Lecture 12 by 9F9Zc3GG

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									Lecture 12

      Intergroup Relations:
   Prejudice and Discrimination
Outline
   Introduction
   What is Prejudice?
   Theories of Intergroup Relations
       Authoritarian Personality Theory
       Realistic Conflict Theory
       Social Identity Theory
   Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination
       The Contact Hypothesis
       Common Ingroup Identity Model
Introduction
   Ingroup: The social group to which an
    individual perceives herself or himself
    as belonging (“us”).
   Outgroup: Any group other than the
    one to which individuals perceive
    themselves as belonging (“them”).
What is prejudice?
   Prejudice is a positive or negative
    attitude towards individuals based upon
    their membership in a particular social
    group.
What is Prejudice?
   3 components of a prejudiced attitude
   (A) Affective
       Evaluative/emotional aspect
   (B) Behavioral
       Discrimination: positive or negative behavior
        directed toward the persons or groups who are
        targets of prejudice
   (C) Cognitive
       Stereotypes: A cognitive framework (i.e.,
        schema) to the effect that all members of a
        specific social group share certain characteristics.
Theories of Intergroup
Relations, cont.
   Authoritarian Personality Theory
       The authoritarian personality can be described in
        terms of 3 components
            1.         Authoritarian submission
                     A high degree of submission to authorities who are
                      perceived to be established and legitimate in the society in
                      which one lives.
            2.         Authoritarian aggression
                     A general aggressiveness, directed against various
                      persons, that is perceived to be sanctioned by established
                      authorities.
            3.         Conventionalism
                     A high degree of adherence to the social conventions that
                      are perceived to be endorsed by society and its established
                      authorities.
Theories of Intergroup
Relations, cont.
   Authoritarian Personality Theory, cont.
       Scape-goating
            A response to frustration whereby the
             individual displaces aggression onto a socially
             disapproved outgroup.
   Theories of Intergroup
   Relations, cont.
       Realistic Conflict Theory (Sherif)
                                         Harmonious
Development of           Biased
                                         intergroup
 Group Culture         perceptions
                                          attitudes




  Group              Intergroup         Intergroup
Formation              Conflict         Cooperation



Tasks require           Intergroup        Introduce
  intragroup          competition for   superordinate
 cooperation         scarce resources        goal
Theories of Intergroup
Relations, cont.
   Social Identity Theory (Tajfel, 1978)
       Social categorization
       Social identity
       Social comparison
       Psychological group distinctiveness
Theories of Intergroup
Relations, cont.
   Social Identity Theory, cont.
       Social comparison
            The cognitive tendency to divide the social
             world into categories (i.e., social groups). This
             categorical differentiation has the effect of
             sharpening the distinctions between the
             categories and blurs the differences within
             them.
Theories of Intergroup
Relations, cont.
   Social Identity Theory
       Social identity
            That part of the individual’s self-concept which
             derives from knowledge of his or her
             membership in a social group, together with
             the value and emotional significance associated
             to that membership.
Theories of Intergroup
Relations, cont.
   Social Identity Theory, cont.
       Social comparison
            The process through which characteristics of
             the ingroup are compared to those of the
             outgroup.
Theories of Intergroup
Relations, cont.
   Social Identity Theory, cont.
       Psychological Group Distinctiveness
            The state desired by individuals in which the
             ingroup has an identity that is perceived by the
             group members as being both distinct and
             positive vis-à-vis relevant comparison groups.
Reducing Prejudice
The Contact Hypothesis (Amir, 1969)
Cooperative
Interdependence

                       Prejudice
Equal Status
                       Reduction
Acquaintance
Potential

Institutional
Support
Reducing Prejudice, cont.
   Common Ingroup Identity Model
       Individuals in different groups who view
        themselves as members of a single social entity
        will experience more positive contacts between
        themselves and intergroup bias will be reduced.
       Recategorization
            Shifts in the boundary between an individual’s ingroup
             and various outgroups cause persons formerly viewed as
             outgroup members now to be seen as belonging to the
             ingroup
Reducing Prejudice, cont.
   Dissociation Model (Devine, 1989)
       Based on a conflict between stereo-typed
        responses and personal beliefs
            Automatic Processes (stereotyped-response)
                  Involve the unintentional (spontaneous) activation of
                   previously developed associations in memory that have
                   been established through a history of repeated activation.
            Controlled Processes (personal beliefs)
                  Refers to the intentional activation of information stored in
                   memory. More flexible than automatic processes, but they
                   can be initiated only with active attention and not under
                   conditions in which one’s cognitive capacity is limited

								
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