Generalized Anxiety Disorder - PowerPoint by HC120929042530


									Generalized Anxiety Disorder

                What is GAD?
• An anxiety disorder characterized by extreme
  worry about everyday things
  – Health, $, family, etc
• Very anxious just getting through the day
  – Worried things will go badly
• Little or no reason to feel this way
• Worrying could keep a person from doing
  everyday tasks
• Starts slowly
• Usually between childhood and middle age
• Symptoms get worse over time and during
  times of stress
• Runs in families
• No one really knows what causes it in some
  people and not others
• Imbalance of chemicals in the brain
                        Signs and Symptoms
• Fluctuates, stress can make symptoms worse
• Intense worry about everyday things for at least 6
  months, with little or no reason
• Can’t control constant worries
• Awareness of worrying more than you should
• Can’t relax
• Hard time concentrating
• Easily startled
• Trouble falling or staying asleep
                                Body Symptoms
•   Tired for no reason
•   Headaches
•   Muscle tensions, aches
•   Hard time swallowing
•   Trembling or twitching
•   Being irritable
•   Sweating
•   Nausea
•   Lightheaded
•   Out of breath
•   Go to bathroom a lot
•   Hot flashes
                            “Normal” vs. GAD
“Normal” Worry:                                            Generalized Anxiety Disorder:
• Your worrying doesn’t get in the                         • Your worrying significantly
  way of your daily activities and                           disrupts your job, activities, or
  responsibilities.                                          social life.
• You’re able to control your                              • Your worrying is uncontrollable.
  worrying.                                                • Your worries are extremely
• Your worries, while unpleasant,                            upsetting and stressful.
  don’t cause significant distress.                        • You worry about all sorts of
• Your worries are limited to a                              things, and tend to expect the
  specific, small number of realistic                        worst.
  concerns.                                                • You’ve been worrying almost
• Your bouts of worrying last for                            every day for at least six months.
  only a short time period.

• Medications to relieve symptoms
   – May take a few weeks to begin to work
   – Antidepressants, anti-anxiety, beta blockers
• Therapy
   – Help to feel less anxious and fearful
   – Cognitive-behavioral therapy- change thinking
       • Education, monitoring, physical control, cognitive control,
         behavioral strategies
• Self-help methods, self-soothing techniques
• There is no cure, but treatments are effective
                             Carrie’s story
          Carrie has always been a worrier, but it never
    interfered with her life before. Lately, however, she’s been
    feeling keyed up all the time. She’s paralyzed by an
    omnipresent sense of dread, and worries constantly about
    the future. Her worries make it difficult to concentrate at
    work, and when she gets home she can’t relax.
          Carrie is also having sleep difficulties, tossing and
    turning for hours before she falls asleep. She also gets
    frequent stomach cramps and diarrhea, and has a chronic
    stiff neck from muscle tension. Carrie feels like she’s on the
    verge of a nervous breakdown.
                            Children and GAD
                Children and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
•   In children, excessive worrying centers on future events, past behaviors,
    social acceptance, family matters, their personal abilities, and school
    performance. Unlike adults with GAD, children and teens with generalized
    anxiety disorder often don’t realize that their anxiety is disproportionate
    to the situation, so adults need to recognize their symptoms. Along with
    many of the symptoms that appear in adults with generalized anxiety
    disorder, some red flags for GAD in children are:
•   “What if” fears about situations far in the future
•   Perfectionism, excessive self-criticism, and fear of making mistakes
•   Feeling that they’re to blame for any disaster, and their worry will keep
    tragedy from occurring
•   The conviction that misfortune is contagious and will happen to them
•   Need for frequent reassurance and approval
          Other Symptoms in Children
Demonstrating excessive distress out of proportion to the situation: crying, physical symptoms, sadness,
   anger, frustration, hopelessness, embarrassment
• Easily distressed, or agitated when in a stressful situation
• Repetitive reassurance questions, "what if" concerns, inconsolable, won't respond to logical
• Headaches, stomachaches, regularly too sick to go to school
• Anticipatory anxiety, worrying hours, days, weeks ahead
• Disruptions of sleep with difficulty falling asleep, frequent nightmares, difficulty sleeping alone
• Perfectionism, self-critical, very high standards that make nothing good enough
• Overly-responsible, people pleasing, excessive concern that others are upset with him or her,
   unnecessary apologizing
• Demonstrating excessive avoidance, refuses to participate in expected activities, refusal to attend
• Disruption of child or family functioning, difficulty with going to school, friend's houses, religious
   activities, family gatherings, errands, vacations
• Excessive time spent consoling child about distress with ordinary situations, excessive time coaxing
   child to do normal activities- homework, hygiene, meals
               Interesting Facts
• The difference between “normal” worrying and GAD is
  frequency and disruption to life
• Learning self-help or self-soothing methods can be
• About 13% of children and adolescents suffer from GAD
• Affects 6.8 million Americans
• Affects twice as many women as men
• Other anxiety disorders, depression, or substance abuse
  often accompany GAD


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