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Chapter 1 by 9F9Zc3GG


									      Module 1

   Introduction, History,
Perspectives, and Careers
What is Psychology?

Psychology: The scientific study of
 mental processes and behavior.
Theory: a general framework for
 scientific study; smaller aspects can be
Where Psychologist Work
  University, College, School, and other educational settings
  Business, industry, and self-employed settings
  Nonprofit organizations



Some Specialized Fields in
   Educational               Teaching
   Media                     Experimental
   Adulthood and aging       Psychological testing
   Engineering               Physiological
   Rehabilitation            Developmental
   Community                 Personality and social
   Mental Retardation         behavior
   Consumer behavior         Industrial and
   Psychology and the law     organizational
   Psychology of Men         Exercise and sport
   Psychology of Women       Environmental
Research vs. Applied Psychology

 Research Psychologists: Psychologist who
  study the origin, cause, or result of certain

 Applied Psychologists: Psychologists who
  make direct use of the findings of research
  psychologists, they deal directly with clients.
History of Psychology
           Charles Darwin

Five year sea journey around the world
Suggested that animals, including
 humans, had evolved and changed.
Darwin’s theory inspired scientists to
 study animals in attempts to understand
 humans better.
When and Where did modern
Psychology Begin?
 William Wundt (1832-1920): Founder of
  modern psychology
     Psychology was born in 1879
                    E.B. Titchener (1867-1927):
                         Founder of structuralism

     Structuralism: Theory that analyzed the basic
      elements of thoughts and sensations to determine
      the structure of conscious experience.
        Greatest contribution: it provided a theory to disprove
            Wilhem Wundt
Father of psychology
Introspection: the process of looking into
 yourself and describing what is there
Showed that some things about the
 human can be measured in a scientific
    Disagreed with Structuralism

 Gestalt Psychology: Psychological perspective that
  emphasized out tendency to integrate pieces of
  information into meaningful wholes.
                    William James (1842-1910): First
                      American psychologist and author of
    the first psychology text book.
     Functionalism: Theory that emphasized the functions of
      consciousness and the ways consciousness helps people
      adapt to their environment.
                      Sigmund Freud
                       1856 - 1939
 Founder of psychoanalysis.
 Psychoanalytic perspective: School of thought that
  focuses on how behavior springs from unconscious
  drives and conflicts.
 2 Key ways it differed:
     It focused on abnormal behavior, which Freud attributed to
      unconscious drives and conflicts, often stemming from child
     It relied on personal observation and reflection instead of
      controlled laboratory experimentation as its means of discovery.

   “Freudian Slip”
             Humanistic Psychology
 School of thought that focuses on the study of
  conscious experience, the individual’s freedom to
  choose, and capacity for personal growth.
 Abraham Maslow (1908-1970): leader in the
  humanistic psychology movement.
 Carl Rogers (1902-1987): Leader in the humanistic
                   Jean Piaget (1896-1980):
                   Developmental and cognitive
    psychologist know for his studies of children’s thought
    Behaviorist Perspective
 School of thought that focuses on how we learn
  observable responses.
                 Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936): Russian
                   physiologist who showed that animals
    learn some things through association.
 John B. Watson (1878-1958): Founder of behaviorism.
               B.F. Skinner (1904-1990): American
                psychologist whose brand of behaviorism
    focused on the role or responses in learning.
 Albert Bandura
          John B. Watson
1st American Psychologist to study the
 impact of learning on human emotion
We are what we learn to be
Wrote a book on child rearing
Present - Day Psychology

   Eclecticism: The process of
  making your own system by
barrowing from two or more other
Psychological Perspective

A particular view of behavior and/or
 mental processes that has grown into a
Biological Perspective

School of thought that focuses on the
 physical structures and substances
 underlying a particular behavior, thought,
 or emotion.
Biological Perspective

An approach that views behavior as
 strongly influenced by physiological
Behavior viewed in terms of bilogical
Examine behavior in terms of the
 physical changes that take place
Behavioral Perspective

 An approach that views behavior as the
  product of learning and association.
 Behavior viewed as a product of learned
 B.F. Skinner: focused only on what could be
   We are controlled by the environment in the sense
    that we become whatever the environment forces
    us to be - good or bad.
  Psychoanalytic Perspective

 A system that views the individual as the product of
  unconscious forces.
 Behavior viewed as a reflection of unconscious
  aggressive and sexual impulses.
 Sigmund Freud: developed a a theory that centered
  around sexual and aggressive impulses that are
  hidden in our unconsciousness from early childhood.
 Psychologist try to understand what kinds of
  perception, thinking, and memory go on below our
  level of awareness and without our conscious control.
Humanistic Perspective

 An approach that views people as basically
  good and capable of helping themselves.
 Behavior viewed as a reflection of internal
 We can reach perfection because of our very
 Carl Rogers
Cognitive Perspective

School of thought that focuses on how
 we take in, process, store, and retrieve
Cognitive Perspective

 An approach that emphasizes how humans
  use mental processes to handle problems or
  develop certain personality characteristics.
 Cognition: thinking or using mental processes.
 Behavior viewed as a product of various
  internal sentences, or thoughts.
Social-cultural Perspective

School of thought that focuses on how
 thinking or behavior changes in different
 contexts or situations.
The Social-cultural Perspective

An approach that views behavior as
 strongly influenced by the rules and
 expectations of specific social groups or
Behavior viewed as strongly influence by
 the expectations of social groups or
Psychological Domains
Analyzing Your Neighbor

 John is 40 years old and lives still with his
  mother. He has never been married but has a
  good job as an engineer. His life seemed to
  be going well until one day a month ago his
  boss chewed him out for not doing something
  right. During the last month, john has been
  worried and depressed because he has
  started forgetting things. He told his mother,
  who told Ethel who lives next door, and now
  everybody knows.
Examples of what has happened
to him
 He was supposed to turn in plans for a new
  project but forgot they were due,
 He has always remembered his mothers
  birthday, but this time he completely forgot
  about it, hurting her feelings.
 A month ago, a few days after the incident on
  the job, he met a woman he really liked and
  set up a date with her for later in the week.
  But he had forgotten that he was going to be
  out or town then, so he had to cancel the date.
What is New is Psychology?

Behavior Genetics: School of thought
 that focuses on how much our genes
 and our environment influence our
 individual differences.
Positive Psychology: Movement that
 focuses on the study of optimal human
 functioning and the factors that allow
 individuals and communities to thrive.
Examine your Neighbor

  In groups of two or three you
need to examine John’s behavior
   using the provided theory.

Now use eclecticism to come up
with your own theory for John’s

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