
                                                       checks whether the items are
                                                       correct.
                                                   4. Studies and lists detailed aspects
                                                       of the data banks that should be

     Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document       Page 30
                                                         developed within the information
                                                         system procedures.
                                                   5.    Controls the data that is entered
                                                         into the database so that they are
                                                         accurate and up-to-date, creates
                                                         information dissemination
                                                         procedures.
                                                   6.    When different departments
                                                         require the development of data
                                                         banks, evaluates and formulates
                                                         designs in collaboration with the
                                                         users.
                                                   7.    Supervises and regularly checks
                                                         the database system usage to
                                                         ensure congestion is not created
                                                         on the system.
                                                   8.    Develops information security
                                                         system, ensures that these systems
                                                         are kept secure.
                                                   9.    Studies different easy to
                                                         implement, user friendly data
                                                         banks; selects and implements
                                                         upon authorization.
                                                   10.   Executes other similar tasks upon
                                                         instruction.
8.         System Expert        System             1.    Studies and lists detailed aspects        B. A., B. Sc.,    B. Sc. – 6
           (Database            Design                   of the data banks that should be          M. A.,            Years
           Administrator)                                developed within the information          M. Sc., in        M. Sc.– 4
                                                         system procedures.                        Computer          Years
                                                   2.    Supervises and monitors the               Science,
                                                         office internet and e-mail service        Accounting,
                                                         database, creates new users.              Management
                                                   3.    Prepares the specification and            and Information
                                                         evaluation of computers and other         Science
                                                         related items and upon delivery
                                                         checks whether the items are
                                                         correct.
                                                   4.    Controls the data that is entered
                                                         into the database so that they are
                                                         accurate and up-to-date
                                                   5.    Monitors and regularly checks the
                                                         database system usage to ensure
                                                         congestion is not created on the
                                                         system.
                                                   6.    Monitors and supervises the
                                                         functionality of the information
                                                         security system, ensures that
                                                         information is kept secure.
                                                   7.    Performs other similar tasks upon
                                                         instruction.




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9.         Software             Software           1. Plans, organizes, coordinates and            B. A.,           B. Sc. – 12
           Development          Development            supervise the team’s work                   B. Sc., in       Years
           Administration                          2. Prepares programming and                     Computer         M. Sc. – 10
           Team Leader                                 system design plans, oversees               Science,         Years
                                                       implementation, and conducts                Accounting,
                                                       detailed feasibility studies.               Mathematics
                                                   3. Monitors systems that are in use,            and Statistics
                                                       evaluates, ensure that
                                                       development studies are
                                                       conducted.
                                                   4. Solves larger programming and
                                                       system design technical problems.
                                                   5. Before a new system is made
                                                       operational, monitors programs
                                                       that are being examined, separates
                                                       system coordination problems,
                                                       and removes program problems.
                                                   6. Outlines new programs to be
                                                       written, oversees the proper use of
                                                       development standards and
                                                       formats, by studying
                                                   7. Examines the different manuals
                                                       that are prepared, ensures their
                                                       accuracy and makes
                                                       improvements.
                                                   8. Creates work plan for professional
                                                       team members and assigns,
                                                       controls and evaluates
                                                       performance.
                                                   9. Studies new technology and
                                                       operation methods in connection
                                                       with the profession, and suggests
                                                       methods of integrating them with
                                                       the current situation; upon
                                                       authorization implements them.
                                                   10. Establishes the office’s web page.
                                                   11. Participates in the preparation of
                                                       the specification and evaluation of
                                                       computers and other related items
                                                       and upon delivery checks whether
                                                       the items are correct
                                                   12. Gives required resolution when
                                                       technical problems occur on the
                                                       computers in the office.
                                                   13. Formulates work order for the
                                                       new system and assigns the
                                                       available work force in
                                                       accordance with the urgency of
                                                       the task.
                                                   14. Evaluates and prepares reports on
                                                       the tasks performed by the team
                                                       for the supervisor.
                                                   15. Prepares annual work plan and
                                                       budget for the team.

     Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document       Page 32
                                                16. Performs other similar tasks upon
                                                    instruction.
10.     Operations           Computer           1. Supervises Computer Operators                B. A., B. Sc.,    B. Sc. – 10
        Head                 Operation              and Data Entry Technicians,                 M. A.,            Years
                                                    provides them with professional             M. Sc., in        M. Sc.– 8
                                                    advice and training.                        Computer          Years
                                                2. Responsible for the administration           Science,
                                                    of computers and other related              Accounting,
                                                    equipment that are used by the              Management
                                                    institution.                                and Information
                                                3. Follows up and maintains backup              Science
                                                    system regularly.
                                                4. Controls the consumption of
                                                    computer papers, toners and other
                                                    items in the institution, when
                                                    necessary makes purchase
                                                    request.
                                                5. Ensures that reports are prepared
                                                    when queries are received from
                                                    different departments.
                                                6. Records problems that may be
                                                    encountered during day-to-day
                                                    operations and reports them to the
                                                    supervisor in order to get
                                                    resolutions.
                                                7. In collaboration with the
                                                    computer company that provides
                                                    maintenance, has the damaged
                                                    computers and peripherals
                                                    repaired.
                                                8. Checks whether the source
                                                    documents, magazines, cartridges,
                                                    tapes, CDs are up-to-date and
                                                    accurate, and ensures that these
                                                    items are stored properly.
                                                9. Administers and supervises the
                                                    computers and other related
                                                    equipments that exist in the
                                                    institution, in each department as
                                                    well as in the computer training
                                                    centre
                                                10. Administers the generator used
                                                    for computer services
                                                11. Performs other similar tasks upon
                                                    instruction.
11.     Operations           Computer           1. Produces reports in accordance               Diploma from      10 Years as
        Assistant            Operation              with the regulations on the use of          Commercial        Computer
                                                    computer programs and                       College           Operator
                                                    equipment, issues the reports to
                                                    users.
                                                2. Checks that all computers and
                                                    servers are working properly
                                                    during working hours and when
                                                    problems arise informs the
                                                    concerned body to take remedial
                                                    action.
  Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document        Page 33
                                                3. Identifies program and equipment
                                                    problems, resolves the problems
                                                    using fault correcting methods
                                                4. Records and prepares report on
                                                    the consumption of computer
                                                    papers, toners and other items.
                                                5. Ensures that the software, disk
                                                    zip, jazz drive and tape drive are
                                                    working properly, that files are
                                                    not infected with viruses and
                                                    checks whether the different
                                                    output apparatuses are functioning
                                                    appropriately, records and reports
                                                    massive problems to the
                                                    supervisor
                                                6. Creates Backup according to the
                                                    assigned schedule, handles files
                                                    with care.
                                                7. Tracks the progress of the
                                                    computer operations and records
                                                    the problems encountered by
                                                    programs and equipments,
                                                    informs the concerned body.
                                                8. Make certain that the different
                                                    parts of the computers and
                                                    peripherals are maintained
                                                    properly.
                                                9. Prepares reports in accordance
                                                    with the schedule when inquiries
                                                    are received from different
                                                    departments.
                                                10. Performs data entry work, if
                                                    required.
                                                11. Carries out other tasks upon
                                                    instruction.
12.     Database             Database           1. Plans, organizes, coordinates and            B. A., B. Sc.,   B. Sc. – 12
        Administration       Management             supervise the team’s work.                  M. A.,           Years
        Team Leader                             2. Supervises the use of                        M. Sc., in       M. Sc. – 10
                                                    internationally standardized and            Computer         Years
                                                    accepted software in order to               Science,
                                                    design different data banks.                Accounting,
                                                3. Administers the office’s website             Mathematics
                                                    and database.                               and Statistics
                                                4. Initiates current security software
                                                    and systems to avoid possible
                                                    problems that might occur on the
                                                    database
                                                5. Performs database design and
                                                    development tasks, supervises the
                                                    application of the database.
                                                6. Monitors the data that is entered
                                                    into the database so that they are
                                                    up-to-date, controls the
                                                    information security system and
                                                    its reliability.

  Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document       Page 34
                                                7. Ensures that the database creation
                                                    and application information
                                                    system management and support
                                                    are performed in a reliable and
                                                    competent manner, in accordance
                                                    with the office’s policy.
                                                8. Monitors the increase on database
                                                    usage and congestion that might
                                                    create problems on computing
                                                    processes.
                                                9. Regularly evaluates the
                                                    performance of the team and
                                                    prepares a report for the
                                                    supervisor.
                                                10. Creates work assignments and
                                                    guidelines for team members.
                                                11. Prepares annual work plan and
                                                    budget for the team.
                                                12. Completes other similar tasks
                                                    upon instruction.
13.     Information          Information        1. Establishes integrated                       B. A.,           B. Sc. – 15
        System               System                 management information system               B. Sc., in       Years
        Administration       Management             to support in policy decisions by           Computer         M. Sc. – 13
        Centre Head                                 providing up-to-date information            Science,         Years
                                                    on computers; presents project              Accounting,
                                                    proposals.                                  Mathematics
                                                2. Supervises computerized                      and Statistics
                                                    information system design
                                                    formulation, database creation and
                                                    management, network
                                                    development as well as program
                                                    and system tasks.
                                                3. Supervises plans, organizes, leads
                                                    and coordinates the operations of
                                                    the larger computer centre.
                                                4. In accordance with the inquiries
                                                    received from different
                                                    departments on systems, network
                                                    development conducts studies and
                                                    monitors their implementation.
                                                5. Frequently evaluates the growth
                                                    of the amount and type of the
                                                    office’s computers in use, ensure
                                                    that replacements are made by
                                                    improved equipments and
                                                    software.
                                                6. Gives suggestions to get external
                                                    assistance for tasks that are
                                                    beyond the office’s capacity to
                                                    decision makers.
                                                7. Monitors computerization studies,
                                                    plans and program
                                                    implementation
                                                8. Controls the appropriate use of
                                                    the computer centre’s software,

  Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document       Page 35
                                                    hardware, human resource and
                                                    equipments.
                                              9.    Puts to use new computer
                                                    information technology and
                                                    technical methods presented by
                                                    studies conducted by
                                                    professionals.
                                              10.   Checks the availability of
                                                    equipments required for the
                                                    functions in the centre.
                                              11.   Ensures that items for training and
                                                    training programs are prepared as
                                                    well as training is arranged.
                                              12.   Prepares annual plan for the
                                                    Information System
                                                    Administration Centre, prepares
                                                    budget to reach the planned
                                                    objectives, and upon authorization
                                                    implements them.
                                              13.   Continuously studies monitors
                                                    and evaluate the growth in
                                                    computer hardware and software
                                                    technology, gives suggestions to
                                                    implement those that are
                                                    acceptable, technologically and
                                                    cost wise.
                                              14.   Controls access to information by
                                                    individuals and companies using
                                                    security software.
                                              15.   In order to renew the working
                                                    techniques of workers ensures the
                                                    participation of these
                                                    professionals in different courses
                                                    and seminars.
                                              16.   Coordinates work done in the
                                                    specified profession, implements
                                                    new work methods.
                                              17.   Without causing any disorder to
                                                    the current efforts of the computer
                                                    section, gets consent from the
                                                    supervisor formulates methods to
                                                    obtain financial support for the
                                                    office by giving computer service
                                                    and support. Collects fees for the
                                                    services rendered.
                                              18.   Prepares work directives, ensures
                                                    that work is performed in
                                                    accordance with the formulated
                                                    plans, supervises and gives
                                                    directives
                                              19.   Participates in national
                                                    information technology capacity
                                                    building research, studies and
                                                    seminars representing the office.
                                              20.   Formulates the office’s
                                                    information technology standards;
Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 36
                                                   supervises implementation.
14.     Data                 Data               1. Enters data from source                      Diploma from    12 Years
        Technician           Encoding              documents into the computer,                 Technical and
                                                   according to the arrangement of              Vocational
                                                   the data.                                    School
                                                2. Records daily the amount of data
                                                   entered into the computer.
                                                3. Records and informs of problems
                                                   encountered when entering
                                                   information and data from the
                                                   source documents into the
                                                   computer.
                                                4. Makes certain that information
                                                   and data from source documents
                                                   are stored by category.
                                                5. After raw data are saved as
                                                   computer files, ensures that they
                                                   are sent back to the source.
                                                6. Verifies the accuracy and quality
                                                   of the data and information
                                                   entered into the computer,
                                                   complies them in a user friendly
                                                   manner.
                                                7. Carries out other similar tasks
                                                   upon request.




  Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document      Page 37
5.4      Occupational Standards for ICT Technicians
The Ethiopian Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Qualification
Authority has legislative responsibility for the issuance of the certificates. To this end, it has
developed elaborated draft Occupational Standards (OS) for:

                   ICT Hardware Technician Level I,
                   Assistant ICT System Technician Level II,
                   ICT System Technician Level III,
                   ICT Software Assistant Level I , and
                   ICT Application Developer Level III.

The objectives of the OS, as pointed out in the draft OS document, is to “inform all interested
parties along with the job seekers about the general occupational requirements a candidate
has to fulfil during examination in order to obtain Nationally accredited Certificate’ and in
order to “…bridge the employment and training systems to better serve the needs of the
employment life”. More specifically, the purpose of introducing OS is to:

                   provide employers, employees and job-seekers with a common understanding
                    of what required for a particular employment in the labour market;
                   enhance employment by increasing transparency between what is needed in
                    the world of work and what employees and job seekers will have to offer in
                    terms of competencies (knowledge, skills and work behaviour);
                   increase efficiency of employment exchange and placements in the labour
                    market;
                   improve occupational mobility of employees holding Nationally accredited
                    Certificate; and
                   improve the international competitiveness of Ethiopian economy, to reduce
                    unemployment rates in the long run.

The occupational standard provides details of duties and tasks, general scope of knowledge
and skills, general scope of tools, equipment and materials as well as general work
behaviour.

The skill levels and duties of each occupation are summarized in the table below. The duties
and tasks performed by each occupation are detailed in Annex B.




 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 38
                                                         Table 7
                                        Skill Level and Duties of ICT Technicians
Occupation                          Skill Level       Duties
ICT Hardware Technician                10+1           1.   Install hardware components
Level I                                               2.   Install system application software
                                                      3.   Identify simple problems in a computer system
                                                      4.   Repair simple problems created in a computer system
                                                      5.   Identify simple net work problems
                                                      6.   Install hardware components

Assistant ICT System                   10+2           1.   Upgrade hardware components
Technician Level II                                   2.   Upgrade soft ware
                                                      3.   Conduct structural cabling
                                                      4.   Conduct simple network configuration
                                                      5.   Identify and maintain medium faults in computer systems and
                                                           networks

ICT System Technician                 10+3            1.   Install hard ware and soft ware in ICT system and net works
Level III                           (Diploma)         2.   Configure hardware and software and software in ICT systems and
                                                           networks
                                                      3.   Test hard ware and software ICT systems and networks
                                                      4.   Maintain ICT systems and networks
                                                      5.   Administer ICT systems and network
                                                      6.   Deliver consultancy service and technical support

ICT Software Assistant                 10+1           1.   Gather System Requirement
Level I                                               2.   Install Software
                                                      3.   Establish Backup System
                                                      4.   Secure Software
                                                      5.   Trouble Shoot Software
                                                      6.   Managing Data

ICT Application Developer        10+3 (Diploma)       1.   Perform Documentation
Level III                                             2.   Design web page
                                                      3.   Gather system requirement
                                                      4.   Support customer
                                                      5.   Design data bases
                                                      6.   Design multi media system
                                                      7.   Train users
                                                      8.   Maintain software
                                                      9.   Administer system




 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document        Page 39
6        Competency Certification Experiences in other Sectors

In the development of competency certification procedures for ICT professionals, ICT
service providers and ICT trainers, lessons and experiences of other organizations were
reviewed. The sample institutions include the Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Works and
Urban Development, Ethiopian Management Institute and Ethiopian Electric Agency. A
summary of the reviews is provided in the table below and described in the paragraphs that
follow.

                                                 Table 8
                      Summary of Certification Experiences in Selected Organizations
                                                          Ministry of Works
Certification               Ethiopian Management          and Urban                                          Ethiopian Electric
Particulars                 Institute                     development               Ministry of Justice      Agency
1.   Basic/Entry             –   Bachelor degree           –    Valid trade          –   Be Ethiopian        –   Certificate
     Requirements for        –   At least 10 years of           license              –   Diploma             –   Work experience
     Certification               work experience           –    Payment of Birr      –   Five years
                                                                30 for                   experience
                                                                application
                                                                form
                                                           –    Diploma
2.   Criteria for            –   Education                For professionals          –   Education           –   Education
     Certification           –   Work experience           – Education               –   Experience          –   Experience
                             –   Actual work               – Experience              –   Entrance exam       –   Exam
                                 accomplished              – Professional            –   Code of conduct
                             –   Short                         engagement
                                 term/specialized
                                 training
                                                          For contractors
                             –   Publications
                                                           – Education
                             –   References
                                                           – Experience
                                                           – Equipment
                                                           – Capital
                                                           – Staff
3.   Classification and      –   No                        –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   Yes
     Grading of
     Occupations and
     Services
4.   Certification           –   Yes                       –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   Yes
     Requirements
5.   Educational             –   Bachelor degree          For professionals          –   At least diploma    –   Certificate from
     Requirements for                                      – Bachelor degree             in law                  comprehensive
     Applicants                                                                      –   Knowledge of            school
                                                                                         Ethiopian law
                                                          For contractors
                                                           – Diploma
6.   Proof of                –   Original and copy        –     Original and        –    Original and copy   –   Original and
     Educational                 documents                      copy documents           documents               copy documents
     Qualifications
7.   Experience              –   At least 10 years        For professionals          –   At least 5 years    –   Depends on their

 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document         Page 40
     Requirements                                         –    Seven years                                      educational level

                                                         For contractors
                                                         –    depends on the
                                                              grading
8.   Experience             –   Yes                       –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   Yes
     evaluation
9.   Reference              –   Yes (three)               –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   Yes
     Providers
10. Reference               –   Yes                       –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   No
    Statements
11. Reference               –   Yes (as required)         –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   No
    Communication
12. Fees                    –   Birr 550.00              For professionals          –   Birr 400.00         –   Birr 100 to 500
                                                          – Birr 50                                             depending on
                                                                                                                grade level
                                                         For contractors
                                                          – Birr 50 to 4,000
                                                              depending on
                                                              grading
13. Application for         –   Application form          –    Application          –   Application form
    Certificate                 available                      form available           available

14. Certification           –   No                        –    No                   –   No                  –   No
    Processing Fees
15. Issuance of             –   Yes                       –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   Yes
    Certificate
16. Replacement of          –   Yes                       –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   Yes
    certificate
17. Renewal of              –   No                        –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   No
    Certificate
18. Certificate             –   No                       For professionals          –   No                  –   No
    Renewal Fee                                           – Birr 25.00
                                                         For contractors
                                                          – Birr 25 to 2,000
                                                              depending on
                                                              grade level
19. Renewal of              –   No                        –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   No
    Expired
    Certificates
20. Upgrading of a          –   No                        –    Yes                  –   No                  –   No
    Certificate
21. Suspension,             –   No                        –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   No
    Revocation, or
    Cancellation of
    Certificate
22. Certification           –   Defined on a              –    Defined on a         –   Defined on a        –   No
    Procedures,                 guideline                      guideline                proclamation
    Powers and Duties
    of Executive
    organs
23. Committee               –   All committee             –    Committee            –   Representatives     –   No

Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document         Page 41
     membership and             members are sector             members are              of the ministry
     composition                managers assigned              from the             –   Representatives
                                by the General                 ministry                 of advocates’
                                Manager of the                 assigned by the          association
                                institute                      minister
                                                                                    –   Representatives
                                                                                        of high court
24. Member                  –   No                        –    No                   –   No                  –   No
    qualification
    Eligibility/qualific
    ations
25. General Powers          –   Defined on a              –    Defined on a         –   Defined on a        –   No
    and Duties                  guideline                      guideline                proclamation

26. Terms of Office         –   Not defined               –    Not defined          –   Yes (two years)     –   No
    of Committee
27. Rules/Meetings of       –   Defined on a              –    Defined on a         –   Yes                 –   No
    the Committee               guideline                      guideline

28. Standard Conduct        –   Not stated                –    Not stated           –   Stated              –   Not stated
    and Ethics of
    Committee
    members
29. Ground for              –   Not stated                –    Not stated           –   Yes                 –   Not stated
    removal from
    Committee
    membership
30. Certificate             –   No                       For professionals          –   Yes (annually)      –   No
    Expiration and                                        – Two years
    Renewal                                              For contractors
                                                          – One year
31. Notice of               –   No                        –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   No
    certificate
    Expiration
32. Procedures for          –   No                        –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   No
    Renewal
33. Renewal of              –   No                        –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   No
    Expired
    Certificates
34. Inactive Status         –   No                        –    No                   –   Yes                 –   No

35. License                 –   No                        –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   No
    Suspension/Revoc
    ation
36. Sanctions and           –   No                        –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   No
    Penalties
37. Grounds for             –   Not stated                –    stated               –   stated              –   Not stated
    Disciplinary
    Action
38. Right to Hearing        –    No                       –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   Yes

39. Appeal of               –   No                        –    Only up to the       –   Yes                 –   No
    Certificate                                                Minster
    Revocation
40. Re-issuance of          –   No                        –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   No

Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document         Page 42
    Revoked
    Certificate
41. General Rules           –   Not stated                –    Stated               –   Stated              –   Not stated
    regarding
    complaint
    Investigation and
    Disposition
42. Filing a                –   Not stated                –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   Not stated
    Complaint
43. Processing a            –   Not stated                –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   Not stated
    Complaint
44. Investigating a         –   Not stated                –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   Not stated
    Complaint
45. Final resolution of     –   Not stated                –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   Not stated
    complaint
46. Reporting               –   Not stated                –    Yes                  –   Yes                 –   Not stated
    complaint status




Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document         Page 43
6.1      Licensing and registration of advocates by Ministry of Justice


In order to regulate the licensing and registration of advocates practicing before federal
courts, the government of Ethiopian has issued federal courts advocates licensing and
registration proclamation no. 199/2000. The proclamation provided the ministry of justice the
responsibilities to register advocates, issue, renew, suspend or revoke licenses. On the basis
of the proclamation, the council of minister’s has also issued implementation regulations and
code of conduct for advocates.

The proclamation has specified the required criteria for licensing and registration of
individuals who wishes to render advocacy services. It also clearly states the conditions for
persons who may render advocacy services without license. Some of the requirements for a
person who wishes to apply for a license include submission of credentials, a
recommendation letter from his former employer and such other information required by the
ministry.

Any applicant who fulfils the requirements and wishes to obtain an advocacy license shall
take an entrance examination to be prepared for this purpose and paid the registration fee.
Exceptions are persons who have taught law in Ethiopian higher educational institutions at
least as an assistant professor. A person, who has served, holding a degree in law, at least for
five years as a judge or public prosecutor in a federal high court or above, or as a legal
consultant and attorney in known governmental organs is also exempted from the entrance
exam.

The Ministry of Justice issues three types of licenses, i.e., a federal first instance court
advocacy license, federal courts advocacy license and a federal court special advocacy
license. Basic requirements for each of the license type and the particulars that shall be
included in the license are clearly stipulated in the law. A person who has another permanent
job may not be issued with an advocacy license. An advocacy license shall be renewed
annually and the applicant is required to pay the renewal fee.

There are provisions for an advocate that he can return the advocacy license to the ministry
permanently or temporarily where he is engaged in an activity outside his profession or is not
in a position to render his services. At the same time, the ministry has the mandate to suspend
or revoke a license where the license is obtained with fraud, the advocate is charged with an
offence, or showing that he is incompetent, practicing by any sort of deceitful activity, etc.

Apart from the licensing of individuals, the Ministry of Justice is also responsible to register
and provide a license to law firms, where the nature of the firm is non-business organization.

Registration and licensing of advocates and law firms is done on a committee basis. Within
the ministry, there are three legal committees (Entrance exam setting Committee, License
evaluating committee and advocate’s disciplinary committee). The roles and responsibilities
of these committees are defined. The members of the committees include representatives of
 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 44
the ministry, the advocate’s association and the federal courts. The term of the committee
members is for two years and chairperson of the committee is nominated by the minister.
Before the issuance of a license, committee recommendations shall be submitted to and
approved by the minister. In case, where there is an aggrieved person by the decision of the
minister, there is an option to appeal against the decision to the federal high court.

There is also a penalty provision for a person who renders or attempts to render advocacy
services without having obtained a license or renewing his license in accordance with the
given law.

The experience of the ministry of justice in the registration and licensing of competency
certificate is believed to be the best. Not only the requirements and working procedures are
declared as a law but also committee membership includes representatives of relevant
organizations from out side of the ministry. The existence of code of conduct of advocates
has also significant importance in the application of the discipline.


6.2      Certification of Engineers and Architects by Ministry of Works and
         Urban Development
The ministry of works and urban development is responsible to register, issue, renew,
suspend or revoke licenses of individual professionals and firms engaged in the areas of
building works, transport construction works, highways and bridges, consulting offices, etc.
The ministry has implementation guideline, which contains criteria, procedures, field of
expertise and grading. All construction professionals, consultants and contractors desiring to
carry out activity related to construction works are required to submit an application in a
format designed for same purpose and register with the ministry.

The licensing and registration process of the ministry is done by a committee, members of
which are from the ministry. The committee members are mainly division and department
heads of the relevant sectors of the ministry. Most of the activities of the process are done by
the licensing and registration division, the head of which is member and secretary of the
committee.

The committee is responsible to accept all applications submitted for registration, renewal
and upgrading through the licensing and registration division and shall examine such
applications as objectively as possible on the basis of the requirements specified in the
guideline. It submits its recommendation on whether the applicant may register, license
renewed, upgrade or may reject the application to the minister for approval.

Once the application is approved by the minister, a license will be issued to the applicant up
on the payment of the registration fee. The certificate of registration shall be signed by the
committee chairperson and contains details such as name of the applicant, type of business,
category and grade or professional classification, etc.

 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 45
The committee may reject an application for registration when the applicant is found by a
court of competent jurisdiction to be of unsound mind or convicted by a court of any offense
involving fraud or dishonesty or found unfit to carry out the business or doesn’t fulfill the
specified requirement. Renewal of registration for construction professionals is valid for two
years and for contractors is one year. Application for renewal or upgrading shall be made in a
form prepared for same purpose.

The guideline provides conditions for the suspension, cancellation and revocation of
certificates. A certificate may be suspended by the committee if its holder shows misconduct
in matters related to professional practice, fails to abide by the requirements, rules and
regulations issued by the ministry. A certificate may be also cancelled or revoked when the
registered person dies, incapacitated, quits the business or fails to comply with rules and
regulation issued by the ministry from time to time.

Any juridical person registered with the ministry may be represented by legally authorized
individual and when the bearer of the certificate dies, the certificate is eligible for transfer to
his legal inheritor provided that the inheritor fulfills the given requirements. Though there is
a committee, in practice, most of the activities are undertaking by the licensing and
registration division of the ministry, which is also responsible to follow up that each
registered person or firm is operating legally and efficiently in accordance with the
requirements under which the certificate of registration is issued.

The guideline also provides hearing procedures. Upon the receipt of notification of rejection
of application, or suspension, cancellation, or revocation of the registration certificate, a
person may appear before the committee in defense of his application. However, there is no
clear provision to whom or where the applicant is going to submit his appeal if he is not
satisfied by the decision of the committee and the minister thereto.

Though it is not updated, based on the given classifications and grading, the ministry has set
experience, qualification, equipment, capital and staff requirements for each type of business.




 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 46
6.3      Certification of Management Consultants by Ethiopian Management
         Institute
The Ethiopian Management Institute has been issuing certificate of competency for
management consultants for many years on the basis of a letter written from the former
Ministry of Trade to the institute.

The issuance of the competency certificate is done by a committee established for this
purpose based on guideline, which contains working procedures of the committee and
evaluation criteria for applicants. Although the institute is providing certificate of
competency for individuals in all types of fields of expertise, the main areas of priority are
management, accounting, business management, economics and public administration.

The committee members are assigned by the General Manager and all of them are from the
institute. Most of them are sector managers and experts of the institute.

The committee is responsible to verify files and documents of applicants screened by the
secretary. It evaluates documents submitted by applicants and forwards its recommendations
through the committee chairperson to the general manager on whether to reject or approve
applications.

With regard to the evaluation and grading criteria of the applicants, the minimum
requirement for applying, the applicant shall have:

                        First degree or equivalent from a known institution
                        At least 10 years of service after first graduation

An applicant who fulfils the minimum requirement can apply for the certificate and will be
provided an application form, which he/she shall fill properly. The applicant is also provided
3 copies of referee’s personal recommendation form, which the applicant’s referee’s shall fill
and send, sealed to the institute.

The applicant is further required to attach and present passport size recent photograph, letters
about the work experience, training sessions conducted, consultancy assignments, and
research activities undertaken. Furthermore, the applicant is required to submit originals and
photocopies of credentials (degrees, diplomas, certificates, etc. if any) and out put materials
(published articles, papers, books, research and consultancy results, handouts, etc.) as stated
in the application form.

The applicant is also required to produce at least 10 years of experience engaged in
management consultancy/training activities. Managerial work experience at all levels of
management (first level, middle level, and professional position in all organizations,
management development institutions, accredited organizations and institutions are
considered as directly relevant years of experience.

 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 47
The institute issues only one type of certificate and an applicant whose document have
successfully passed the committee’s evaluation shall pay a service charge of birr 550 (five
hundred fifty only) when he/she is told to do so.


The criteria for evaluation include education qualification; work experience; actual work
accomplished (research, training conducted and consultancy assignments undertaken);
publication (materials, handouts, cases, papers, books, etc.), and references. The points given
for each of the evaluation criteria are detailed in the table below.


                                             Table 9
              Criteria for Competency Evaluation of Management Consultants by EMI
 Criteria                                                                                                        Points
 1.   Education qualification                                                                                 25 points
                                             Not relevant to Mgt.            Relevant to Mgt.
         1st Degree                          10 points                       20 points
         2nd Degree                          12 points                       22 points
         Ph D                                15 points                       25 points
 2.   Work experience                                                                                         10 points
 3.   Actual work accomplished (research, training conducted and consultancy                                  35 points
      assignments undertaken)
 4.   Short-term/specialized training                                                                         15 points
 5.   Publication (materials, handouts, cases, papers, books, etc.)                                           10 points
 6.   References                                                                                               5 points
                            Total                                                                            100 points
                            Minimum Pass Score                                                                55 points


When registering for competency certificate the applicants have to fulfil some minimum
requirements of education and work experience. The applicant fulfilling the minimum
requirement can apply for certification by filling out an application and recommendation
forms as well as attaching necessary documents. Evaluation by the committee is carried out
in accordance with major criteria needed to test competency:

Preliminary evaluation is conducted by an Officer of the EMI. Applicants must fulfil
compulsory requirements to pass preliminary evaluations which include education and work
experience. Those who fulfil the minimum requirements are provided with application and
referral forms as well as adequate information on the procedures.

Those who pass the preliminary assessments are finally evaluated by a committee by
conducting detailed review of the documents and grading the applicant according to the
criteria. An applicant gets certified if after evaluation the result is above or same as the
minimum expected percentage. However, those who did not pass will be given detailed
insight as to what they should do to improve and get certified.


 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document     Page 48
From our discussion with the relevant experts of the Ethiopian management institute, we
came to understand that the following two points are considered as pertinent problems.

               a)        Though the institute is providing certificate of competency for
                         management consultants, there is no follow up and renewal mechanisms.
                         Except the letter written from the former Ministry of Trade, there is no
                         legal ground to enforce the institute to issue certificate of competency for
                         management consultants.

               b)        The institute is supposed to provide certificate of competency for
                         management consultants. In this regard, the institute has determined that
                         the relevant fields are management, accounting, business management,
                         economics and public administration. On the other hand, applications are
                         open from any field of expertise and requests are coming even from
                         experts/graduates in other fields who have been working in some
                         management activities. In this case, there is a difficulty to objectively
                         evaluate the applicant’s experiences in the management aspect so that
                         decide whether to issue the certificate or not. More points are given to the
                         applicants graduated in the priority areas and this is creating some
                         complaints among applicants of graduates of other areas of expertise.


6.4      Certification of Electricians by Ethiopian Electric Agency
The agency has set professional competency certification criteria, which include the
requirements of educational credentials from accredited institutions of electrical engineering
or electrical technology and relevant experiences or service years. Certification is classified
into four (classes A, B, C and D) with the corresponding allowed job limits in KVA.
Applicants are required to have the specified minimum years of experience. An applicant is
also obliged to sit for theoretical and/or practical examinations as may be applicable.

Currently, the agency is issuing certificates on the basis of the following procedures.

                   Registration shall be announced on mass communications media for at least
                    10 consecutive working days.
                   Applicants shall be registered up on verification of the submitted documents
                    against the required criteria and fill in application forms for the preferable
                    professional competency grade.
                   Applicants can send their documents by mail, fax or e-mail. If the documents
                    do not meet criteria, the failure will belong to the applicants.
                   Date and place of examination shall be informed during registration or on the
                    notice board of the Agency.
                   Registered applicants shall be delivered with theoretical and/or practical
                    examinations as may be applicable.
                   Correction of examination and notification of the results shall be completed
                    within 13 consecutive working days from the last date of examination.
 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 49
                   Successful examinees shall settle the necessary payments and secure their
                    certificates following the notification of the results.
                   Review of examination papers shall be conducted in the presence of the
                    applicant.
                   Personal documents of unsuccessful examinees shall be returned up on
                    personal requests but not for successful persons.
                   Applicants, who filed to the Agency for loss damage or burn of certificates
                    with legally proven evidences, shall be provided with new certificates.

An applicant who meets all evaluation criteria and passes the examination shall pay a fee and
in a given application period, an applicant can only file one application for a higher class-
certification.

We have been informed that the Ethiopian Electric Agency is currently preparing
comprehensive guideline, which include local and international experiences for professional
competency certification. For the time being the document is at a draft level and not
accessible for different reasons.




 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 50
References

Cushway, B. (2004), The Handbook of Model Job Descriptions, Kogan Page India Private
  Limited.

Federal Negarit Gazetta, No. 8222nd July 2003, Ethiopian Information and Communication
  Technology Development Authority Establishment Proclamation No.360/2003

Federal Republic of Ethiopia, Ministry of Capacity Building, The National ICT for
  Development (ICT4D) Five Years, Action Plan for Ethiopia [2006 – 2010], Draft
  (Version 4.02), May 2006.

International Labour Office (1990), International Standard Classification of Occupations:
   ISCO- 88; Geneva, 1990.

Mulat Demeke and Tadesse Birr, ICT Penetration and Usage in Ethiopia: Baseline Study,
  The Scan-ICT, October 2002, unpublished.

United States of America Standard Occupational Classifications: http://stats.bls.gov/soc/


United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report, 2005.




 Competency Certification for ICT Professionals, ICT Service Providers and ICT Trainers – Working Document   Page 51
Annexes
                                            Annex A
                               List of Vendor-specific Certifications

3Com                                Master of Network Science (MNS)

Adobe                               Adobe Certified Expert (ACE)
                                    Adobe Certified Training Provider (ACTP)
Adaptec                             Adaptec's Certified Storage Professional

American Society for Quality        Quality Engineer Certification - CQE

Association For Project             Certificated Project Manager (CPM)
Management
Association of Web Professionals    Certified Web Designer (CWD)
(AWP)                               Certified Web Manager (CWM)
                                    Certified Web Technician (CWT)
Banyan                              Certified Banyan Specialist (CBS)
                                    Certified Banyan Expert (CBE)
                                    Certified Banyan Instructor (CBI)
BIGHelpDesk.com                     BIGHelpDesk.com Certified Developer

BICSI                               Registered Communications Distribution Designer (RCDD)

Building Industry Consulting        Registered Communications Distribution Designer (RCDD)
Service International
Callware Technologies               Certified Network Telephony Engineer (CNTE))

Canadian Information Processing     Information Systems Professional of Canada (ISP)
Society (CIPS)
Centura Software/Gupta              Centura DBA Certification
                                    Centura Developer Certification
Chauncey Group                      Associate Technology Specialist
                                    Certified Technical Trainer (CTT)
Check Point Software                Check Point Certified Network Traffic Engineer (CCAE)
                                    Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA)
                                    Check Point Certified Security Engineer (CCSE)
                                    Check Point Certified Quality of Service Engineer (CCQE)
Cisco Systems                       Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA)
                                    Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP)
                                    Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) - ISP Dial
                                    Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) - Routing and
                                    Switching
                                    Cisco Certified Design Associate (CCDA)
                                    Cisco Certified Design Professional (CCDP)
                                    Certified Cisco Systems Instructor (CCSI)
                                    Cisco Learning Partner Connection
Citrix                              Citrix Certified Administrator (CCA)
                                    Citrix Certified Enterprise Administrator (CCEA)
                                    Citrix Certified Instructor (CCI)
CIW                                 Certified Internet Webmaster
Cognos, Inc.                      Cognos Certified Professional Program (CCPP)

Compaq                            Compaq Associate Accredited Systems Engineer (Associate
                                  ASE)
                                  Compaq Accredited Systems Engineer(ASE)
                                  Compaq Master Accredited Systems Engineer (Master ASE)
                                  Accredited Compaq Technician Program (ACT)
CompTIA - Computing               A+ Service Technician Certification
Technology Industry Association   Certified Document Imaging Architect (CDIA)
                                  Network+
                                  i-Net+
                                  Find Training Resources for CompTIA
Computer Associates               Certified Unicenter Engineer (CUE)
International                     Certified Opal Developer (COD)
                                  Certified Unicenter Administrator (CUA)
                                  Certified Professional Desktop Specialist (CACP-Desktop
                                  Specialist)
                                  Certified Professional Help Desk Specialist (CACP-Help Desk
                                  Specialist)
                                  Certified Professional Network Specialist (CACP-Network
                                  Specialist)
                                  Certified Professional Security Specialist (CACP Security
                                  Specialist)
                                  Certified Professional Storage Specialist (CACP Storage
                                  Specialist)
Computer Telephony Institute,     Computer Telephony Engineer (CTE)
Inc.
Corel Corporation                 Corel Certified Proficient User
                                  Corel Certified Expert User
                                  Corel Certified Instructor (CCI)
CyberTech Institute, Inc.         CyberTech Certified (various applications)
                                  CyberTech Linux Certification
Digital Metrics                   Digital Metrics Certified Linux Administrator
Disaster Recovery Institute       Associate Business Continuity Planner (ABCP)
International (DRI)
                                  Certified Business Continuity Planner (CBCP)
                                  Master Business Continuity Planner (MBCP)
DSDM Secretariat                  Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)

Enterprise Certified Corp.        Enterprise Certified Administrator
                                  Enterprise Certified Architect
                                  Enterprise Certified Professional
EXIN                              Foundation Certificate in IT Service Management (ITIL
                                  Foundation)
                                  Practitioner's Certificate in IT Service Management (ITIL
                                  Practitioner)
                                  Manager's Certificate in IT Service Management (ITIL Service
                                  Management)
FileNET                           FileNET Certified Professional (FCP)
FORE Systems                      FORE Systems LAN Certified Engineer
                                  FORE Systems WAN Certified Engineer
Gartner Institute                 Gartner Certified Associate in Project Management

Global Knowledge                  TCP/IP Network Analyst Certification
HelpDesk 2000                     Certified Field Support Technician (CFST)
                                  Certified Help Desk Director (CHDD)
                                  Certified Help Desk Manager (CHDM)
                                  Certified Help Desk Professional (CHDP)
                                  Help Desk 2000 Certified Instructor
Hewlett Packard                   HP Certified IT Professional - HP-UX System Administration
                                  HP Certified IT Professional - MPE/iX System Administration
                                  HP Certified IT Professional - OpenView Network
                                  Management
                                  HP Certified IT Professional - OpenView Unix Server &
                                  Applications Management
                                  HP Certified IT Professional - OpenView Unix/NT Integration
                                  HP Certified IT Professional - OpenView Windows NT Server
                                  & Applications Management
                                  HP OpenView Certified Consultant
                                  HP STAR - Certified Cluster Installer (CLU)
                                  HP STAR - NetServer Technology Professional (NTP)
                                  HP STAR - Digital Workplace Professional (DWP)
                                  HP STAR - Information Storage Professional (ISP)
                                  HP STAR - Network Connectivity Professional (NCP)
HyCurve Inc.                      HyCurve Administration Specialist
                                  HyCurve Applications Specialist
                                  HyCurve Security Specialist
                                  HyCurve Web Design Specialist
IBM Corporation                   AIX Professional Certification
                                  Object Technology Certifications
                                  Professional Certification Program
Information Systems Audit and     Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA)
Control Association
Informix Software, Inc.           Informix Certified Professional

Inprise Corporation               Certified Inprise Consultant (CIC)
                                  Certified Inprise Instructor
Institute for Certification of    Associate Computing Professional (ACP)
Computing Professionals           Certified Computing Professional (CCP)

Institute for Configuration       Configuration Management II Certification (CMII)
Management(ICM)
Institute for Interconnecting &   IPC PWB Designer
Packaging Electronic Circuits
(IPC)
Intel Corporation                 Intel Certified Integration Specialist
                                  Intel Certified Solutions Consultant
                                  Intel Training Centre Locator
International Function Point         Certified Function Point Specialist (CFPS)
Users Group (IFPUG)
International Information Systems    Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP)
Security Certification Consortium
International Programmers Guild      Certified Programmer
(IPG)
International Society of Certified   Certified Electronics Technician (CET)
Electronics Technicians (ISCET)
International Webmasters             IWA Certified Web (CWP)
Association                          IWA Certified Corporate Webmaster (CCW)
                                     IWA Certified Web Developer (CWD)
Learning Tree International          Learning Tree Int. Certifications (various)
Legato Systems (acquired Vinca)      Legato Certified Administrator (LCA)
                                     Legato Certified Operator (LCO)
                                     Legato Certified Specialist (LCS)
Linux Professional Institute         Linux Professional Institute Certified Level 1 (LPIC1)
                                     Linux Professional Institute Certified Level 2 (LPIC2)
                                     Linux Professional Institute Certified Level 3 (LPIC3)
Lotus                                Certified Lotus Professional (CLP)
                                     Certified Lotus Specialist (CLS)
                                     Certified Lotus End-User Instructor (CLEI)
                                     Certified Lotus Instructor (CLI)
Lucent InterNetworking Systems       Lucent Certified Solutions Expert (LCSE)
(was Ascend Communications           Lucent Certified Technical Expert (LCTE) - ATM
Inc)                                 Lucent Certified Technical Expert (LCTE) - Frame Relay
                                     Lucent Certified Technical Expert (LCTE) - Remote Access
                                     Lucent Certified Technical Expert (LCTE) - VPRN
Marimba                              Certified Castanet Developer

MERANT                               Merant Certified Professional in PVCS

Mercury Interactive                  Certified Product Specialist (CPS)
                                     Certified Product Instructor (CPI)
Microsoft                            Microsoft Training & Services
                                     Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP)
                                     Microsoft Certified Professional + Internet (MCP+I)
                                     Microsoft Certified Professional + Site Builder (MCP+SB)
                                     Microsoft Certified Solutions Developer (MCSD)
                                     Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE)
                                     Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer + Internet (MCSE+I)
                                     Microsoft Certified Database Administrator (MCDBA)
                                     Microsoft Certified Trainer (MCT)
                                     Microsoft Office User Specialist (MOUS) Certification
Motorola                             ISG Certifications

National Association of              Network Certifications
Communications Systems
Engineers (NACSE)
Newbridge Networks                 Newbridge Remote Access Specialist
                                   Newbridge Wise for Broadband Network Administrator
                                   Newbridge Wise for Broadband WAN
                                   Newbridge Wise for Narrowband Network Administrator
                                   Newbridge Wise for Narrowband WAN
                                   Newbridge Wise for Switched Routing
Nortel Networks                    Nortel Networks Certified Design Expert (NNCDE)
                                   Nortel Networks Certified Design Specialist (NNCDS)
                                   Nortel Networks Certified Network Architect (NNCNA)
                                   Nortel Networks Certified Support Expert (NNCSE)
                                   Nortel Networks Certified Support Specialist (NNCSS)
Novell                             Certified Novell Administrator (CNA)
                                   Certified Novell Engineer (CNE)
                                   Certified Novell Instructor (CNI)
                                   Master CNE (MCNE)
                                   Master CNI (MCNI)
Oracle                             Oracle Certified Enterprise Developer - Oracle Internet
                                   Platform
                                   Oracle Certified Professional (OCP) - Application Developer
                                   Oracle Certified Professional (OCP) - Database Operator
                                   (DBO)
                                   Oracle Certified Professional (OCP) - DBA (Oracle 8 or 7.3)
                                   Oracle Certified Professional (OCP) - Financial Apps
                                   Consultant
                                   Oracle Certified Solution Developer - Jdeveloper
Paradyne                           WAN Applications Certified Expert (WAN A.C.E.)
                                   FrameSaver Certification
                                   Hotwire Certification
ParcPlace-Digitalk                 Certified Smalltalk Developer (CSD)
                                   Certified Senior Smalltalk Developer (CSSD)
PC DOCS, Inc.                      Certified DOCS Professional
Pine Mountain Group, Inc.          Certified NetAnalyst - Architect
                                   Certified NetAnalyst - Cross Technology
                                   Certified NetAnalyst - Internet
Project Management                 Project Management Professional
Institute(PMI)
Quality Assurance Institute(QAI)   Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)
                                   Certified SPICE Assessor
                                   Certified Software Test Engineer (CSTE)
Red Hat Software                   Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE)
                                   Red Hat Certified Engineer II (RHCEII)
                                   Red Hat Certified Examiner (RHCX)
Rockwell Software                  Training Certification

SAIR                               Linux Certified Professional (LCP)
                                   Linux/GNU Certified Administrator (LCA)
                                   Linux/GNU Certified Engineer (LCE)
                                   Linux/GNU Certified Trainer
                                  Master Linux/GNU Certified Engineer (MLCE)
Santa Cruz Operation (SCO)        SCO Advanced System Engineer (ACE)
                                  SCO Certified UNIX System Administrator (CUSA)
SAP Partner Academy               SAP Certified Application Consultant
                                  SAP Certified Technical Consultant
SAS Institute Inc.                SAS Certified Professional - Application Development
                                  SAS Certified Professional - Business Intelligence
                                  SAS Certified Professional - Data Management V6
                                  SAS Certified Professional V6
Shiva                             Shiva Certified Professional

Siebel Systems                    Siebel Certified Consultant
                                  Siebel Certified Instructor

Silicon Graphics                  Certified IRIX System Administrator

Software Publishers Association   Certified Software Manager (CSM)
(SPA)
Solomon Software                  Solomon Certified Trainer
                                  Solomon IV Certified Application Developer (SCAD)
                                  Solomon IV Certified Systems Engineer (SCSE)
Sun Microsystems, Inc.            Sun Certified Programmer for the Java Platform
                                  Sun Certified Developer for the Java Platform
                                  Sun Certified Enterprise Architect for Java 2 Platform
                                  Sun Certified System Administrator for Solaris, Part 1 & 2
                                  Sun Certified Network Administrator for Solaris
                                  Sun Educational Services Training Centers
Sybase                            Sybase Certified Professional Program
                                  Sybase Certification Exams
                                  Sybase Certification Exam Information
                                  Sybase Certified Adaptive Server Administrator
                                  Sybase Certified SQL Anywhere
                                  Certified PowerBuilder Developer 7.0
                                  Certified PowerBuilder Developer 6.0
                                  Sybase Certified Professional Program Study Guidelines
Symantec Corp                     ACT! Certified Consultant(ACC)

Sysoft                            Sysoft Certified Advanced Webmaster & EBusiness Architect
                                  Sysoft Certified Internet Developer
                                  Sysoft Certified Webmaster & E-Commerce Architect
Texas Instruments                 Certified Composer Professional (CCP)

Tivoli Systems, Inc.              Tivoli Certified Consultant
                                  Tivoli Certified Enterprise Consultant
                                  Tivoli Certified Instructor
                                  Tivoli Certified Solutions Expert
                                  Electronic Document & Printing Professional (EDPP)
Xylan                             Alcatel Certified Switch Expert (ACSE)
                                  Alcatel Certified Switch Specialist (ACSS)
                                                Annex B
                            Draft Occupational Standards developed by TEVT


Occupational Title:        ICT Technician Level I

Job Description:           ICT Technician is a person who can install hardware component and
                           software, identify and repair simple problems in computer system and
                           networks.

Duties and Tasks:
Duty                           Tasks
 1. Install hardware           1.1. Prepare tools and materials for installation work
    components                 1.2. Install mouse
                               1.3. Install key board
                               1.4. Install power unit supply unit
                               1.5. Install monitor
                               1.6. Install printer
                               1.7. Install scanner
                               1.8. Install projector (LCD)
                               1.9. Install floppy disk drive
                               1.10. Install DVD/CD drive
                               1.11. Install clock battery
                               1.12. Install hard disk drive
                               1.13. Install modem card
                               1.14. Install network cards
                               1.15. Install random access memory (RAM)
                               1.16. Install power cables
                               1.17. Install sound card
 2. Install system             2.1. Install operating system (OS)
    application software       2.2. Install anti virus software
                               2.3. Install printer driver
                               2.4. Install graphics adapter (VGA) driver
                               2.5. Install network interface card (NIC) driver
                               2.6. Install modem driver
                               2.7. Install sound card driver
                               2.8. Install scanner driver
                               2.9. Install application software
 3. Identify simple            3.1. Identify loosely connected mouse
    problems in a              3.2. Identify corrupted operating system
    computer system            3.3. Identify power supply init failure
                               3.4. Identify hard disk failure
                               3.5. Identify simple battery failure
                               3.6. Identify monitor problems
                               3.7. Identify floppy disk failure
                               3.8. Identify memory problem
                               3.9. Identify CD/DVD Drive failure
                               3.10. Identify power cored failure
                               3.11. Identify processor fan failure
                           3.12. Identify data cables failure
4. Repair simple           4.1. Fix loosen cables
   problems created in a   4.2. Fix mouse problems
   computer system         4.3. Fix key board problems
                           4.4. Give solution for power cored problem
                           4.5. Correct mal functioning processor fan
                           4.6. Repair hard disk problem
                           4.7. Repair failed floppy disk drive
                           4.8. Repair CD/DVD drive
                           4.9. Fix simple monitor
                           4.10. Repair corrupted operating systems
5. Identify simple net     5.1. Identify loose connections at work stations and hubs
   work problems           5.2. Identify damaged network cables
                           5.3. Identify IP Address conflict
                           5.4. Identify absence of input power in the network devices
                           5.5. find problems on both end RJ – 45 connecter
                           5.6. Identify problem on network card
                           5.7. Identify proper arrangement of network cable wires
                           5.8. Identify hub failure
                           5.9. Identify switch failure
Occupational Title:     Assistant ICT System Technician Level II

Job Description:        ICT system Technician: is a person who can perform can perform upgrading
                        of hardware components and software, conduct structural cabling, make
                        simple network configuration maintain medium faults and provide training.

DUTIES AND TASKS:

Duty                         Tasks
1. Upgrade hardware          1.1. Upgrade hard disk
   components                1.2. Upgrade CD Rom
                             1.3. Upgrade RAM
                             1.4. Upgrade printer
                             1.5. Upgrade network interface card
                             1.6. Upgrade processor
2. Upgrade soft ware         2.1. Upgrade operating system
                             2.2. Upgrade application software
                             2.3. Install service packs
                             2.4. Upgrade Anti-virus
3. Conduct structural        3.1. Read instruction document
   cabling                   3.2. Prepare working tools
                             3.3. Prepare working materials
                             3.4. Install PVC trunking
                             3.5. Run cables along the PVC trunks
                             3.6. Grimp cable ends
                             3.7. Test crimped cable ends
                             3.8. Label cables
4. Conduct simple            4.1. Assign work group name for hosts
   network configuration     4.2. Assign host name to each network host
                             4.3. Assign IP address to network hosts
                             4.4. Test network configuration
                             4.5. Configure hosts for internet connection
                             4.6. Test the internet connection for each host
5. Identify and maintain     5.1. Identify BIOS settings
   medium faults in          5.2. Arrange BIOS settings
   computer systems and      5.3. Identify upgradeable hard disk
   networks                  5.4. Identify upgradeable RAM
                             5.5. Identify upgradeable CD drive
                             5.6. Identify network configuration problems
                             5.7. Maintain network configuration problems
                             5.8. Identify internet connection problems
                             5.9. Maintain internet connection problems
                             5.10. Provide support for users
Occupational Title:    Assistant ICT System Technician Level III

Job Description:       ICT system Technician is a person who can install, configure, test, maintain,
                       administrator hardware and software devices and provide consultancy service
                       and technical supports in ICT system and networks.

Duties and Tasks:

Duty                        Tasks
1. Install hard ware and    1.1. Install rack for network devices
   soft ware in ICT         1.2. Mount network devices on rack
   system and net works     1.3. Fix cable ends on to patch panel
                            1.4. Label cable ends
                            1.5. Install UPS
                            1.6. Install network printer
                            1.7. Install server operating system (OS)
                            1.8. Install corporate anti-virus
                            1.9. Install security software
                            1.10. Install back up devices
2. Configure hardware       2.1. Configure UPS
   and software and         2.2. Configure serve operating system
   software in ICT          2.3. Configure switch
   systems and networks     2.4. Configure corporate anti-virus
                            2.5. Configure network printer
                            2.6. Configure security software on server and clients
                            2.7. Configure backup devices
3. Test hard ware and       3.1. Test server
   software ICT systems     3.2. Test UPS
   and networks             3.3. Test switch
                            3.4. Test network printer
                            3.5. Test corporate anti- virus
                            3.6. Test back up devices
4. Maintain ICT systems     4.1. Maintain UPS
   and networks             4.2. Maintain server operating system
                            4.3. Maintain switch
                            4.4. Maintain corporate anti- virus
                            4.5. Maintain network printer
                            4.6. maintain back up devices
                            4.7. Maintain security soft ware
                            4.8. Maintain ends on patch panel
5. Administer ICT           5.1. Administer server operating system
   systems and network      5.2. Administer switch
                            5.3. Administer network printer
                            5.4. Administer corporate anti-virus
                            5.5. Administer security software
                            5.6. Administer back up devices
6. Deliver consultancy      6.1. Analyze maintenance requirements
   service and technical    6.2. Analyze service requirements
   support                  6.3. Develop guide lines for maintenance
6.4. Develop guide lines for service
6.5. Plan service usage policy
6.6. Implement service usage policy
6.7. Monitor the implementation of service usage policy
6.8. Develop training manuals
6.9. Deliver training
6.10. Provide technical support
Occupation Title:     ICT Software Assistant Level I

Job Description:      ICT Software Assistant is a person who performs fixing minor software
                      problems, gather system requirement, and secure a system by establishing
                      backups.

Duties and Tasks:

Duty                       Tasks
1. Gather System           1.1 Assess users requirement
   Requirement             1.2 Assess existing system
                           1.3 Identify system requirement
                           1.4 Distribute questionnaire
                           1.5 Collect Information
2. Install Software        2.1 Identify users need
                           2.2 Select software
                           2.3 Identify type of Installation /New Installation or upgrading/
                           2.4 Remove existing files
                           2.5 Follow Instruction
3. Establish Backup        3.1 Identify data for backup
   System                  3.2 Schedule backup
                           3.3 Select media to take backup
                           3.4 Take backup
                           3.5 Lable backup
                           3.6 Handle backup
4. Secure Software         4.1 Identify software security levels
                           4.2 Lable software
                           4.3 Handle software
                           4.4 Set pass-ward & user name for clients PC’s
                           4.5 Keep backups
5. Trouble Shoot           5.1 Identify problem
   Software                5.2 Identify possible solutions
                           5.3 Prepare appropriate tool
                           5.5 Make backups
                           5.5 Fix the problem
                           5.6 Restore backup
                           5.7 Format storage media
6. Managing Data           6.1 Select key word for search
                           6.2 Use internet connection
                           6.3 Search data
                           6.4 Organize collected data
                           6.5 Prepare documentation
                           6.6 Encode data
Occupation Title:       ICT Application Developer Level III

Job Description:        ICT Application Developer is a person who performs assistance in software
                        development activities by designing simple data base, web page, training and
                        consultation of users and system administration.

Duties and Tasks:

Duty                         Tasks
1. Perform                   1.1 Collect Information
   Documentation             1.2 Prepare index
                             1.3 Classify files
                             1.4 Organize data
2. Design web page           2.1 Collect required information
                             2.2 Select the programme/software
                             2.3 Select technology
                             2.4 Design interface
                             2.5 Manage web page
                             2.6 Manage web site
3. Gather system             3.1 Prepare proposal
   requirement               3.2 Prepare questionnaire
                             3.3 Conduct Interview
                             3.4 Analyze user requirement
                             3.5 Interpret collected date
                             3.6 Generate reports
4. Support customer          4.1 Consult customers
                             4.2 Upgrade software
                             4.3 Update software
                             4.4 Secure customer PC
                             4.5 Assist customer on application software
                             4.6 Schedule customer support
5. Design data bases         5.1 Collect data
                             5.2 Analyze user requirement
                             5.3 Identify entity
                             5.4 Analyze relation
                             5.5 Select data base management
                             5.6 Create data base application
                             5.7 Manage data base
6. Design multi media        6.1 Select media
   system                    6.2 Prepare multi media tools
                             6.3 Collect data
                             6.4 Select Application
                             6.5 Prepare storage
                             6.6 Edit data
                             6.7 Prepare animation
7. Train users               7.1 Assess Training needs
                             7.2 Prepare training guideline
                             7.3 Prepare user manual
                       7.4 Conduct training
                       7.5 Evaluate trainee
8. Maintain software   8.1 Consult customers
                       8.2 Identify system problem
                       8.3 Search new system
                       8.4 Schedule maintenance
                       8.5 Modify software
                       8.6 Debug software
                       8.7 Test software
9. Administer system   9.1 Prepare privilege policy
                       9.2 Access Authorization
                       9.3 Check system status
                       9.4 Administer web site
                       9.5 Administer data base
                       9.6 Administer software
                                        Annex C
                      Sample ICT Job Classifications and Descriptions

No.                                                                            Knowledge, Skills
      Job          Purpose of Job        Main Responsibilities                 and Experience
                                                                               Required
1.    Analyst      To assess the         1. Determine information system        a degree or
      Programmer   company's                requirements through a               equivalent in a
                   information              detailed analysis of existing        relevant field;
                   technology               systems and procedures and
                                                                                at least 2 years'
                   requirements and         by interviewing key
                                                                                 experience of
                   deliver appropriate      personnel.
                                                                                 systems analysis
                   hardware and
                                         2. Define system requirements           and programming;
                   software solutions
                                            and recommend appropriate
                   related to those                                             a thorough
                                            hardware and software
                   requirements.                                                 knowledge of
                                            solutions.
                                                                                 programming
                                         3. Plan and carry out the testing       languages and
                                            of recommended information           supporting
                                            technology solutions to ensure       software;
                                            that these perform to the users'
                                                                                programming skills;
                                            requirements.
                                                                                good analytical
                                         4. Identify and design all
                                                                                 skills;
                                            necessary procedures and
                                            documentation to support            good
                                            recommended modifications.           communication and
                                                                                 presentation skills.
                                         5. Present recommended
                                            solutions to managers and
                                            staff to ensure that they are
                                            aware of and support these
                                            changes.
                                         6. Develop and maintain
                                            contacts with software
                                            suppliers to ensure that any
                                            proposed modifications are
                                            produced in accordance with
                                            specification.
                                         7. Train managers and staff in
                                            any new or modified systems
                                            and procedures.
                                         8. Support managers and staff in
                                            the identification and
                                            resolution of any day-to-day
                                            operating problems arising
                                            from the application of new or
                                            modified systems and
                                            procedures.
                                          9. Maintain an awareness of
                                             developments in the
                                             computing field to ensure that
                                             the company continues to
                                             apply the technology most
                                             appropriate to its needs.
2.   Computer      To operate a           1. Carry out all initial actions to    detailed knowledge
     Operator      mainframe                 ensure that the computer is          of the computer's
                   computer, including       correctly started up.                operating
                   data input and                                                 processes;
                                          2. Load computer with any
                   retrieval, to meet
                                             required consumables.               awareness of the
                   scheduled output
                                                                                  work schedules.
                   requirements.          3. Check that all systems and
                                             peripherals are working
                                             properly and take remedial
                                             action where necessary.
                                          4. Enter data into the computer
                                             through a console and
                                             keyboard.
                                          5. Retrieve data from the
                                             computer and produce reports
                                             as required.
                                          6. Monitor systems operation
                                             and carry out periodic checks
                                             to ensure continued effective
                                             running.
3.   Data Entry    To enter data into a   1. Receive and check data for          keyboard skills;
     Clerk         computer and              computer input.
                                                                                 accuracy;
                   retrieve data as
                                          2. Enter data into the computer
                   requested.                                                    awareness of work
                                             through a console and
                                                                                  schedules.
                                             keyboard.
                                          3. Retrieve data from the
                                             computer and produce reports
                                             as required.
4.   Data          To supervise the       1. Supervise data entry staff to       thorough
     Preparation   computerized data         ensure that they are                 knowledge of all
     Supervisor    entry and retrieval       appropriately trained and            aspects of data
                   process.                  carry out their tasks to the         entry;
                                             required standard.
                                                                                 knowledge of the
                                          2. Receive documents for data           wider requirements
                                             entry, schedule work and             of the business;
                                             allocate to data entry clerks.
                                                                                 supervisory skills;
                                          3. Assist in the recruitment and
                                                                                 keyboard skills;
                                             testing of new staff.
                                                                                 accuracy;
                                          4. Resolve any problems relating
                                        to data entry or the allocation
                                                                             awareness of work
                                        of staff to meet output
                                                                              schedules
                                        requirements.
                                      5. Maintain all required records
                                         relating to output, staff
                                         attendance and holidays etc.
                                      6. Carry out routine data
                                         processing tasks as necessary
5.   Database   To organize and       1. Direct and control the              a degree in a
     Manager    control the              database management team to          relevant subject;
                organization's           ensure that they are
                                                                             thorough
                database to ensure       appropriately motivated and
                                                                              knowledge of all
                the efficient            trained and carry out their
                                                                              aspects of data
                management of            responsibilities to the required
                                                                              entry;
                information to           standard.
                support management                                           at least 5 years' data
                                      2. Organize and control the
                decision making and                                           management
                                         central database and all data
                to meet statutory                                             experience;
                                         input and output to ensure that
                requirements.                                                knowledge of the
                                         information required for
                                         management decision making           wider requirements
                                         and statutory compliance is          of the business;
                                         accurate and provided at the        managerial
                                         right time.                          experience;
                                      3. Develop and implement               excellent analytical
                                         systems and processes to             skills;
                                         ensure the accurate and timely
                                         collection, analysis and            excellent
                                         publication of data and              interpersonal skills.
                                         information.
                                      4. Publish regular performance
                                         reports and ad hoc reports as
                                         required to enable managers
                                         to monitor progress against
                                         organization objectives.
                                      5. Regularly monitor data
                                         systems and processes to
                                         ensure that information
                                         provided continues to be
                                         accurate, produced at the right
                                         time and maintained in
                                         accordance with data
                                         protection legislation.
                                      6. Provide an organization-wide
                                         advisory and consultancy
                                         service on all aspects of data
                                         management.
                                           7. Maintain an awareness of
                                              developments in the storage
                                              and handling of data and
                                              review the application of new
                                              technologies to improve
                                              administrative processes.
6.   Director Of   To direct and control   1. Direct and control the staff of     a degree in a
     Information   the development,           the information technology           computer-related
     Technology    implementation and         and communications                   subject;
                   maintenance of the         department to ensure that they
                                                                                  membership of
                   company's                  are well motivated and receive
                                                                                   relevant
                   information and            all necessary training and
                                                                                   professional body;
                   communications             development to enable them
                   strategy and systems       to carry out their                  at least 5 years'
                   to support the             responsibilities to the required     experience in the
                   business objectives        standards.                           design,
                   of the company.                                                 development and
                                           2. Contribute to the development
                                                                                   implementation of
                                              of the company's strategic and
                                                                                   information
                                              business plans, particularly in
                                                                                   technology and
                                              relation to information
                                                                                   communications
                                              technology and
                                                                                   systems;
                                              communications systems, in
                                              support of the company's            comprehensive
                                              mission and core objectives.         experience of
                                                                                   developing
                                           3. Develop an annual business
                                                                                   management
                                              plan and operating budget for
                                                                                   information and
                                              the department and monitor
                                                                                   communications
                                              the implementation of these to
                                                                                   systems;
                                              ensure that financial targets
                                              are met.                            substantial
                                                                                   management
                                           4. Negotiate service level
                                                                                   experience and
                                              agreements with internal
                                                                                   experience of
                                              customers and service
                                                                                   managing budgets;
                                              providers and monitor service
                                              delivery to ensure that agreed      a broad
                                              targets and standards are met.       understanding of
                                                                                   computer systems,
                                           5. Negotiate contracts with
                                                                                   computer
                                              external providers for services
                                                                                   applications and
                                              and products which cannot be
                                                                                   operating systems;
                                              provided internally and
                                              monitor service delivery to         analytical and
                                              ensure that agreed targets and       problem-solving
                                              standards are met.                   skills;
                                           6. Oversee the development and         excellent
                                              implementation of company-           interpersonal skills;
                                              wide information and                negotiation skills.
                                              communications systems
                                            which provide all required
                                            support to company
                                            operations.
                                          7. Oversee the management of
                                             all data and information flows
                                             within the company to ensure
                                             that comprehensive and
                                             accurate management
                                             information is available as
                                             required.
                                          8. Provide a company-wide
                                             source of expertise on
                                             information technology and
                                             communications to ensure that
                                             managers and staff have the
                                             best possible information for
                                             effective decision making and
                                             accessing data.
                                          9. Develop and implement a
                                             comprehensive and effective
                                             help desk service to provide
                                             technical support to systems
                                             users.
7.   IT Manager   To direct and control   1. Develop and implement an            a degree in a
                  the development,           information technology               computer-related
                  implementation and         strategy to support the              subject;
                  maintenance of the         financial and business
                                                                                 at least 5 years'
                  company's                  objectives of the company.
                                                                                  experience in the
                  information
                                          2. Develop appropriate                  design,
                  technology systems
                                             computerized information             development and
                  to support the
                                             systems to meet the needs of         implementation of
                  business objectives
                                             managers and staff.                  information
                  of the company.
                                                                                  technology
                                          3. Direct and control the staff of
                                                                                  systems;
                                             the department to ensure that
                                             they are appropriately              a broad
                                             motivated and trained and that       understanding of
                                             they carry out their                 computer systems,
                                             responsibilities to the required     computer
                                             standard.                            applications and
                                                                                  operating systems;
                                          4. Establish and maintain all
                                             necessary information               analytical and
                                             technology procedures and            problem-solving
                                             ensure that all systems are          skills;
                                             supported by the necessary
                                                                                 good
                                             documentation and manuals.
                                                                                  communication
                                          5. Help to define IT training           skills;
                                             needs and provide training as
                                             required to ensure the most
                                                                                  managerial
                                             effective use of computer
                                                                                   experience.
                                             systems.
                                           6. Identify areas in which the
                                              introduction of new
                                              technology will improve
                                              business performance and
                                              assist managers with the
                                              implementation of any new
                                              systems.
                                           7. Develop a programme of
                                              maintenance and support for
                                              all IT systems to ensure a
                                              minimum of downtime and
                                              fast resolution of any
                                              problems.
                                           8. Provide a source of advice to
                                              managers and staff on
                                              information technology issues.
                                           9. Maintain an awareness of new
                                              developments in information
                                              technology and ensure that the
                                              company makes the best use
                                              of any such developments.
8.   IT Project    To plan and             1. Assist in the development of        qualification to at
     Coordinator   coordinate major IT        IT project plans across the          least HNC level in
                   projects within the        organization to ensure that          a computing related
                   organization to            effective systems are                field;
                   ensure that effective      introduced to meet identified
                                                                                  at least 3 years'
                   IT solutions are           needs.
                                                                                   experience in
                   delivered within
                                           2. Monitor the implementation           developing and
                   agreed timescales
                                              of IT projects to ensure that        implementing
                   and costs.
                                              all targets are reached and that     major IT projects;
                                              the overall project is
                                                                                  wide knowledge of
                                              completed in accordance with
                                                                                   IT systems and of
                                              agreed timescales and costs.
                                                                                   the latest
                                           3. Identify user requirements and       developments in
                                              develop project and product          these;
                                              specifications that will ensure
                                                                                  good knowledge of
                                              that these requirements are
                                                                                   the organization;
                                              met.
                                                                                  excellent analytical
                                           4. Develop and implement any
                                                                                   skills;
                                              necessary procedures and
                                              documentation required to           good interpersonal
                                              support new IT systems and           skills;
                                              procedures.                         systems analysis
                                                                                skills.
                                          5. Provide suitable training in
                                             new systems to users and
                                             managers to ensure that they
                                             make the optimum use of
                                             these systems.
                                          6. Conduct post project
                                             evaluations to ensure that
                                             systems implemented are
                                             operating effectively and
                                             providing the services
                                             required by users.
                                          7. Represent the department on
                                             project teams to ensure that
                                             the best possible advice is
                                             given about the implications
                                             of any new IT systems and
                                             proposed changes.
                                          8. Maintain an awareness of
                                             developments in the IT field
                                             and act as a source of advice
                                             and expertise to managers and
                                             staff within the company.
9.   Information   To ensure that the     1. Develop and maintain the          a relevant technical
     Systems       company meets its         company's information              qualification;
     Manager       performance targets       systems to ensure that they
                                                                               at least 5 years'
                   through the               support the attainment of
                                                                                experience of
                   development and           business objectives.
                                                                                operating computer
                   maintenance of
                                          2. Develop and maintain the           systems;
                   information systems.
                                             information systems budget to
                                                                               knowledge of
                                             ensure that expenditure is
                                                                                computer-based
                                             accurately forecasted and kept
                                                                                accounting and
                                             within agreed limits.
                                                                                business packages;
                                          3. Introduce all necessary
                                                                               a broad range of
                                             security measures to ensure
                                                                                technical computer
                                             that data systems are secure
                                                                                skills;
                                             from data loss or misuse.
                                                                               knowledge of the
                                          4. Monitor all key management
                                                                                industry;
                                             systems to ensure that any
                                             problems are rapidly dealt        good
                                             with and any defects               communication
                                             remedied.                          skills;
                                          5. Provide any required              managerial skills.
                                             management information to
                                             assist with effective decision
                                             making.
                                          6. Develop systems as necessary
                                            to meet changing business
                                            needs.
                                          7. Provide training and advice as
                                             required to users of
                                             information systems to ensure
                                             that they make the best use of
                                             those systems.
                                          8. Manage systems projects to
                                             ensure that results are
                                             delivered within agreed
                                             timescales and budgets.
                                          9. Maintain an awareness of
                                             developments in the
                                             information systems field to
                                             ensure that the company
                                             continues to follow best
                                             practice.
                                          10.     Direct and control
                                            information systems staff to
                                            ensure that they are
                                            appropriately motivated and
                                            trained and carry out their
                                            responsibilities to the required
                                            standard.
10.   PC Support   To provide technical   1. Respond to enquiries from          technical training in
      Officer      support to company        staff to help them resolve any      the software and
                   staff to help them        hardware or software                hardware systems
                   resolve any software      problems.                           used;
                   and hardware
                                          2. Maintain a log of any software     at least 1 year's
                   problems with
                                             or hardware problems                experience in
                   computers and other
                                             detected.                           resolving computer
                   technology.
                                                                                 software and
                                          3. Support users in the use of
                                                                                 hardware problems;
                                             computer equipment by
                                             providing any necessary            wide knowledge of
                                             training and advice.                office software
                                                                                 applications;
                                          4. Maintain a list of suppliers
                                             and other subcontractors who       good knowledge of
                                             may be required to assist in        PCs and fault
                                             the resolution of technical         finding;
                                             problems.
                                                                                good analytical
                                          5. Arrange for external technical      skills;
                                             support where problems
                                                                                good interpersonal
                                             cannot be resolved in-house.
                                                                                 skills.
                                          6. Recommend suitable software
                                             and hardware systems where
                                             these might improve
                                                  performance.
11.   Programmer       To design and            1. Analyze user requirements           a degree-level
                       implement computer          and identify programming             education;
                       programs, and               solutions using a range of
                                                                                       a technical
                       modify existing             tools such as flow diagrams,
                                                                                        qualification in
                       programs, to meet           decision trees etc.
                                                                                        computing or IT;
                       identified user
                                                2. Develop detailed
                       requirements and to                                             thorough
                                                   specifications for program
                       improve the                                                      knowledge of
                                                   requirements.
                       efficiency and                                                   relevant
                       effectiveness of the     3. Design and implement                 programming
                       company.                    programs, or modify existing         languages;
                                                   programs, to meet users'
                                                                                       at least 3 years'
                                                   requirements and to improve
                                                                                        experience in
                                                   the efficiency and
                                                                                        computer
                                                   effectiveness of working
                                                                                        programming;
                                                   processes.
                                                                                       excellent analytical
                                                4. Test programs and make any
                                                                                        skills;
                                                   necessary modifications to
                                                   ensure that they operate            good
                                                   effectively.                         communication
                                                                                        skills.
                                                5. Draw up all required support
                                                   documentation for programs
                                                   to ensure that users are able to
                                                   operate them correctly.
                                                6. Provide technical advice and
                                                   guidance on programming
                                                   matters to colleagues and
                                                   system users.
                                                7. Keep up to date with
                                                   developments in programming
                                                   to ensure that the company
                                                   continues to take advantage of
                                                   new ideas and developments.
12.   Software         To lead a team of        1. Direct and control the staff of     a degree or
      Design Manager   technical staff in the      the team to ensure that they         equivalent in a
                       design and                  are appropriately motivated          relevant subject;
                       development of              and trained and so that they
                                                                                       at least 5 years'
                       software which              carry out their responsibilities
                                                                                        experience of
                       meets customers'            to the required standard.
                                                                                        software design;
                       requirements.
                                                2. Provide technical leadership
                                                                                       a thorough
                                                   in the design and development
                                                                                        knowledge of
                                                   of software which meets
                                                                                        relevant
                                                   customers' requirements.
                                                                                        programming
                                                3. Develop and implement all            languages and
                                                   necessary systems and                operating systems;
                                                   procedures to ensure that
                                          software is of the required
                                                                                programming skills;
                                          standard.
                                                                                analytical skills;
                                        4. Assist in the identification and
                                           development of new software          managerial
                                           applications.                         experience;
                                        5. Act as the in-house expert on        communication and
                                           all software issues and               motivation skills.
                                           provide advice and training to
                                           company management and
                                           staff as required.
                                        6. Represent the company as
                                           required at meetings with
                                           customers and external
                                           contractors to ensure that the
                                           software design implications
                                           of any proposals are
                                           thoroughly considered and to
                                           help maximize sales.
                                        7. Develop a research and
                                           development programme to
                                           review all new and potential
                                           software applications.
                                        8. Monitor and control the
                                           software development budget.
                                        9. Maintain an awareness of
                                           developments in relation to
                                           software so that the company
                                           maintains its competitive
                                           position.
13.   Systems   To analyze, design      1. Identify the detailed                a degree-level
      Analyst   and implement              requirements of users and             education;
                information                clients and prepare detailed
                                                                                a technical
                technology systems         project plans for meeting
                                                                                 qualification in
                and solutions to meet      these requirements.
                                                                                 computing;
                business,
                                        2. Identify the various options to
                organizational and                                              thorough
                                           resolve problems and meet
                technical                                                        knowledge of IT
                                           users' requirements and assess
                requirements.                                                    systems and
                                           their suitability.
                                                                                 systems analysis;
                                        3. Prepare a detailed
                                                                                good knowledge of
                                           specification for any proposed
                                                                                 structured systems
                                           solution.
                                                                                 analysis
                                        4. Discuss any proposed solution         methodologies;
                                           with programmers, other
                                                                                at least 3 years'
                                           technical staff and end users
                                                                                 experience in
                                           to ensure its technical viability
                                                                                 systems analysis;
                                           and to identify any problems.
                                                5. Test any proposed solution to      excellent analytical
                                                   ensure its effectiveness before     skills;
                                                   final implementation.
                                                                                      good
                                                6. Assist in the implementation        communication
                                                   of any new system, taking any       skills.
                                                   remedial action as necessary,
                                                   to ensure that it is working
                                                   effectively.
                                                7. Provide any necessary
                                                   documentation and technical
                                                   support following
                                                   implementation to end users.
                                                8. Train users in the new system
                                                   to ensure that it continues to
                                                   work effectively and to their
                                                   satisfaction.
14.    Web Site         To design and           1. Design and develop the             an HNC or
       Designer         maintain the               company's Web site to make it       equivalent in a
                        company's internal         visually effective and easy to      relevant subject
                        and external Web           access.                             related to design or
                        sites, and associated                                          computer
                                                2. Develop and maintain the
                        documents, to                                                  applications;
                                                   company's intranet to provide
                        present a positive
                                                   an accurate and immediate          at least 1 year's
                        image of the
                                                   source of information to all        experience of Web
                        company.
                                                   employees.                          design;
                                                3. Design and distribute              a thorough
                                                   newsletters and other               knowledge of
                                                   documents relating to the Web       relevant software
                                                   site and the intranet.              packages;
                                                4. Develop contacts with              creative skills;
                                                   external providers and
                                                                                      negotiating skills;
                                                   negotiate contracts for the
                                                   design and supply of services      programming skills;
                                                   that cannot be provided            good presentation
                                                   internally in relation to the       and communication
                                                   Web site and intranet.              skills.
                                                5. Conduct presentations,
                                                   internally and externally, to
                                                   promote the company Web
                                                   site and intranet.
Source: The Handbook of Model Job Descriptions by Barry Cushway (Recommended by Institute of
        Directors)
                                           Annex D
            Code of Conduct for EICTDA ICT Competency Certificate Holders


Introduction

The use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) has brought many exciting new
opportunities, but can also cause problems if it is not used properly. To encourage the
reasonable use of ICT, the Ethiopian Information Communication Technology Development
Agency (EICTDA) has produced this code of conduct that is grounded in common sense and
good manners. The commitment of professionals to high standards of professional conduct is
one of the hallmarks of a profession. The ICT professionals, Service providers and Trainers
should at all times maintain standards of conduct worthy of Information Communication
Technology (ICT) profession. By doing so, they will enhance their professional stature as
ICT professionals and help maintain the credibility and prestige of the ICT profession. They
will also secure the continuing acknowledgment of their professional merits by the society as
a whole.

The code of conduct for ICT professionals, service providers and trainers is designed to
provide them guidance on acceptable standards of professional conduct and practice within
the ICT industry. The Ethiopian Information Communication Technology Development
Agency (EICTDA) assumes that the code of conduct will be useful to assist ICT
professionals, service providers and trainers in the effort to promote the profession and
discharge their duty to their clients and the society in general honestly, faithfully and
truthfully.

This code of conduct should be considered as a set of guidelines of acceptable standards and
methods of practice within the ICT industry which should always be followed.

Scope of Application

This code of conduct of ICT profession covers all occupations relevant to the development
and operation of ICT systems. It is applicable to all ICT professionals, Service Providers and
Trainers who are issued certificate of competency from the EICTDA regardless of their role
or specific area of expertise.

General Principles


The code of conduct is based on the following four major principles.

       a) ICT professionals, service providers and trainers are required to protect the
          interests of the public and comply with legal issues;
       b) ICT professionals, service providers and trainers are required to perform
          professional works in accordance with the requirements of their employers and/or
          clients;
       c) ICT professionals, service providers and trainers are required to always act in
          such a way as to promote and safeguard the reputation of the profession, and keep
          their dignity;
       d) ICT professionals, service providers and trainers are required to continually
          upgrade their skills and competencies, respect impartiality and ethics of the
          profession;


Protection of the public interest:

In performing works for a client, the first priority should be to satisfy the client’s needs and
to meet the specifications, which are committed. In this regard, ICT professionals, service
providers and trainers shall exercise their skills in ways which promote an improved quality
of work for all. They should not jeopardize public safety and harm the environment. They
have to acknowledge the intellectual property rights of third parties, the rights of individuals
and groups to information privacy and any other rights.

No discrimination is allowed on the basis of race, ethnic origin, gender, religion, age,
disability or culture. They have to seek to eliminate discrimination and promote equality of
opportunity for all.


Integrity

ICT professionals, service providers and trainers are required to perform professional work
on time and budget in accordance with the requirements of their clients and notify the client
in good time if such requirements are unlikely to be fulfilled. They have a responsibility to
advice individuals and organizations for whom they work with a view to satisfy clients needs
and aspirations. They should not breach public trust in the profession and the trust of clients.
Observance of utmost honesty and integrity must underline all professional decisions and
actions. Trying to gain by deceiving a client in some ways is not acceptable professional
practice, which may erode the confidence and trust that is built up over the long term. ICT
professionals, service providers and trainers have to seek to advance public knowledge and
appreciation of ICT, encourage and support fellow practitioners in their professional
development and, where possible, provide development opportunities for new entrants to the
profession.


Confidentiality of Information

ICT professionals, service providers and trainers have the professional obligation to keep in
secret the information they obtained in the course of their professional services. Without the
consent of the client, it is not allowed to disclose information nor make use of such
information for personal gain or for the gain of third party. They have to aware that
information is the property of the client. The obligation of information confidentiality of an
ICT professionals, service providers and trainers may not cease because of termination of
contract with the client.


Conflict of interest

ICT professionals, service providers or trainers may not enter into a contract to render
professional service when they know that there exists conflict of interests between the client
and themselves or between their relatives and their clients or between their partners and their
client or between their clients. It is highly essential to be objective, impartial and free of
conflicts of interests in the performance of the professional duties. In the situation where a
conflict exists between two or more clients, a full and frank explanation and disclosure of the
conflict should be made to the clients.


Competence

ICT professionals, service providers or trainers have to upgrade their professional skills on an
ongoing basis and strive to keep abreast of any developments relevant to their profession.
During work assignments, they should accept only such work as they believe competent to
perform and do not hesitate to obtain additional expertise from appropriately qualified
individuals where advisable. They should always be aware of their own limitations and not
knowingly imply that they have competence they do not possess.

They have to keep themselves informed of new ICT technologies, practices and standards
relevant to their duties. They must keep their knowledge up-to-date with the profession,
which is developing and changing rapidly.

Promoting ICT

ICT professionals, service providers and trainers have the responsibility to extend public
knowledge, understanding and appreciation of Information Communication Technology.
People, for various reasons, may be mistrustful or demonstrate resistance when it comes to
information communication technology. Therefore, ICT professionals, service providers and
trainers have to educate people as to the benefits that can be achieved through its application
to their business.


Client participation

ICT professionals, service providers and trainers are required to ensure the client can
participate in all stages of problem analysis, system development and implementation.
Ultimately, the systems they are developing belong to the client, and therefore, the client
needs to maintain overall control and be given opportunities to exercise it. They should seek
and encourage the involvement of clients in key project activities so that ensure the
production of a system that the client requires.
Keeping image of the Society

Information Communication Technology (ICT) is relatively a new industry characterized by
rapid change. It is unlike other professions that it has not had the opportunity to evolve over
many years and acquire its own standards and legislation. Any person can practice within the
industry and claim as ICT professional. Therefore, ICT professionals, service providers and
trainers should refrain from any action which may tarnish the image of the profession among
the society. It is imperative to maintain the professional standard that improves and enhance
the industry’s image.


Honesty

ICT professionals, service providers and trainers must not knowingly mislead a client or
potential client as to the suitability of a product or services. They should not misrepresent
their skills and knowledge and must give credit for work done by others where credit is due.
They have to qualify professional opinions which they know are based on limited knowledge
or experience.


Social aspects

ICT professionals, service providers and trainers have the responsibility to protect and
promote the health and safety of those affected by their work. They need to consider and
respect people’s privacy which might be affected by their work, respect their colleagues and
employees and refrain from treating them unfairly. Their relations with other colleagues must
be based on good faith, respect and understanding.


Generally, Ethiopian ICT professionals, service providers and trainers are required to uphold
and advance the effectiveness of the profession of Information Communication Technology
and comply with high standards of competence and ethical conduct, which may entail
honesty, loyalty, competence and impartiality.

In any aspect, as professionals or as service providers or as trainers, they should be
accountable for the quality, timeliness and the use of resources in the work for which they are
responsible. They have to make aware their clients of any significant deviations from agreed
plans in time for corrective actions to be taken.

				
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