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					EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY
CHARTER
    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    These recommendations are the culmination of contributions from 14 organizations since January 2010. We would
    like to thank all the members of the Reverse team for having identified and discussed the content of this book:
    Camille MASSOL, Bénédicte HAMON, Adeline BOROT DE BATTISTI (Aquitaine Region); Immacolata BARBAGIOVANNI,
    Paolo COLLEPARDI, Paola TAVIANI, Lino LELLI, Stefano PAOLETTI, Roberto REA, Stefano CARRANO, Paola CIRIONI,
    Massimo TANCA, Mariateresa COSTANZA, Claudio DI GIOVANNATONIO (ARSIAL); Marta ROZAS , Azucena SALAZAR
    (Basque Government); Bertrand LASSAIGNE, Jennifer KENDALL, Angela MALLARONI (Bio d’Aquitaine); Henrich
    KLUGKIST, Ullrich MICKAN (Bremen Region); Hervé CODHANT (CEN Aquitaine); Daniela BENEDIKOVÁ, Michaela
                        � �
    BENKOVÁ, Iveta CICOVÁ (PPRC Piešt’any); Karin KRUUSMAA, Merrit SHANSKIY, Kalev SEPP, Elis VOLLMER,
    Maaria SEMM (Estonian University of Life Sciences); Polymnia SKLAVAKI, Voula NOUSIA, Ioannis FOTAKIS, Dimos
    DIMITRIOU (Forest Directorate of Chania-Crete Region); Christini FOURNARAKI, Panagiota GOTSIOU, Adamantia
    KOKKINAKI, Aristidis STAMATAKIS (MAICh); Marcelo MARTINEZ PALAO, Ramón BALLESTER SABATER, Inmaculada
    RAMÍREZ SANTIGOSA, Antonio VICTORIA LÓPEZ, Francisco FLORES ALBACETE, Rafael DÍAZ GARCÍA (Murcia Region);
    Lambros TSOURGIANNIS, Kiki HARALAMPIDOU, Dimitris TSIANIS (Region of East Macedonia and Thrace); Josefine
    GUMPRECHT, Benjamin KÜTHER (ttz Bremerhaven); Ivana STELLA, Giuseppe MERLI, Rodolfo INGUAGGIATO, Paolo
    PAPA, Raoul SEGATORI (Umbria Region); Luciano CONCEZZI, Livia POLEGRI (3A-Umbria Agrofood Technology Park).

    Special thanks to the Region of East Macedonia and Thrace and Aquitaine Region for writing and editing this book.
    We also warmly acknowledge Cristina Scaletti, Tuscany Tourism Minister , President of NECSTOUR, for writing a
    relevant preamble to this book and Alice JUDE, coordinator of NECSTOUR, for her advice and help.
    Last but not least, we acknowledge the work done by EDEN Traduction as proof-reader and D-Day for the design.

    Book published in 2012




2
A WORD FROM CRISTINA SCALETTI




Biodiversity is a network of ecosystems which form together the chain of life of a place; when one piece is jeopardized
or disappears, the whole system is compromised. Uncontrolled tourism fluxes and massive tourism industry can be very
destructive for biodiversity and impacts negatively on the destinations on a short and long term basis.
For this reason it is crucial that the public authorities develop sustainable and competitive tourism strategies in
collaboration with all the local stakeholders and businesses in order to actively protect the cultural and natural heritage
of the destinations. Sustainable and competitive tourism strategies are able to generate revenues from tourism to be
reinvested in protection of the heritage and in qualified staff to educate the tourists.

Most recognised studies show that one of the main reasons for travelling is to discover other realities; the tourist is ready
to hear, see, taste and feel other culture, other identities. Biodiversity reflects the identity of the destination, although the
tourist is not directly aware of this environmental landscape. One of the objectives of sustainable tourism is to highlight
and valorize the environmental heritage of a destination as much as the cultural part.

NECSTouR, the Network of European Regions for a Competitive and Sustainable Tourism has committed to foster social
dialogue, to develop tools for measuring and to integrate competitiveness in the following 10 challenges for the future
identified by the European Commission in the 2007 Agenda for Sustainable and competitive Tourism(1):
1. Reduction and optimisation of use of natural resources with particular reference to water
2. Reduction and optimisation of energy consumption
3. Reduction of waste and better waste management
4. Quality of life of residents and tourists
5. Quality of work
6. Active conservation of cultural heritage
7. Active conservation of environmental heritage
8. Active conservation of distinctive identities of destinations
9. Widening the relations between demand/offer (geographical and seasonal)
10. Transport and mobility

The best way to valorize the identity is to ensure its conservation: integrated public policies for sustainable and competitive
tourism are therefore unavoidable.




                                                                                                                      Cristina Scaletti
                                                                                                             Tuscany Tourism Minister
                                                                                                                 NECSTouR President




  COM(2007) 621 final - 19.10.2007 : http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/tourism/documents/communications/commission-communication-2007/
(1)

index_en.htm
                                                                                                EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
                                                                                                            A WORD FROM CRISTINA SCALETTI     3
4
                                                                                       INDEX


A word from Cristina Scaletti, NECSTouR President                                                 3


BIODIVERSITY IN EUROPE: CHALLENGES AND ACTIONS                                                    6

TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY: A STORY OF IMPACT, DEPENDENCY AND BENEFITS                             10

  A. Impact of agriculture on biodiversity                                                       11
  B. Agrobiodiversity: History and new conservation approaches                                   11


RELEVANT INITIATIVES LINKING TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY. ABSENCE OF LEGAL FRAMEWORK                12


RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE FIELD TO BUILD A EUROPEAN STRATEGY
ENHANCING BIODIVERSITY IN TOURISM                                                                14


    1st RECOMMENDATION                                                                           16

      INCREASING CONSIDERATION OF BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN EUROPEAN UNION TOURISM POLICIES



    2nd RECOMMENDATION                                                                           17

      UPGRADING ECO-LABEL STANDARDS FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
      THAT TAKES BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION INTO ACCOUNT


    3rd RECOMMENDATION                                                                           18

      INFORMING AND RAISING AWARENESS AMONG TOURISM STAKEHOLDERS (INDUSTRY PROFESSIONALS,
      ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES, TOURISTS, LOCAL COMMUNITIES) ON BIODIVERSITY PRESERVATION


    4th RECOMMENDATION                                                                           18

      DEVELOPING AND IMPROVING TOURISM MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND TOOLS



    5th RECOMMENDATION                                                                           19

      PROMOTING TOURISM ACTIVITIES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION




   Appendix                                                                                      20




                                                                                                      5
BIODIVERSITY IN EUROPE: CHALLENGES AND ACTIONS




6   EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
    BIODIVERSITY IN EUROPE: CHALLENGES AND ACTIONS
Biological diversity, better known for short as biodiversity, is the variety of life on Earth (microorganisms, plants, fungi
and animals) and the natural patterns it forms. Three different and interrelated levels of biodiversity are commonly
defined as: genetic diversity (i.e. the range of genes in all individuals as well as between individuals), species diversity
(i.e. the range of species within and between populations) and ecosystems (i.e. the range of habitats, communities,
and ecological processes, including intra-ecosystem variations). Although this is not easy to quantify, all levels are
the basis to ensure evolution and adaptation to a changing environment.

Definition
       [ Biological diversity
       The variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other
       aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species,
       between species and of ecosystems.
       Source: Article 2, Convention on Biological Diversity (United Nations, 1992) ]

Biodiversity certainly has intrinsic value. It is also essential to human life and wellbeing in the sense that humans
have always depended on natural resources. More specifically, biodiversity ensures the quality, quantity and stability
of ecosystems’ goods and services, i.e. the series of material, cultural and spiritual benefits humans draw from the
ecological functions played by ecosystems (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). Biodiversity provides raw
materials for food, health and shelter (e.g. agricultural products, fish, wood, medicine, wool, etc.) and in doing so, it
becomes the basic resource for many economic activities; it regulates and recycles the air, soil and water conditions
necessary for our survival; it forms the basis for cultural and recreational activities (such as ecotourism), scientific
and educational programmes, as well as spirituality, religion, ethics and emotions. Biodiversity is the result of both
natural processes and human practices. Biological diversity in agriculture, a natural subset of biological diversity,
is the result of such an interaction.

Biodiversity has, however, been increasingly negatively affected by human activity. In Europe, like elsewhere in the
world, biodiversity is deteriorating. 25% of marine mammals, 15% of terrestrial mammals and 12% of birds are
threatened with extinction (EEA, 2010). Moreover, 62% of European habitats and 52% of European protected species
included in the “Habitat” Directive have an unfavourable conservation status (EEA-ETC/BD, 2009).

The loss of variation in crops due to modernization has been described as genetic erosion, which is a complex process
and has been mostly associated with the introduction of modern cultivars (Van De Wouw et al., 2009 and 2010). In
Italy in the early years (1920-1950) a relatively high rate of genetic erosion was observed (13.2% p.a.) and from the
1950s until 1980s erosion rates between 0.48 and 4% p.a. were estimated (Hammer and Laghetti, 2005, Hammer
and Teklu, 2010, Heal et al. 2004).

The key pressures include rapid shifts in land use, which have been acknowledged as a major threat (IUCN, 2007,
2009, 2010). Extensive farming land declined by 2.6% between 1990 and 2006 across Europe(2) with natural grassland
areas also declining. Over the same period, built-up, industrial and artificial areas have gone up by 7.9%. Subsequent
threats of pollution and overexploitation come next. Cropland, forests and pastures cover almost 80% of the total
European land area, EU-25 plus Norway and Switzerland (EEA, 2007). Unsurprisingly, pressure from the twin trends
of the intensification of agricultural and forestry practices, together with land abandonment, plays a major role.
Furthermore, invading exotic species spread out, especially in aquatic ecosystems and in the context of a changing
climate: more than 10,000 non-native species have been observed in Europe, more than 10% of them having adverse
economic or ecological impacts(3).




(2)
    Figures related to land cover (agriculture, natural grassland, industrial areas) come from the latest available statistics from CORINE, a European
Environment Agency land cover database, accessible at http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/COR0-landcover
(3)
    See the European Invasive Alien Species Gateway from DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe), accessible at
http://www.europe-aliens.org
                                                                                                       EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
                                                                                                    BIODIVERSITY IN EUROPE: CHALLENGES AND ACTIONS       7
    The legal and regulatory framework for biodiversity conservation at European level

    Reversing biodiversity loss is a major challenge at global, regional and local levels. The European Union, among
    other bodies, has actively committed its member states to biodiversity conservation for a number of years. Specific
    legislation, strategies and plans have been set up to create a framework for policy action aimed at providing long-
    term protection and conservation of nature. They all emanate from legally binding conventions at global level. A
    selection of the most relevant official literature is provided below.

    Along with international treaties, many policies including directives, regulations, strategies and action plans, have
    been adopted at European level. The two central legal instruments are the Directive on the protection of wild birds
    (known as the Birds Directive, 2009/147/EC, a codified version of Directive 79/409/EEC as amended) that was enacted
    in 1979, and the Directive on the conservation of natural habitats and wild fauna and flora in 1992 (the Habitats
    Directive, 92/43/EC). The Birds Directive was the first major EU law to address the issue of nature conservation
    at European level. The Habitats Directive provided a more inclusive framework for other endangered habitats and
    species of interest, and tackled the integration of nature protection requirements into other EU policies such as
    agriculture, regional development and transport. The main EC funding tool supporting the implementation of both
    Directives is the LIFE-Nature fund. As at today, over 1000 animals and plant species and over 200 habitat types that
    are important to Europe are protected under the Directives(4).

    Reference
               [ International conventions framing biodiversity protection in Europe
               The Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), is a United Nations legal instrument dated 1993 that all EU
               members states have signed along with other European countries. Its objectives are i) the conservation of
               biodiversity, ii) the sustainable use of its components and iii) the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits
               arising from the use of genetic resources. Among many other requirements, contracting Parties have to
               develop national strategies and integrate the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity into relevant
               sector or cross-sector plans, programmes and policies. Held in Nagoya in 2010, the tenth Conference of the
               Parties (CoP10) of the CBD led to the adoption of the EU 2020 Biodiversity Strategy, a global Strategic Plan
               for biodiversity over the 2011-2020 period.

               The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (the Ramsar
               Convention), which was adopted in 1971 and came into force in 1975, provides a framework for international
               cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands. Parties are to designate suitable wetlands for
               inclusion in the List of Wetlands of International Importance, to formulate and implement their planning
               so as to promote the conservation of wetlands included in the List and the wise use of all wetlands in their
               territory. For a comprehensive approach to the national implementation of the Convention, many countries
               have developed National Wetland Policies. In its 1994 work programme for the implementation of the 5 th
               Environmental Action Programme, the European Commission included the Communication on the Wise Use and
               Conservation of Wetlands (1995), providing the strategic basis for a wetland policy, spelling out the issues that
               negatively affect wetlands and providing an outline of the actions that need to be taken. It was later replaced
               by the Water Framework Directive.

               The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), signed in
               1973 and implemented in the EU nine years later, aims to ensure that international trade in species of wild
               animals and plants does not threaten their survival. It affords varying degrees of protection to more than 30,000
               species of animals and plants. CITES works by making international trade in specimens of selected species
               subject to certain controls. These controls require that the import, export, re-export and introduction into the
               sea of species covered by the Convention are authorized through a licensing system. The species covered by
               CITES are divided into three categories, according to the degree of protection they need.
               Adopted in 1979 and taking effect in 1982, the Bern Convention was the first comprehensive legal instrument
               for pan-European nature conservation (it also extends to some African States). A keystone treaty for biodiversity
               within the framework of the Council of Europe, it aims to conserve wild European flora and fauna and their
               natural habitats (especially endangered habitats and vulnerable species). The preparation of the Birds Directive
               and later the Habitats Directives is a direct result of the implementation of this Convention.


               Since 1979, the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, also known as the
               Bonn Convention, has aimed to conserve migratory species and their habitats by providing strict protection for
               endangered migratory species, by concluding multilateral Agreements for the conservation and management of
               migratory species that require or would benefit from international cooperation, and by undertaking cooperative
               research activities.
               Sources: see Appendix to access the source documents ]




    (4)
          More information on http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/habitatsdirective/index_en.htm

8   EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
    BIODIVERSITY IN EUROPE: CHALLENGES AND ACTIONS
Created under the Habitats Directive, Natura 2000 is the main tool of EU nature & biodiversity policy, and is the
transposition of EC commitments under the UN Convention on Biological Diversity. It is a European ecological network
of natural protection areas for the most valuable and endangered species and habitats. Applying to bird sites, habitat
sites and marine areas, it includes Special Areas of Conservation (under the Habitats Directive) and Special Protection
Areas (under the Birds Directive). While the network does not systematically ban human activities nor nationalize
land, requirements consist of sustainable management. Provided that some conservation measures are fulfilled, the
EU, through the LIFE-Nature fund, may assist member states with co-financing the network.


Several other European directives are indirectly concerned with biodiversity conservation. The Water Framework
Directive (2000/60/EC) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC) have established a framework for
Community action against the fragmentation of European water policy. They require all inland and coastal waters
to reach “good ecological status” by 2015 and by 2020 for marine ecosystems. Other directives relate to pollution
prevention, such as the Nitrates Directive (91/676/ EEC), the Groundwater Directive (2006/118/EC), and the Urban
waste water (91/271/EEC) Directive.

Contrary to many other environmental media, soil receives no legal protection although it is a major reservoir of
biodiversity. To bridge this gap, the Commission of the European Communities drafted a directive proposal in 2006
to establish a common strategy for the protection and sustainable use of soil (by integrating soil concerns into other
policies), preserving soil function, preventing threats to soil and mitigation of their effects, as well as restoring
degraded soils to a level of functionality at least consistent with their current and approved future use (CEC, 2006).
Alongside existing legislation, the EU has issued a series of successive strategies and plans that outline binding
actions for the member states in the coming years (e.g. the 1995 Pan European Biological and Landscape Diversity
Strategy). The latest EU Biodiversity Action Plan, dated 2006 (2006 Biodiversity Action Plan), draws from an EC
communication dedicated to “Halting Biodiversity Loss by 2010 - and Beyond: Sustaining ecosystem services for
human well-being”. In May 2011, having seen its failure to reach the 2010 target, the EC adopted the new EU
Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Several targets have been set to address both the 2020 headline target and the overall
commitments agreed by the EU and its member states. They pursue three key orientations: protecting and restoring
biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, enhancing the positive contribution of agriculture and forestry, and
reducing key pressures on EU biodiversity and stepping up the EU’s contribution to global biodiversity.

Reference
     [ The EU 2020 biodiversity strategy
     The vision: by 2050, European Union biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides - its natural capital -
     will be protected, valued and appropriately restored for biodiversity’s intrinsic value and for their essential
     contribution to human well-being and economic prosperity, and so that catastrophic changes caused by the
     loss of biodiversity are avoided.

     2020 headline target: halting the loss of biodiversity and the degradation of ecosystem services in the EU
     by 2020, and restoring them in so far as feasible, while stepping up the EU contribution to averting global
     biodiversity loss.
     Source: European Commission, 2011 ]


Reverse project - recommendations from European regions to improve European policy

Whereas biodiversity conservation certainly requires a legal framework and policy action, it cannot be effective without
relying on sustainable economic activity. In other words, biodiversity conservation and economic development must go
hand in hand. Experience shows that this is possible and replicable. Building on successful initiatives from a number
of European regions, this is the ambition of Reverse; a European project to protect biodiversity. Across three areas
closely linked to biodiversity - agriculture food production, land planning and tourism - using a bottom-up approach,
the 14 European Reverse Partners have worked together to identify local actions that should be easy to transpose
and to offer policy recommendations to improve biodiversity conservation.
The present charter is one of the key outputs of the Reverse project. It forms a set of sector policy recommendations
aimed at policy-makers at European level, to improve the effectiveness of regional policies in conserving biodiversity
while promoting economic development.

You can find the three Reverse charters focused on agriculture, tourism and land planning respectively, and the cross
disciplinary collection of 47 study cases on the Reverse website: www.reverse.aquitaine.eu




                                                                                    EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
                                                                                 BIODIVERSITY IN EUROPE: CHALLENGES AND ACTIONS   9
TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY:
A STORY OF IMPACT, DEPENDENCY AND BENEFITS




10   EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
     TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY: A STORY OF IMPACT, DEPENDENCY AND BENEFITS
A. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE ON BIODIVERSITY

Together, the 27 European member states are the world’s leading tourist destination, with 42% of tourists worldwide.
They attracted around 380 million international tourists (tourists from another country, including another EU country)
in 2007 and 700 million national tourists (tourism within the country of residence) (ECORYS, 2009)(5). Tourism is
therefore a key sector of the European economy with respect to GDP and employment. For instance, in 2006, there
were 34,000 firms working in the hotel, travel and tour operator sectors, employing 2.8 million people (1.2% of total
employment in the EU 27) and generating a turnover of about €290 billion (ECORYS, 2009).

Definition
           [ Tourism refers to the activity of visitors taking a trip to a main destination outside their usual environment,
           for less than a year, for any main purpose, including business, leisure or other personal reasons, other than
           to be employed by a resident entity in the place visited.

           Source: EUROSTAT 2010. ]

Tourism is also a highly dynamic sector. The EU records one million additional tourists every year and projected
figures from the United Nation World Tourism Organisation reveal a fast-growing trend that may double the number
of international tourists in Europe between 2000 and 2020. Unsurprisingly, the job creation rate in tourism is above
average compared to other sectors.

The tourism sector is mainly dominated by a myriad of small and medium enterprises: 90% of EU 27 companies
operating in tourism have less than 10 employees. Moreover, the traditional suppliers of this sector are very diverse:
travel agencies, entertainment venues, hospitality businesses, caterers, transportation companies, etc. This makes
the tourism industry a very complex and fragmented sector.

The rapid development of tourism places significant pressure on biodiversity through the uncontrolled expansion of
infrastructures, polluting activities (transportation, construction, waste water and sewage, etc.), high visitor density
(trampling of plants and noise pollution) and on-site consumption or use of natural resources (fishing, hunting,
souvenir shops). Indirect consequences such as invasive species and the contribution to global greenhouse gas
emissions further threaten biodiversity. As a result, tourism may lead to the fragmentation and reduction of natural
habitats, harm to local flora and fauna, and the elimination of endangered or emblematic species.

B. AGROBIODIVERSITY: HISTORY AND NEW CONSERVATION APPROACHES

Paradoxically, tourism is a major beneficiary of biodiversity, which provides it with a great variety of landscapes for
many types of recreational activities, the cultural identity of territories and rich natural areas that are attractive for
tourists. Moreover, healthy ecosystems project a positive image of a tourist destination. The tourism sector, and the
broader economic activity, are highly dependent on biodiversity conservation and have an interest in its conservation to
secure its future activity. Moreover, biodiversity may allow players in the tourism industry to differentiate themselves:
it may create a responsible reputation and positive brand image, as well as diversified nature-related destinations
and attractions: so many selling points that are appealing to new clients.

These contradictory interactions between tourism and biodiversity, including both potential for economic opportunities
and risks of adverse ecological effects, logically lead to a preference for sustainable tourism practices, from
environmentally friendly infrastructure design to recreational activities that respect nature.

Furthermore, some practices in tourism may even have a positive effect on the protection and enhancement of
biodiversity. Initiatives such as green tourism in protected areas, eco-labelling of facilities or agri-tourism target both
the development of tourism and the conservation of biodiversity. Moreover, there are many positive effects correlated
with biodiversity-based tourism. Biodiversity awareness and education are facilitated through environmentally
friendly accommodation infrastructures and communication to the public. Biodiversity-oriented tourism provides
innovative sources of financing for biodiversity conservation action. And finally, green tourism such as agri-tourism
has strong positive social spill-over among stakeholders who are the local keepers of biodiversity, in particular the
rural communities that benefit from tourism through the preservation of traditional and cultural activities, jobs for
people in rural areas and alternative sources of revenue.

Environmental awareness is quite recent in the tourism industry, compared to more obviously polluting sectors such
as the chemical industry, mining or farming. But the rapid growth of tourism and increased targeting of remaining
unspoiled natural areas (often with great and vulnerable biodiversity, as in coastal ecosystems, mountains, protected
areas, etc.) make it impossible to ignore. This is why a more sustainable kind of tourism is being developed all over
the world and in particular in Europe. Challenges include promoting measures that support the development of
sustainable tourism, which takes into account and even promotes biodiversity conservation.




(5)
      Based on most recent available data at the time of writing
                                                                                               EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
                                                                     TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY: A STORY OF IMPACT, DEPENDENCY AND BENEFITS   11
RELEVANT INITIATIVES LINKING TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY
ABSENCE OF LEGAL FRAMEWORK




12   EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
     RELEVANT INITIATIVES LINKING TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY ABSENCE OF LEGAL FRAMEWORK
The links between biodiversity and tourism are not strongly regulated but depend on cross-industry measures.
Due to its complexity, the tourism sector is influenced by regulations in different fields: land and town planning,
transportation infrastructures, overseas development policies, etc. And these regulations are related to competencies
from various national and regional administrations. The coordination of public and private initiatives in tourism is
mostly done at local level.

At European level, the Commission has conducted initiatives to improve competitiveness and job creation, as well as
sustainability in the tourism sector as described in its communication “Europe, the world’s No.1 tourist destination
- a new political framework for tourism in Europe” - COM(2010) 352/final. One of these actions is the creation of the
Business@Biodiversity platform(6), which enables tourism companies to share their best practices and to develop
sector-wide guidance documents.

As a matter of fact, as environmental awareness is rising in the tourism sector, various private and public-driven
initiatives increasingly develop voluntary projects promoting sustainable tourism, with positive side-effects on
biodiversity.
For instance, a number of labels certify the sustainable attitude of the tourism activity to consumers. Even if
biodiversity is not necessarily the focal point of criteria, the labels’ requirements aim to reduce the impact of leisure
organizations on the local environment. Local biodiversity, therefore, benefits from these eco-labels. Four of the
most used and relevant tourism eco-labels are presented here:
       - EarthCheck(7): This is the world’s largest certifier of sustainable travel and tourism operators with more than
       1300 clients in over 84 countries. Its environmental management programme involves the implementation of
       a policy of sustainable development and commitment with local communities. It also deals with the use and
       management of water, energy, paper, waste, and the use of pesticides and cleaning and hygiene products.
       - Green Globe(8): The Green Globe Certification is a global certification for sustainability that rewards different
       businesses in the tourism sector; from hotels and conference centres, to attractions, or transportation and
       travel companies. The environmental criteria for this international label are wide and include the conservation
       of biodiversity, ecosystems and landscapes.
       - Green Key(9): This is a worldwide eco-label for tourism facilities, which is awarded to hotels, campsites and
       attractions. It is notably based on education for sustainable development, raising environmental awareness
       among the owners, staff and clients of leisure establishments and environmental preservation by reducing
       the establishment’s impact on the environment. Each country develops national criteria consisting of all the
       international baseline criteria plus 20% of specific national criteria.
       - European Ecolabel on Touristic Accommodation(10): This is part of the voluntary European eco-label scheme,
       established in 1992, which encourages businesses to market products and services that are kinder to the
       environment. Tourist accommodation displaying this award limits energy and water consumption, reduces waste
       production, prefers the use of renewable resources and substances that are less hazardous to the environment,
       and promotes environmental education and communication. The physical structure must respect all relevant
       laws existing in their region, including those related to biodiversity.

In addition, many sustainable tourism networks have been created at national, European and international level
since 2000 to promote sustainable practices. For instance, the Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC)(11) is a
global initiative dedicated to promoting sustainable tourism practices around the world. It includes a diverse global
membership (UN agencies, leading travel companies, hotels, national tourist boards and tour operators) and its
Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria are a reference in the tourism sector as the minimum requirements for claiming
a sustainable tourism activity. At European level, ECOTRANS(12) is a leading sustainable tourism multi-stakeholder
network of experts who are seeking to promote and disseminate best practices. As for NECSTouR(13), it is an open
network of European regions, whose aim is to develop and strengthen a coherent framework for the coordination of
regional development programmes and research on sustainable and competitive tourism.

The European Charter for Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas(14) of the EUROPARC federation is a good example of
a practical tool for the development of sustainable tourism in European protected areas. This charter aims to increase
awareness of, and support for, Europe’s protected areas and improve the sustainable development and management
of tourism in protected areas, taking into account the needs of the environment, local residents, local businesses and
visitors. Based on a five-year commitment from members, its principles involve working in partnership, preparing
and implementing a strategy, and addressing key issues. It is neither a conventional quality label, nor a traditional
partnership agreement, but combines elements of both.

To conclude, there is already a wide range of initiatives aimed at helping willing tourism stakeholders to develop a
more sustainable activity with positive effects on biodiversity. However these initiatives need to be coordinated at
global level to make their aims and results more understandable at tourists’ level.



(6)
    EU Commission Business@Biodiversity platform: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/biodiversity/business/index_en.html
(7)
   Earthcheck website: http://www.earthcheck.org - (8) Green Globe website: http://greenglobe.com - (9) The Green Key website: http://www.green-key.org
(10)
     EU Ecolabel website: http://www.ecolabel.eu - (11) Global sustainable tourism council website: http://new.gstcouncil.org
(12)
     European Network for sustainable Tourism development: http://www.ecotrans.org
(13)
     Network of European Regions for a Sustainable and competitive Tourism: http://www.necstour.eu
(14)
     European Charter for sustainable tourism in protected area: http://www.european-charter.org/home/
                                                                                                       EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
                                                                RELEVANT INITIATIVES LINKING TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY ABSENCE OF LEGAL FRAMEWORK          13
RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE FIELD
TO BUILD A EUROPEAN STRATEGY ENHANCING
BIODIVERSITY IN TOURISM




14   EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
     RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE FIELD TO BUILD A EUROPEAN STRATEGY ENHANCING BIODIVERSITY IN TOURISM
1st RECOMMENDATION                                                                                                               16

 INCREASING CONSIDERATION OF BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN EUROPEAN UNION TOURISM POLICIES



2nd RECOMMENDATION                                                                                                               17

 UPGRADING ECO-LABEL STANDARDS FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
 THAT TAKES BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION INTO ACCOUNT


3rd RECOMMENDATION                                                                                                               18

 INFORMING AND RAISING AWARENESS AMONG TOURISM STAKEHOLDERS (INDUSTRY PROFESSIONALS,
 ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES, TOURISTS, LOCAL COMMUNITIES) ON BIODIVERSITY PRESERVATION


4th RECOMMENDATION                                                                                                               18

 DEVELOPING AND IMPROVING TOURISM MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND TOOLS



5th RECOMMENDATION                                                                                                               19

 PROMOTING TOURISM ACTIVITIES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION




                                                                                   EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
                                 RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE FIELD TO BUILD A EUROPEAN STRATEGY ENHANCING BIODIVERSITY IN TOURISM    15
                                         RECOMMENDATIONS
     1st RECOMMENDATION
     INCREASING CONSIDERATION OF BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN EUROPEAN UNION TOURISM
     POLICIES

     The European Union should enforce the development of tourism activities that do not degrade biodiversity, because
     a quality environment with preserved biodiversity is an asset for the tourism sector. Linking biodiversity and tourism
     in European Union policy is therefore a main issue for both sides.
     Currently, the new European strategy described in the COM (2010)352/Final “Europe, the world’s No 1 tourist
     destination - a new political framework for tourism in Europe” (approved by the EU parliament in 2011) does not
     sufficiently take biodiversity issues into consideration. Furthermore, the European Commission has adopted an
     ambitious new strategy to halt the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the EU by 2020 (COM(2011)244/
     Final). This strategy aims to reverse biodiversity loss and speed up the EU’s transition towards a resource-efficient
     and green economy. But it does not refer to the impact of tourism enough in its main targets and actions.




             ACTION PLAN

             Include of measures and actions regarding the protection and promotion of biodiversity in the European
             Tourism Strategy, e.g. the Commission and member states should integrate quantified biodiversity targets
             into tourism development strategies and programmes, tailoring action to regional and local needs.
             Include of biodiversity experts in the networking of the tourism sector, e.g. the existing European Tourism
             Forum - which normally brings together leading representatives from the tourism industry, civil society,
             European Institutions, national and regional authorities dealing with tourism, and international organisations
             to discuss the challenges of the sector - should also emphasize biodiversity or environmental aspects by
             inviting scientists specialising in biodiversity to participate.




16   EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
     RECOMMENDATIONS
 2nd RECOMMENDATION
UPGRADING ECO-LABEL STANDARDS FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM THAT TAKES BIODIVERSITY
CONSERVATION INTO ACCOUNT
The EU eco-label scheme is part of the Community’s sustainable consumption and production policy, which aims to
reduce the negative impact of consumption and production on the environment, health, climate and natural resources.
Today, the EU eco-label covers a wide range of products and services, including cleaning products, appliances, paper
products, textile and home and garden products, lubricants and services such as tourist accommodation. Regulation
(EC) No. 66/2010 on the EU Label intends the EU eco-label’s criteria to take into account the most significant
environmental impacts, in particular the impact on climate change, the impact on nature and biodiversity, energy
and resource consumption, generation of waste, emissions to all environmental media, pollution through physical
effects, and the use and release of hazardous substances.
Within this framework, the criteria of the EU eco-label should be upgraded to take into account biodiversity protection.
Moreover, the EU should establish a recognizable symbol (common within the EU) for sustainable tourism activities that
take into account biodiversity conservation, because generally eco-labels are very important and their implementation
has a significant environmental impact.




            ACTION PLAN


            Develop and include common indicators on biodiversity within the EU in any existing or future European Eco-
            labelling system for sustainable tourism.
            Create and promote a common label in touristic areas regarding biodiversity conservation, e.g. a green flag.
            This label should be developed based on organic farming regulations and PDO labelling systems.
            Create a prize (e.g. a medal, free advertising) among EU tourism companies for the actions they undertake for
            biodiversity conservation, e.g. enhancement of the existing ‘prize’, EDEN (European Destinations of Excellence)(15),
            which promotes social, cultural and environmental sustainability in tourism sectors by upgrading the value
            of ‘biodiversity’ criteria (such as giving higher ‘scores’ to destinations where the tourism practices and
            organization directly respect biodiversity). Moreover, biodiversity conservation should be taken into account
            by the European Commission procedure that is already underway (consultation document ENTR. F1 D(2011)
            about the European Charter for Sustainable and Responsible Tourism).
            Develop training courses and seminars on biodiversity conservation for operators in the tourism industry.




(15)
       More information: webpage of EDEN www.ec.europa.eu/eden
                                                                                          EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
                                                                                                                  RECOMMENDATIONS     17
                                              RECOMMENDATIONS
      3rd RECOMMENDATION
     INFORMING AND RAISING AWARENESS AMONG TOURISM STAKEHOLDERS (INDUSTRY PROFESSIONALS,
     ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES, TOURISTS, LOCAL COMMUNITIES) ON BIODIVERSITY PRESERVATION

     Tourists and professionals should improve their behaviour with respect to biodiversity conservation. Actions that
     inform and raise awareness among tourism stakeholders would help that improvement in Europe and abroad. Indeed,
     European citizens that are aware of the issue can also contribute to biodiversity-friendly tourism development as
     investors, operators and travellers in foreign countries.




                 ACTION PLAN

                 Examine consumers’ attitudes towards eco-tourism and interest in agro-tourism at European level by looking
                 for existing, current and accurate surveys, or, if there are none, by preparing a new one.
                 Organise awareness campaigns (e.g. Nature Days, Eco-festivals, European Tourism and Biodiversity Week)
                 to make tourists understand the importance of conserving biodiversity and in order to inform them how to be
                 more respectful of European biodiversity.
                 Support training of tourism stakeholders on how to be biodiversity-friendly by highlighting the benefits of
                 biodiversity to the tourism sector (e.g. using endemic species in green surroundings of the tourism facilities).
                 Emphasize that the implementation of biodiversity-friendly techniques in the tourist business will help to
                 keep the sector profitable in the medium-term.
                 Enrich the existing website www.visiteurope.com with examples of biodiversity-friendly destinations (e.g.
                 green European map) and education of tourists on biodiversity-friendly behaviour.
                 Reinforce the ethical values of European citizenship to promote responsible attitudes from European citizens
                 travelling within and outside of the EU.




      4th RECOMMENDATION
     DEVELOPING AND IMPROVING TOURISM MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND TOOLS

     At EU level, the Commission has introduced a number of tools to facilitate sound environmental management for
     businesses, such as the EU eco-label or the Community eco-management and audit scheme (EMAS)(16). However,
     the response to these tools, from tourism businesses across Europe, has varied greatly. The Commission has also
     provided member states with documents facilitating the implementation of European environmental legislation, both
     in terms of individual projects and strategic planning.




                 ACTION PLAN


                 Promote the implementation of the European Charter for Sustainable Tourism (ECST) within protected areas.
                 Include biodiversity experts in the networking of the tourism sector.
                 Create a European Charter for Sustainable Tourism in unprotected areas.
                 Carry out environmental impact assessments.
                 Create and promote guidelines in order to develop management tools to regulate the flow of tourists in major
                 touristic areas, in order to respect local biodiversity.


     (16)
            More information on EMAS website http://ec.europa.eu/environment/emas/index_en.htm

18   EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
     RECOMMENDATIONS
5th RECOMMENDATION
PROMOTING TOURISM ACTIVITIES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION

Biodiversity is a vital asset for the tourism industry. Tourists often take advantage of natural landscapes, including
national parks, coastal environments and mountainous regions - all of which harbour significant biodiversity. A clean
environment is every tourist’s expectation and many tourists will not return to polluted or spoiled destinations. As
tourism consists of a crucial pillar for the local economy, it is important to achieve a balance between the benefits
that could be derived from the development of tourism and biodiversity protection. Therefore, tourism activities
that have the least negative impact on biodiversity conservation, as well as activities that contribute positively to
biodiversity, should be promoted within the EU.




       ACTION PLAN

       Support the types of agro-tourism that contribute to the development of biodiversity in agro-ecosystems (e.g.
       farms with landraces and local breeds, beekeeping tours, etc.).
       Develop well managed wild-life watching tours and eco-tourism activities (e.g. deer-watching), which increase
       the awareness of biodiversity among the general public.
       Ensure that a percentage of income originating from tourism activities finances biodiversity protection.
       Incite players in the tourism industry to generate income for protected areas and other attractions, through
       entry fees, permits, concessions, etc., which can be invested in capacity building programmes for local com-
       munities to manage protected areas and protect biodiversity. This way, the direct income derived from visitor
       spending will be converted into tangible economic value that tourism brings to natural and cultural resources.
       Reinforce the EU’s image as a set of high-quality and sustainable destinations.




                                                                                 EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
                                                                                                         RECOMMENDATIONS     19
     APPENDIX

     1. Glossary

     Biodiversity keywords                 Description

     Access and benefit-sharing            One of the three objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, as set out
                                           in its Article 1, is the “fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of
                                           the utilization of genetic resources, including by appropriate access to genetic
                                           resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies, taking into account
                                           all rights over those resources and to technologies, and by appropriate funding”.
                                           The CBD also has several articles (especially Article 15) regarding international
                                           aspects of access to genetic resources.

     Accession                             Word used in plant genetic resources’s collection and identified the entity collected
                                           it is indicated with a number, a codex or a farmer’s name, collected person,
                                           collected place, etc. In the case of seeds collection a distinct, uniquely identifiable
                                           sample of seeds representing a cultivar, breeding line or a population, which is
                                           maintained in storage for conservation and use.

     Agrobiodiversity                      The variability among living organisms associated with the cultivation of crops and
                                           rearing of animals, and the ecological complexes of which those species are part.
                                           This includes diversity within and between species, and of ecosystems.

     Agro-ecological knowledge             Ecological knowledge refers to what people know about their natural environment,
                                           based primarily on their own experience and observation. Agro-ecological
                                           knowledge refers to farmers’ knowledge of ecological interactions within the
                                           farming system.

     Alien species                         A species occurring in an area outside of its historically known natural range as
                                           a result of intentional or accidental dispersal by human activities (also known as
                                           an exotic or introduced species).

     Ancestor                              An organism from which later individuals or species has evolved.

     Benchmarking                          A management tool for comparing performance against an organisation that
                                           is widely regarded as outstanding in one or more areas, in order to improve
                                           performance.

     Biodiversity                          Short for biological diversity - means the diversity of life in all its forms - the
                                           diversity of species, of genetic variations within one species, and of ecosystems.

     Biome                                 A major portion of the living environment of a particular region (such as a fir forest
                                           or grassland), characterised by its distinctive vegetation and maintained largely
                                           by local climatic conditions.

     Biotechnology                         Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or
                                           derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.

     Breed                                 A grouping of animals of the same species having a common ancestor and the
                                           same set of characteristics. Farmers use selective mating to produce offspring
                                           (a breed) with the desired characteristics.

     Buffer zone                           The region adjacent to the border of a protected area; a transition zone between
                                           areas managed for different objectives.

     Centre of crop diversity              Geographical area containing a high level of genetic diversity for crop species in
                                           in situ conditions.

     Centre of origin                      Geographical area where a plant species, either domesticated or wild, first
                                           developed its distinctive properties.

     Collection                            A collection of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture maintained in situ,
                                           ex situ, on farm, in vitro.

     Compensation                          Equivalent in money for a loss sustained; equivalent given for property taken or for
                                           an injury done to another; recompense or reward for some loss, injury or service.




20   EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
     APPENDIX
Connectivity                     Structural and functional connectivity is equal to habitat continuity and is measured
                                 by analysing landscape structure, independent of any attributes of organisms.
                                 This definition is often used in the context of metapopulation ecology. Functional
                                 connectivity is the response of the organism to the landscape elements other than
                                 its habitats (ie the non-habitat matrix). This definition is often used in the context
                                 of landscape ecology.

Conservation                     System of genetic resources maintained.

Conservation status              The sum of the influences acting on a natural habitat and its typical species that
                                 may affect its long-term natural distribution, structure and functions as well as
                                 the long-term survival of its typical species or the sum of the influences acting on
                                 the species concerned that may affect the long-term distribution and abundance
                                 of its populations.

Corridor (ecological)            A strip of a particular type of land that differs from the adjacent land on both
                                 sides. Such corridors may have important ecological functions, including conduit,
                                 barrier and habitat.

Crop                             Cultivated plant or the yield of cultivated plant for a given season or harvest.

Cultivar                         Cultivated variety (from cultivated + variety) (abbr: cv.). A category of plants that
                                 are, firstly, below the level of a sub-species taxonomically, and, secondly, found
                                 only in cultivation. It is an international term denoting certain cultivated plants
                                 that are clearly distinguishable from others by stated characteristics and that
                                 retain their distinguishing characters when reproduced under specific conditions.

Domesticated species             Species in which the evolutionary process has been influenced by humans to meet
                                 their needs. Sin. Cultivated species.

Ecolabel                         An ecolabel is a voluntary environmental performance certificate that is awarded
                                 to products and services. These products and services have to meet specific,
                                 identified criteria depending on the product groups, which reduce overall
                                 environmental impact.

Ecological coherence of Natura Sufficient representation of habitats / species to ensure favourable conservation
2000                           status of habitats and species across their whole natural range. ‘Sufficient
                               representation’ is a function of patch quality, total patch area, patch configuration
                               and landscape permeability.

Ecology                          A branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their
                                 environment; the study of ecosystems.

Ecosystem goods and services The ecological, social and economic benefits provided by ecosystems and
                             biodiversity that contribute to human well-being.

Ecosystems                       Dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their
                                 non-living environment interacting as a functional unit.

Ecosystems services              The benefits people obtain from ecosystems. These include provisioning services
                                 such as food and water; regulating services such as flood and disease control;
                                 cultural services such as spiritual and recreational benefits; and supporting
                                 services such as nutrient cycling that maintain the conditions for life on Earth. The
                                 concept “ecosystem goods and services” is synonymous with ecosystem services.

Ecotone                          Zone / transition areas between two ecosystems where these two systems overlap.
                                 Ecotones support species from both of the over lapping ecosystems and also
                                 species found only in this zone. Consequently, the species richness in ecotones
                                 might be higher than in surrounding areas. In principle, fragmentation causes
                                 an increase in habitat edges, therefore increasing the proportion of ecotones
                                 within a landscape. In this context, it has also been considered that habitat edges
                                 have a negative influence on interior conditions of habitat (e.g. through increased
                                 predation and invasion), i.e. the edge effect.

Ecotourism                       Travel undertaken to witness sites or regions of unique natural or ecologic quality,
                                 or the provision of services to facilitate such travel that have the least impact on
                                 biological diversity and the natural environment.




                                                                                  EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
                                                                                                                   APPENDIX   21
     Ecotype                               A type or subspecies of life that is especially well adapted to a certain environment.

     Emblematic species                    Species that are closely associated by the public with a particular region, nation or
                                           continent, or that seem to ‘sum up’ the region in question. For example, kangaroos
                                           for Australia, pandas for China, or kiwis for New Zealand.

     Endangered species                    A technical definition used for classification referring to a species that is in danger
                                           of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. IUCN The World
                                           Conservation Union defines species as endangeredif the factors causing their
                                           vulnerability or decline continue to operate.

     Endemic species                       A species which is only found in a given region or location and nowhere else in the
                                           world. This definition requires that the region that the species is endemic to, be
                                           defined, such as a “site endemic” (e.g. just found on Mount Celaque),6 a “national
                                           endemic” (e.g. found only in Honduras), a “geographical range endemic” (e.g. found
                                           in the Himalayan region, which however covers several Himalayan countries and
                                           therefore is not a national endemic), or a political region endemic (e.g. found in
                                           countries of Central America). Taken to an extreme, a cosmopolite species is still
                                           endemic to Earth! 

     Evolution                             Any gradual change. Organic evolution is any genetic change in organisms from
                                           generation to generation.

     Ex situ (Conservation)                System of conservation of biological diversity outside their natural habitats.

     Extinction                            The evolutionary termination of a species caused by the failure to reproduce and
                                           the death of all remaining members of the species; the natural failure to adapt to
                                           environmental change.

     Fauna                                 All of the animals found in a given area.

     Flora                                 All of the plants found in a given area.

     Habitat fragmentation                 Normally encompasses two components, the loss (or change) of habitat and the
                                           breaking up of the remaining habitat into smaller units (although the term is
                                           commonly used to describe only the latter process).

     Gene                                  The functional unit of heredity; the part of the DNA molecule that encodes a single
                                           enzyme or structural protein unit.

     Gene bank                             A facility established for the ex situ conservation of individuals (seeds), tissues, or
                                           reproductive cells of plants or animals.

     Genetic diversity                     The heritable variation within and among populations which is created, enhanced
                                           or maintained by evolutionary or selective forces.

     Genetic engineering                   Changes in the genetic constitution of cells (apart from selective breeding) resulting
                                           from the introduction or elimination of specific genes through modern molecular
                                           biology techniques. This technology is based on the use of a vector for transferring
                                           useful genetic information from a donor organism into a cell or organism that
                                           does not possess it (gene cloning). A broader definition of genetic engineering also
                                           includes selective breeding and other means of artificial selection.

     Genetic erosion                       Plant genetic diversity is threatened by “genetic erosion”, a term coined by
                                           scientists for the loss of individual genes and of combinations of genes, such
                                           as those found in locally adapted landraces. The main cause of genetic erosion,
                                           according to FAO’s State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and
                                           Agriculture, is the replacement of local varieties by modern varieties. As old
                                           varieties in farmers’ fields are replaced by newer ones, genetic erosion frequently
                                           occurs because the genes found in the farmers’ varieties are not all contained in
                                           the modern variety. In addition, the sheer number of varieties is often reduced
                                           when commercial varieties are introduced into traditional farming systems.
                                           Other causes of genetic erosion include the emergence of new pests, weeds and
                                           diseases, environmental degradation, urbanization and land clearing through
                                           deforestation and bush fires.

     Genetic material                      Any material of plant, animal, microbial or other origin containing functional units
                                           of heredity.




22   EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
     APPENDIX
Genetic modification            Alteration of the genetic material of living organisms in order to make them
                                capable of producing new substances or performing new functions. The term is
                                often used in cases when biotechnological techniques have been used (referred
                                to as genetic engineering) that induce genetic changes that would not normally
                                occur in nature.

Genetic resources               Genetic material of actual or potential value.

Genetically Modified Organism An organism into which has been inserted - through genetic engineering - one
                              or more genes from an outside source (either from the same species or from an
                              entirely different species) that contains coding for desired characteristics, such
                              as herbicide resistance or an antibacterial compound.

Good Agricultural Practices     Practices that address environmental, economic and social sustainability for on-
                                farm processes, and result in safe and quality food and non-food agricultural
                                products.

Green Infrastructure            Green Infrastructure is an interconnected network of green space that conserves
                                natural ecosystem values and functions and provides associated benefits to human
                                populations.

Green Revolution                Name given by William Goud to the dramatic increase in crop productivity during
                                the third quarter of the 20th century, as result of integrated advances in genetics
                                and plant breeding, agronomy, and pest and disease control.

Habitat                         The place or type of site where an organism or population naturally occurs.

Habitat conservation            Series of measures required to maintain or restore the natural habitats and the
                                populations of species of wild fauna and flora at a favourable status.

Hotspot                         An area on earth with an unusual concentration of species, many of which are
                                endemic to the area, and which is under serious threat by people.

In situ (Conservation)          System of conservation of biological diversity inside their natural habitats.

Indicator species               A species whose status provides information on the overall condition of the
                                ecosystem and of other species in that ecosystem.

Indigenous knowledge            Indigenous knowledge is the local knowledge that is unique to a given culture
                                or society. It contrasts with the international knowledge system generated by
                                universities, research institutions and private firms. It is the basis for local-
                                level decision making in agriculture, health care, food preparation, education,
                                natural-resource management, and a host of other activities in rural communities.
                                Indigenous information systems are dynamic, and are continually influenced by
                                internal creativity and experimentation as well as by contact with external systems.

Land (use) planning             The systematic assessment of land and water potential, alternative patterns of
                                land use and other physical, social and economic conditions, for the purpose of
                                selecting and adopting land-use options which are most beneficial to land users
                                without degrading the resources or the environment, together with the selection
                                of measures most likely to encourage such land uses. Land-use planning may be
                                at international, national, district (project, catchment) or local (village) levels. It
                                includes participation by land users, planners and decision-makers and covers
                                educational, legal, fiscal and financial measures.

Land use                        Land use refers to how a specific piece of land is allocated: its purpose, need or
                                use (e.g. agriculture, industry, residential or nature).

Landrace                        In plant genetic resources, an early, cultivated form of a crop species, evolved
                                from a wild population, and generally composed of a heterogeneous mixture of
                                genotypes.

Landscape character             A distinct, recognisable and consistent pattern of elements in the landscape that
                                makes one landscape different from another, rather than better or worse.

Marginal areas                  Marginal areas are identified by the following four criteria: a) significantly lower per
                                capita incomes, b) low infrastructure equipment, c) cultural isolation, d) difficult
                                natural conditions.




                                                                                  EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
                                                                                                                   APPENDIX   23
     Mitigating measures                   Measures that allow an activity with a negative impact on biodiversity, but reduce
                                           the impact on site by considering changes to the scale, design, location, process,
                                           sequencing, management and/or monitoring of the proposed activity. It requires
                                           a joint effort of planners, engineers, ecologists, other experts and often local
                                           stakeholders to arrive at the best practical environmental option. An example is
                                           the unacceptable impact on biodiversity of the construction of a certain road, that
                                           is mitigated by the construction of a wildlife viaduct.

     Native species                        Flora and fauna species that occur naturally in a given area or region. Also referred
                                           to as indigenous species.

     Natural environment                   The natural environment comprises all living and non-living things that occur
                                           naturally on Earth. In its purest sense, it is thus an environment that is not
                                           the result of human activity or intervention. The natural environment may be
                                           contrasted to “the built environment”, and is also in contrast to the concept of
                                           cultural landscape.

     Natural habitat                       Terrestrial or aquatic areas distinguished by geographic, abiotic and biotic features,
                                           whether entirely natural or semi-natural.

     On farm (conservation)                System of conservation of biological diversity trough farming.

     Overexploitation                      Overexploitation occurs when harvesting of specimens of flora and fauna species
                                           from the wild is out of balance with reproduction patterns and, as a consequence,
                                           species may become extinct.

     Protected area                        Geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to
                                           achieve specific conservation objectives.

     Red List IUCN                         The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status
                                           and distribution informationon taxa that have been globally evaluated using the
                                           IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the
                                           relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue
                                           and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those
                                           listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List
                                           also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the
                                           Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e.
                                           are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened
                                           thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific
                                           conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).

     Resilience (ecological)               Ecological resilience can be defined in two ways. The first is a measure of the
                                           magnitude of disturbance that can be absorbed before the (eco)system changes
                                           its structure by changing the variables and processes that control behaviour. The
                                           second, a more traditional meaning, is as a measure of resistance to disturbance
                                           and the speed of return to the equilibrium state of an ecosystem.

     Restoration                           The return of an ecosystem or habitat to its original community structure, natural
                                           complement of species, and natural functions.

     Seedbank                              A facility designed for the ex situ conservation of individual plant varieties through
                                           seed preservation and storage.

     Small-scale farming                   Farmers grow food for themselves, their family and sometimes the local market
                                           on a small piece of land with limited resources. Often, these farmers do not have
                                           the money to buy resources they need.

     Soil sealing (artificialisation)      Soil sealing refers to changing the nature of the soil such that it behaves as an
                                           impermeable medium (for example, compaction by agricultural machinery). Soil
                                           sealing is also used to describe the covering or sealing of the soil surface by
                                           impervious materials by, for example, concrete, metal, glass, tarmac and plastic.

     Species                               A group of organisms capable of interbreeding freely with each other but not with
                                           members of other species.

     Species range (natural)               The spatial limits within which the habitat or species occurs. A natural range is
                                           not static but dynamic: it can decrease and expand.




24   EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
     APPENDIX
Stakeholders              Stakeholders are those people or organisations which are vital to the success or
                          failure of an organization or project to reach its goals. The primary stakeholders
                          are (a.) those needed for permission, approval and financial support and (b.) those
                          who are directly affected by the activities of the organization or project. Secondary
                          stakeholders are those who are indirectly affected. Tertiary stakeholders are
                          those who are not affected or involved, but who can influence opinions either for
                          or against.

Strategic Environmental   A similar technique to environmental impact assessment (EIA) but normally applied
Assessment                to policies, plans, programmes and groups of projects. Strategic environmental
                          assessment (SEA) provides the potential opportunity to avoid the preparation and
                          implementation of inappropriate plants, programmes and projects and assists
                          in the identification and evaluation of project alternatives and identification of
                          cumulative effects. SEA comprises two main types: sectoral SEA (applied when
                          many new projects fall within one sector) and regional SEA (applied when broad
                          economic development is planned within one region).

Sustainable development   Development that meets the needs and aspirations of the current generation
                          without compromising the ability to meet those of future generations.

Sustainable farming       Type of farming that can make use of nature’s goods and services while producing
                          a sufficient yield in an economically, environmentally, and socially rewarding way,
                          preserving resources for future generations.

Sustainable use           Means the use of components of biological diversity in a way and at a rate that
                          does not lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity, thereby maintaining
                          its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations.

Threatened species        A technical classification referring to a species that is likely to become endangered
                          within the foreseeable future, throughout all or a significant portion of its
                          range. 12,259 species are known by IUCN, the World Conservation Union, to be
                          threatened with extinction. IUCN keeps the world’s inventory of the conservation
                          status of animals and plants, compiling data from thousands of scientists and
                          conservationists worldwide.

Traditional knowledge     Information and learning processes developed over many years and passed down
                          from one generation to the next. Traditional knowledge is not static; it evolves or
                          changes over time.

Transgenic organism       An individual in which a transgene has been integrated into its genome. In
                          transgenic eukaryotes, the transgene must be transmitted through meiosis to
                          allow its inheritance by the offspring. / Any organism that has been genetically
                          engineered to contain a gene from another organism, usually a different species’.

Variety                   Plant grouping, within a single botanical taxon of the lowest known rank, defined by
                          the reproducible expression of its distinguishing and other genetic characteristics.

Wetlands                  Transitional areas between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in which the water
                          table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water.
                          Wetlands can include tidal mudflats, natural ponds, marshes, potholes, wet
                          meadows, bogs, peatlands, freshwater swamps, mangroves, lakes, rivers, and
                          even some coral reefs.

Wild species              Organisms captive or living in the wild that have not been subject to breeding to
                          alter them from their native state.




                                                                           EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
                                                                                                            APPENDIX   25
     2. Acronyms

     AEGIS           A European Genebank Integrated System

     AGR             Animal Genetic Resources

     CBD             Convention on Biological Diversity

     CGIAR           Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

     CGRFA           Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

     CITIES          Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

     CPVO            Community Plant Varieties Office

     DUS             Distinct Uniform Stable

     ECPGR           European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources

     ECST            European Charter for Sustainable Tourism

     EDEN            European Destinations of Excellence

     EEA             European Environment Agency

     EFABIS          European Farma Animal Biodiversity Information System

     EFES            European Farm Evaluation System

     EURISCO         The European Plant Genetic Resources Search Catalogue, a web-based catalogue that provides
                     information about ex situ plant collections maintained in Europe.

     FAO             Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations

     GMO             Genetically Modified Organism

     GSTC            Global Sustainable Tourism Council

     HNV             High Nature Value

     IES             Institute for Environment and Sustainability

     IPGRI           International Plant Genetic Resouces Institute. Now Bioversity International

     IUCN            International Union for Conservation of Nature

     JRC             Joint Research Centre

     LFA             Less Favoured Areas

     NBSAP           National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

     PES             Payment for Ecosystem Services

     PGR             Plant Genetic Resources

     PPB             Participatory Plant Breeding

     RDP             Rural Development Policy

     SBSTTA          Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice

     UAA             Agricultural Area in Use (effective agricultural land)

     UNCED           United Nations Conference on Environment and Development - (Rio de Janeiro) (3-14 june 1992).
                     (Informal name: Earth Summit. Output: CBD)

     UPOV            International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants

     WSSD            Word Summit on Sustainable Development. (Johannesburg) (26 aug - 4 sept 200). (Informal name
                     Rio+10 Output: 2010 Biodiversity Objective)




26   EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
     APPENDIX
EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
                                 APPENDIX   27
     3. Reference list

     Commission of the European communities, 2006. Thematic strategy for soil Protection COM(2006)231/Final
     http://eur-lex.europa.eu
     European Environment Agency (EEA), 2007 Europe’s environment The fourth assessment EEA Copenhagen, 2007
     http://www.eea.europa.eu [Accessed on the 11st June 2012].
     European Environment Agency (EEA),2010. Assessing biodiversity in Europe - the 2010 report. EEA Report No 5/2010.
     http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/assessing-biodiversity-in-europe-84
     ECORYS SCS Group, 2009. Study on the Competitiveness of the EU tourism industry Final Report, September 2009
     http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/tourism/documents/studies/index_en.htm#h2-4 [accessed 24th May 2012]
     European Commission, 2010. Europe, the world’s No 1 tourist destination – a new political framework for tourism in
     Europe COM(2010)352/Final http://eur-lex.europa.eu
     European Commission, 2010. REGULATION (EC) No 66/2010 of the European parliament and of the council of 25 November
     2009 on the EU Ecolabel http://eur-lex.europa.eu
     European Commission, 2011. Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to 2020 COM(2011)244/
     Final http://eur-lex.europa.eu
     European Commission, 2011. Consultation document ENTR.F1D European Charter for sustainable and Responsible
     Tourism
     http://eur-lex.europa.eu
     EUROSTAT, 2010. Eurostat regional yearbook 2010, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, ISSN
     1830-9674.
     Hammer K. and Laghetti G., 2005. Genetic erosion - examples from Italy. Gen. Res. Crop Evol. 52: 629-634.
     Hammer K. and Teklu Y., 2008. Plant genetic resources: selected issues from genetic erosion to genetic engineering.
     Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics Vol. 109, 1: 15-50.
     IUCN, 2007. The Status and Distribution of European Mammals, The European Red List of Mammals. http://www.iucn.org
     IUCN, 2009. European Red List of Reptiles. http://www.iucn.org
     IUCN, 2010. Future directions for biodiversity action in Europe overseas : outcomes of the Review of the Implementation
     of the Convention on Biological Diversity http://www.iucn.org
     Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington,
     DC.Moreira F., Pinto M. J., Henriques I., and Marques T., 2005. The importance of low-intensity farming Systems for
     fauna, flora and habitats protected under the European ‘Birds’ and ‘Habitats’ Directives: Is agriculture Essentials for
     preserving biodiversity in the Mediterranean region? In: Burk, A.R. (ed.), Trends in Biodiversity Research. Nova Science
     Publishers, New York, pp. 117–145.
     United Nations, 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity, Rio de Janeiro, http://www.cbd.int/ [accessed 20th December
     2011].
     Van De Wouw M., Kik C., Van Hintum T., Van Treuren R., Visser B., 2009. Genetic erosion in crops: concept, research
     results and challenges. Plant Genetic Resources 8(1): 1-15.
     Van De Wouw M., Van Hintum T., Kik C., Van Treuren R., Visser B., 2010. Genetic Diversity trends in twentieth century
     crop cultivars: a meta analysis. Theor Appl Genet 120: 1241-1252.




28   EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
     APPENDIX
EUROPEAN TOURISM AND BIODIVERSITY CHARTER
                                 APPENDIX   29
30
MORE ABOUT REVERSE PROJECT

The Reverse project is based on sharing experience among 14 European partners who are aware of the major challenges linking biodiversity
and economic development. More specifically, it focuses on opportunities and insufficiencies in biodiversity conservation policies in three
sectors: Agriculture and food production, Land planning, and Tourism.
Reverse is a three-year European interregional cooperation project (January 2010 - December 2012). Lead by the Aquitaine Region, it
involves seven European countries: Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Slovakia and Spain. It is co-financed by the European Regional
Development Fund (ERDF) and made possible by the INTERREG IVC programme. As part of the European Territorial Cooperation Objective,
the INTERREG IVC Programme (2007-2013) is an EU programme that helps regions of Europe work together to share their knowledge
and experience.
Reverse partners comprise regional authorities, public establishments, associations, research institutes and universities, which contribute
to the conservation and development of wild and cultivated biodiversity. They work on various complementary subjects such as the
conservation of species in situ, gene banks, the management of natural areas, region-wide strategies for the conservation of biodiversity,
ecological corridors, local legislation for the protection of biodiversity, education, etc.



Regions:




  Aquitaine Region (France)                     Umbria Region (Italy)                        Euskadi Region (Spain)                        Murcia Region (Spain)
      www.aquitaine.fr                         www.regione.umbria.it                           www.euskadi.net                           www.murcianatural.carm.es




                     Bremen Region (Germany)                        Decentralized Administration                   Region of East Macedonia and
                      www.umwelt.bremen.de                          of Crete-Forest Directorate of                       Thrace (Greece)
                                                                           Chania (Greece)                                www.remth.gr
                                                                         www.crete-region.gr




Specialised organizations:




           Bio d’Aquitaine (France)            Estonian University of Life Sciences-EMU (Estonia)                  Regional Agency for the Development
           www.bio-aquitaine.com                                 www.emu.ee                              and the Innovation of Agriculture in Lazio - ARSIAL (Italy)
                                                                                                                               www.arsial.it




     Natural Areas Conservatory           Mediterranean Agronomic Institute           The Plant Production Research Center                Technology Transfer Centre
of Aquitaine - CEN Aquitaine (France)             of Chania (Greece)                   Piešt’any - PPRC Piešt’any (Slovakia)                     Bremerhaven
        www.cen-aquitaine.fr                        www.maich.gr                                    www.cvrv.sk                           ttz Bremerhaven (Germany)
                                                                                                                                            www.ttz-bremerhaven.de
                                                                                                                                                                                   www.reverse.aquitaine.eu




                  and made possible by the INTERREG IVC programme
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find all Reverse documents on our website:




    This project is cofinanced by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Photos credits: Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania (Gr) - Region of Crete (Gr) - ONCFS RNN Ares - EMU V.Kuusemets; EMU K.Sepp; EMU M.Ööpik - R.Segatori, MAICh. Printed on PEFC certified paper                                               - Conseil régional d’Aquitaine - Internal Communication - Reprographics - August 2012

				
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