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Module 1 Introduction, History, Perspectives, and Careers What is Psychology? Psychology: The scientific study of mental processes and behavior. Theory: a general framework for scientific study; smaller aspects can be tested. Where Psychologist Work University, College, School, and other educational settings Business, industry, and self-employed settings Nonprofit organizations Governmen 10% 16% 42% 32% Some Specialized Fields in Psychology Educational Teaching Media Experimental Adulthood and aging Psychological testing Engineering Physiological Rehabilitation Developmental Community Personality and social Mental Retardation behavior Consumer behavior Industrial and Psychology and the law organizational Psychology of Men Exercise and sport Psychology of Women Environmental Research vs. Applied Psychology Research Psychologists: Psychologist who study the origin, cause, or result of certain behaviors. Applied Psychologists: Psychologists who make direct use of the findings of research psychologists, they deal directly with clients. History of Psychology Charles Darwin Five year sea journey around the world Suggested that animals, including humans, had evolved and changed. Darwin’s theory inspired scientists to study animals in attempts to understand humans better. When and Where did modern Psychology Begin? William Wundt (1832-1920): Founder of modern psychology Psychology was born in 1879 E.B. Titchener (1867-1927): Founder of structuralism Structuralism: Theory that analyzed the basic elements of thoughts and sensations to determine the structure of conscious experience. Greatest contribution: it provided a theory to disprove Wilhem Wundt 1832-1920 Father of psychology Introspection: the process of looking into yourself and describing what is there Showed that some things about the human can be measured in a scientific manner Disagreed with Structuralism Gestalt Psychology: Psychological perspective that emphasized out tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes. William James (1842-1910): First American psychologist and author of the first psychology text book. Functionalism: Theory that emphasized the functions of consciousness and the ways consciousness helps people adapt to their environment. Sigmund Freud 1856 - 1939 Founder of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic perspective: School of thought that focuses on how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts. 2 Key ways it differed: It focused on abnormal behavior, which Freud attributed to unconscious drives and conflicts, often stemming from child hood. It relied on personal observation and reflection instead of controlled laboratory experimentation as its means of discovery. “Freudian Slip” Humanistic Psychology School of thought that focuses on the study of conscious experience, the individual’s freedom to choose, and capacity for personal growth. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970): leader in the humanistic psychology movement. Carl Rogers (1902-1987): Leader in the humanistic movement. Jean Piaget (1896-1980): Developmental and cognitive psychologist know for his studies of children’s thought processes. Behaviorist Perspective School of thought that focuses on how we learn observable responses. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936): Russian physiologist who showed that animals learn some things through association. John B. Watson (1878-1958): Founder of behaviorism. B.F. Skinner (1904-1990): American psychologist whose brand of behaviorism focused on the role or responses in learning. Albert Bandura John B. Watson 1878-1958 1st American Psychologist to study the impact of learning on human emotion We are what we learn to be Wrote a book on child rearing Present - Day Psychology Eclecticism: The process of making your own system by barrowing from two or more other systems Psychological Perspective A particular view of behavior and/or mental processes that has grown into a movement. Biological Perspective School of thought that focuses on the physical structures and substances underlying a particular behavior, thought, or emotion. Biological Perspective An approach that views behavior as strongly influenced by physiological functions. Behavior viewed in terms of bilogical responses. Examine behavior in terms of the physical changes that take place Behavioral Perspective An approach that views behavior as the product of learning and association. Behavior viewed as a product of learned responses. B.F. Skinner: focused only on what could be seen. We are controlled by the environment in the sense that we become whatever the environment forces us to be - good or bad. Psychoanalytic Perspective A system that views the individual as the product of unconscious forces. Behavior viewed as a reflection of unconscious aggressive and sexual impulses. Sigmund Freud: developed a a theory that centered around sexual and aggressive impulses that are hidden in our unconsciousness from early childhood. Psychologist try to understand what kinds of perception, thinking, and memory go on below our level of awareness and without our conscious control. Humanistic Perspective An approach that views people as basically good and capable of helping themselves. Behavior viewed as a reflection of internal growth. We can reach perfection because of our very nature. Carl Rogers Cognitive Perspective School of thought that focuses on how we take in, process, store, and retrieve information. Cognitive Perspective An approach that emphasizes how humans use mental processes to handle problems or develop certain personality characteristics. Cognition: thinking or using mental processes. Behavior viewed as a product of various internal sentences, or thoughts. Social-cultural Perspective School of thought that focuses on how thinking or behavior changes in different contexts or situations. The Social-cultural Perspective An approach that views behavior as strongly influenced by the rules and expectations of specific social groups or cultures. Behavior viewed as strongly influence by the expectations of social groups or cultures, Psychological Domains Analyzing Your Neighbor John is 40 years old and lives still with his mother. He has never been married but has a good job as an engineer. His life seemed to be going well until one day a month ago his boss chewed him out for not doing something right. During the last month, john has been worried and depressed because he has started forgetting things. He told his mother, who told Ethel who lives next door, and now everybody knows. Examples of what has happened to him He was supposed to turn in plans for a new project but forgot they were due, He has always remembered his mothers birthday, but this time he completely forgot about it, hurting her feelings. A month ago, a few days after the incident on the job, he met a woman he really liked and set up a date with her for later in the week. But he had forgotten that he was going to be out or town then, so he had to cancel the date. What is New is Psychology? Behavior Genetics: School of thought that focuses on how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences. Positive Psychology: Movement that focuses on the study of optimal human functioning and the factors that allow individuals and communities to thrive. Examine your Neighbor In groups of two or three you need to examine John’s behavior using the provided theory. Eclecticism Now use eclecticism to come up with your own theory for John’s behavior.
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