POA&M template - Download as DOC by 9F9Zc3GG

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 7

									NextGen Human Factors
Automation/Roles & Responsibilities Guidance
(Human Factors R&D Project for NextGen)



June 02, 2009




Human Factors Research and Engineering Group (AJP-61)
Research and Technology Development Office
NextGen and Operations Planning
Federal Aviation Administration




                                                        ii
                         NextGen Human Factors
                    Automation/Roles & Responsibilities
                                Guidance
                         (Human Factors R&D Project for NextGen)




                                        TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section                                                                                                           Page
1. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 1

2. RESEARCH GOALS AND OUTCOMES ..................................................................... 2

3. RESEARCH ACTIVITIES ............................................................................................ 3
                  NextGen Human Factors
             Automation/Roles & Responsibilities
                         Guidance
                 (Human Factors R&D Project for NextGen)


1. INTRODUCTION

Implementation of NextGen concepts will require new automation and may result
in substantial changes in pilot and controller roles and responsibilities. Changing
roles and responsibilities associated with NextGen can be accomplished in many
ways. The breakdown of roles and responsibilities between humans and
automated systems is not static, but may change depending upon the
environment or operator action. These various forms each have costs and
benefits depending on nature of the task, operator and environment. In order to
make informed design decisions, research is required to determine the
performance costs, benefits and information requirements of different
coordination structures and to develop methods for evaluation approval of new
automated systems. Research is also required to evaluate the ability of existing
automated flight deck systems to support specific near to mid term NextGen
applications. Specific research activities include:

      1.        FMS/Display categorization. Current avionic systems have
                performance capabilities that could be leveraged by much more
                complex NextGen operational procedures, but the user interfaces
                for these systems are not necessarily intended for use in more
                complex procedures. Research is required to categorize and
                assess the human performance concerns associated with use of
                existing Flight Management Systems (FMS) and associated flight
                deck displays in NextGen procedures.
      2.        Evaluation and Approval of New Automated Systems.
                Implementation of many NextGen applications will require
                introduction of new automated systems. In contrast to existing
                automated systems, some of these new systems may be non-
                deterministic in nature and automate cognitive functions.
                Research is required to develop an understanding of the
                performance costs and benefits of various automation methods
                and to develop certification guidance for new automated
                systems.
      3.        Unintended Consequences of New Automated Systems.
                NextGen technologies and procedures will enable pilots to
                interact with pilots of other aircraft and air traffic control in new
                ways. There is the potential of unintended use of new
                technologies and pilots introducing operating dynamics that were
                not anticipated during design and implementation of NextGen


                                                                                    1
                technologies and procedures. Research is required to better
                understand potential unintended uses and operating dynamics
                that could lead to unintended results and potentially adverse
                consequences.
       4.       Roles and Responsibilities. Implementation of NextGen
                operations will require shifts in the roles and responsibilities of
                pilots and ATC personnel. These changes will, in turn, require
                implementation of new pilot-ATC- automated systems
                coordination and collaboration methods. In order to realize
                potential safety and efficiency benefits, research is required to
                ensure that appropriate and efficient collaboration frameworks
                and methods are implemented.


2. RESEARCH GOALS AND OUTCOMES

The planned research supports these NextGen Human Factors Air/Ground
Integration research goals:

      Develop initial taxonomy describing the relationship between pilots/ATC
       and associated automated systems.
      Evaluate and recommend pilot-ATC procedures for negotiations and
       shared decision making NextGen activities.
      Identify and recommend mitigation strategies to address potential
       coordination issues between humans and automated systems.
      Identify methods for effectively allocating functions between pilots/ATC
       and automated systems as well as mitigating any losses of skill associated
       with these new roles and responsibilities.
3. RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

FMS/Display Categorization

09-AJP61FGI-0088         Define equipment categories for legacy Flight Management Systems
                         (FMSs) and cockpit displays based on human factors considerations for
                         use in NextGen.
Anticipated Activities   Conduct Literature Review
                         Collect Background Information
                         Conduct Analysis
                         Develop Recommendations

Anticipated Products     Report describing relevant categories of existing legacy FMS/Displays and
                         relevant human factors considerations

09-AJP61FGI-0089         For each category of avionics, evaluate the human factors issues that
                         may arise when using legacy avionics in NextGen applications and
                         provide recommendations for mitigation strategies if appropriate.


Anticipated Activities   Collect Background Information
                         Conduct Analysis
                         Develop and coordinate findings
Anticipated Products     Report describing potential human factors issues associated with use of legacy
                         avionics in NextGen procedures and recommended mitigation strategies


Evaluation and Approval of New Automated Systems

09-AJP61FGI-0001         Define a standard taxonomy for describing the relationship between flight
                         deck and ATC automated systems and human operators in the context of
                         NextGen equipment and applications.

Anticipated Activities   Conduct Literature Review
                         Collect Background Information
                         Conduct Analysis
                         Develop Recommendations

Anticipated Products     Report describing recommended standard taxonomy for relationship between
                         NextGen automated systems and human operators


09-AJP61FGI-0002         Select the most likely human-automation coordination methods and
                         assess the performance costs and benefits of these human-automation
                         coordination strategies in the context of near-term NextGen applications.
                         Measures include workload, situation awareness, timing requirements,
                         accuracy, type/nature/frequency of errors.
Anticipated Activities   Analysis
                         Human in the loop simulation or modeling
                         Develop and coordinate findings

Anticipated Products     Report detailing potential human performance costs and benefits of various
                         coordination methods


09-AJP61FGI-0003         Based on these costs and benefits provide recommendations to support
                         guidance for the design and certification of NextGen automated systems.


Anticipated Activities   Conduct Analysis
                         Develop Recommendations


Anticipated Products     Report describing the implications of these costs and benefits for certification
                         and design guidance of NextGen automated systems.
09-AJP61SSP-0065         Develop a standardized methodology for assessing system performance
                         tradeoffs with different human-automation allocation strategies in other
                         applications. Determine how these new function allocation strategies
                         differ from existing flight deck automated systems (non-deterministic
                         automated systems, etc.) Based on this standardized methodology and
                         an understanding of how these new automation allocation strategies
                         differ from existing flight deck automated systems, develop a certification
                         guide for approval of highly automated systems (including non-
                         deterministic automated systems), and assessment of automation of
                         previously human-performed functions.
Anticipated Activities   Develop Tools
                         Conduct Analysis
                         Develop and coordinate findings

Anticipated Products     Report and certification guide for approval of new automated systems.


09-AJP61FGI-0113         Identify and describe how non-deterministic flight deck automated
                         systems differ from traditional automated systems and discuss how
                         these differences may affect human performance
Anticipated Activities   Conduct Literature Review
                         Develop and coordinate findings

Anticipated Products     Report describing characteristics of non-deterministic automation that may
                         have an impact on human performance

09-AJP61FGI-0114         Assess the impact various characteristics of non-deterministic
                         automation on flight crew trust and use of automated cockpit systems.

Anticipated Activities   Develop Tools
                         Conduct Analysis
                         Develop and coordinate findings
Anticipated Products     Report on the impact of non-deterministic flight deck automation on flight crew
                         trust and use of automated cockpit systems.


Unintended Consequences of New Automated Systems

09-AJP61FGI-0106         Develop a methodology to identify and evaluate new operating dynamics
                         and unintended uses of automation associated with NextGen
                         technologies and procedures.

Anticipated Activities   Conduct Literature Review
                         Develop models or human in the loop simulation
                         Develop and coordinate findings
Anticipated Products     Report summarizing potential unintended consequences of NextGen related
                         automated systems.

09-AJP61FGI-0107         Develop recommendations for mitigating effects related to new operating
                         dynamics and unintended uses of automation associated with NextGen
                         technologies and procedures.

Anticipated Activities   Conduct Analysis
                         Develop models or human in the loop simulation
                         Develop and coordinate findings

Anticipated Products     Recommended mitigation measures to address anticipated issues



Roles and Responsibilities

09-AJP61SSP-0050         Identify a taxonomy of potential general frameworks/methods for pilot
                         /ATC/AOC collaboration and coordination of responsibilities.


Anticipated Activities   Conduct literature review
                         Collect Background Information
                         Conduct Analysis
                         Develop and coordinate findings
Anticipated Products      Recommendations for standard taxonomy of human collaboration and
                          coordination in NextGen applications


09-AJP61SSP-0051          From this list of frameworks/methods for pilot/ATC/AOC collaboration
                          and coordination of responsibilities, identify the most likely candidates
                          for pilot/ATC/AOC collaboration and coordination methods. For these
                          candidate collaboration methods identify relative costs, benefits, and
                          associated information requirements for coordination/collaboration in
                          NextGen reduced, delegated and self-separation operations.

Anticipated Activities    Conduct Analysis
                          Develop models or human in the loop simulation
                          Develop and coordinate findings

Anticipated Products      Recommendations for supporting collaboration and coordination in NextGen
                          procedures


09-AJP61SSP-0064          Evaluate human performance costs and benefits of potential function
                          allocation strategies between pilots(s), controller(s), AOC(s) and
                          automated systems to communicate, execute, monitor and resolve
                          conflicts during delegated separation operations.
Anticipated Activities    Conduct literature review
                          Collect Background Information
                          Develop models or human in the loop simulation
                          Develop and coordinate findings
Anticipated Products      Report summarizing nature and impact of functional allocation on ability to
                          detect and resolve potential conflicts


09-AJP61FGI-0078          Assess various strategies for Pilot Flying/Pilot Not Flying responsibilities
                          and coordination procedures.


Anticipated Activities:   Conduct Analysis
                          Conduct Human-in-the-Loop Study (part task)
                          Develop Concepts

Anticipated Products:     Report of analysis and part task HITL assessing various strategies for PF/PNF
                          responsibilities and coordination procedures for the range of NextGen tasks
                          and capabilities.

								
To top