Food and Nutrition Security                                     ISRC 2010

                                  Report on

                      The National University of Rwanda’s

             3rd International Scientific Research Conference

                                   NUR ISRC 2010

                                                              NUR Main Campus

                                                                  Huye, Rwanda

                                                            2 – 4 November 2010

Food and Nutrition Security                                                            ISRC 2010


The National University of Rwanda has been organizing annual Conferences since 2004 based on its
Academic SENATE decision. Until 2007 the conferences were local where NUR staff presented progress
of their research activities. As of 2008, the conference attracted participants from abroad and within
Rwanda where researchers, practitioners and policy makers made presentations on a theme targeting
Rwanda Development. The 2008 and 2009 Conferences combined the traditional conference style
where NUR staff members were able to present their research results and progress and they were truly
international where quality research results were presented by reputable researchers both from NUR
and outside.

In addition to the annual conferences - where internal grantees of the Sida project funds will present
their findings and progress, the Research Directorate of NUR proposed to hold International conferences
on various thematic areas, which intends to attract more funds from outside sources for sustainability
purposes. This year’s thematic area is “Food and Nutrition Security and Integrated Pest

A small committee constituted by eight staff from the host and co-host faculties of the Food and
Nutrition Security with the consultations from Director RC and Director DPD has worked since April
2010, and proposed the sub themes, conference dates and conference fees. It was proposed although
the conference theme is Food and Nutrition Security, presentations from other disciplines were to
be accommodated under the following sub-themes: (a) Food and Nutrition security, (b) Natural and
Engineering Sciences and (c) Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences.

This multidisciplinary research conference missioned to share the latest research results,
innovations and experiences from practitioners and decision makers on the contributions to
Food and Nutrition Security and Pest Management as drivers for attaining the Health and Food
Security MDGs, simulated the comparison of issues and identification of solutions facilitated by
the    experiences of different continents; using this knowledge to develop a better
understanding of food and nutrition security and the factors influencing and affecting it.

Food and Nutrition Security                                                           ISRC 2010

To ensure the smooth implementation of the organisation of the International conference, 4
committee were formed as follows

1. International Advisory Committee (IAC)        - composed of strategic academics to support the
   organisation, publicise the event and assist in identifying willing journals to publish papers
   presented at the conference and paper reviewers.
2. Local organising Committee (LOC) - composed of 12 members with scientific experience, which
   deals with the overall organisation of the conference and be responsible to ensure transparency and
   inclusion, also to market the event well at NUR academic unit level.
3. Scientific Committee(SC) - composed of professors with Scientific Expertise and is responsible for
   quality of the abstracts selected, papers presented and publications.
4. Steering Committee - composed of key persons who will be involved in close follow-up and

Together with the conference organiser for implementing decisions of LOC and SC.

The LOC met regularly and discussed on the means and measures of various aspects of the
conference Organisation. The members of the committee worked on the ways of attracting
funds from the stake holders, especially organisations linked with Food and Nutrition Security
were targeted and accomplished it successfully from Ministry of Agriculture (MINAGRI),
Rwanda Agricultural Research Institute (ISAR), Ministry of Health (MINISANTE). The
International Scientific Research Conference has been supported Financially in addition to its
own, by the following MINAGRI / IPM contributed 10 million rwandan francs, ISAR contributed
1 million rwandan francs and MINISANTE through its partners (United Nations International
Children’s Fund (UNICEF), World Food Program (WFP)) contributed 12 million rwandan francs
and also MINISANTE agreed for their staff participation from various districts of Rwanda , who
are involved with nutrition planning.

The conference first call for papers was sent out by June 2010 and it received 80 within the
deadline but it still received many requests to extend deadlines. Due to the overwhelming
responses, the second call for papers with an extended deadline was sent out in the month of
Food and Nutrition Security                                                          ISRC 2010

July with new deadlines, ultimately brought 100 abstracts. The Advertisement was done
regionally through Rwanda Dispatch and Internationally through Conference alerts.com while
advertisement internally was achieved through NUR website, the conference website and E-

The Scientific Committee met and review the abstracts based on predesigned criteria.

            Received          Accepted for   Accepted for   Provisionally     Rejected     To
                              Oral           Poster         Accepted                       resubmit
Strand 1    57                39             1              6                 10           1
Strand 2    98                60             7              17                11           3
Strand 3    32                14             3              8                 6            1

The accepted set of abstracts was available at http://www.conference.nur.ac.rw/NUR-ISRC-

ISRC brought about 250 participants - researchers across 16 countries, CEOs of research based
institutions and International development community from Rwanda, Policy Makers at
ministerial level and staff from Districts in Rwanda who are dealing with Planning and
implementing policies on Food Security, Nutritional well-being and Pest Management in
Rwanda. A farmer’s forum discussion on Integrated Pest Management gave the ultimate stake
holders (farmers) an oppurtunity to share their experiences and difficulties on ground in the
presenece of international community which formed as the highlight of the conference.

Food and Nutrition Security                                                                                        ISRC 2010


2, November 2010

        Opening Ceremony .......................................................................              4

        Plenary Session             .......................................................................   6

        Parallel Session 1 .......................................................................            8

        Parallel Session 2 .......................................................................            10

        Parallel Session 3 .......................................................................            12

3, November 2010

        Plenary Session .......................................................................               13

        Parallel Session 1 .......................................................................            17

        Parallel Session 2 .......................................................................            18

        Parallel Session 3 .......................................................................            19

4, November 2010

        Parallel Session 1 .......................................................................            33

        Parallel Session 2 .......................................................................            34

        Plenary Session .......................................................................               40

        Closing ceremony .......................................................................              42

Food and Nutrition Security                                                             ISRC 2010

DAY 1: 2nd NOVEMBER 2010

Opening ceremony

The opening of the conference whose theme was ENHANCING FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY AND
Murigande, the Minister of Education and the guest of honour. During the opening ceremony, the
Director of NUR’s Research Directorate who was also the chairperson of the conference’s Local
Organizing Committee, Prof. Verdiana Grace Masanja briefed the audience of about 200 participants
(from Rwanda and abroad )about the conference and its predecessors.

In her introductory remarks, she pointed out that such conferences started in 2004 and until 2007 they
were confined to NUR researchers, presenting their research among themselves. From 2008, these
conferences were “internationalized”, in that year 330 participants from 13 countries attended and 73
presentations were made. In her assessment of the 2009 conference, she said, presentations had
improved due to “peer review system and results are published in credible journals”. Participants for
2010 conference came from 16 countries, namely, Rwanda, Belgian, Botswana, Canada, China,Ghana,
India, Kenya, Netherlands, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania, Uganda, U.S.A, and Zimbabwe.

Participants from Rwanda came from higher institutions of learning, research institutions, decision
makers and planners to include top officials from each Rwanda district who are responsible for nutrition
security, staff from ministries, representatives of development partners and peasant farmers’.

The conference had 3 parallel sessions with the following subthemes were:

           Food and Nutrition Security ( 40 approved abstracts);
           Formal and Natural Science (67 approved abstracts); and
           Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (17 approved abstracts).

The conference was funded 70% from local sources - from MINISANTE, MINAGRI, ISAR.

The keynote speakers with their topics were:

Food and Nutrition Security                                                               ISRC 2010

    1. Dr Agnes Kalibata, Minister for Agriculture in Rwanda, on “ Food Security, Development of
         Rwanda and MDGs”;
    2.   Dr Richard Sezibera, Minister for Health in Rwanda, on “Nutrition Security, Development of
         Rwanda and MDGs”; and
    3. Prof Christian Borgemeister FRES, Director General, African Insect Science for Food and Health
         ICIPE), represented by Dr. Briggitte Nyambo, on “Biocontrol for Small Scale Farmers in Africa”.

Invited speakers with their topics were:

    1. Dr Shanmugam Ramasway, chancellor, Gandhigram Rural Institute and Deemed University,on “
         Water Resources and Food Security”;
    2. Dr Schuyler S. Korban, Director, Office of International Programs and professor of Molecular
         Genetics & Biotechnology, Illinois University, Urbana-Champaign, on “Biotechnology and Human
         Health”; and
    3. Dr Jean-Pierre Busogoro, Belgian Development Agency (BTC) Technical Assistant of Integrated
         Pest Management (IPM) project, Rwanda, on “ Development of IPM Experiences at the Level of
         Farmers in Rwanda for Sustainable Production of Various Crops”.

After the introductory remarks, the Rector of National University of Rwanda, Professor Silas
Lwakabamba invited the guest of honor to address the participants. Hon. Dr. Charles Murigande, The
Minister for Education in Rwanda lauded the University for its research efforts that target the fulfillment
of Rwanda’s MDGs, and Vision 2020. Also, he commended NUR for its attempt to impact the society by
inviting to the conference local and national government personnel, academics, experts and farmers. He
said that eradicating food insecurity and malnutrition was important because they impede
development. Finally, he thanked participants especially those who travelled long distances to attend
the conference.

Food and Nutrition Security                                                            ISRC 2010

Plenary Session

After the opening ceremony, a keynote speaker, Dr. Schuyler S. Korban, Director, Office of International
Programs and professor of Molecular Genetics & Biotechnology, Illinois University, Urbana-Champaign
gave a talk about “Biotechnology and Human Health”. The following are pertinent issues he raised:

     Hunger and mortality in developing countries;
     Anticipated projections of population growth and food shortage;
     Constraints to agricultural production in developing countries;
     Genetic improvement of crops and the role of genetic engineering;
     Examples of Genetically Modified crops and their potential impact on agriculture, malnutrition,
        and human health;

Depicting challenges to biotechnology commercialization in developing countries, he touched on the
following issues:

     Increased investment in agriculture;
     Resolution of IP issues for Genetically Modified crops grown in developing countries;
     Providing factual information about Genetically Modified technology and its benefits and
        alleviating fears;
     Resolution of political conflict and dealing with complex political policies,
     Economic reforms-land reform, property rights.

He concluded by saying that if biotechnology was to be beneficial, the following aspects had to be

     Adapting Genetically Modified technology to local agro-ecological conditions;
     Developing crops with multiple enriched nutrients;
     Developing crops with recombinant proteins for preventing human disease;
     Addressing biosafety regulatory issues;
     Addressing ethical issues of human hunger and malnutrition;
     Undertaking effective communication about biotechnology with policy makers in the U.S, in
            other developing counties, and around the world;

Food and Nutrition Security                                                           ISRC 2010

     Targeted and coordinated funding for research by government as well as non-government
           agencies; and
     Increased partnerships between developed and developing countries on research, education,
           and outreach.

A Discussed session followed his presentation whereby Important aspects raised dealt with
misconceptions about Genetically Modified foods, seeds, nutrients and property rights of biotechnology
were brainstormed.

Food and Nutrition Security                                                                ISRC 2010

Parallel Sessions

Session 1: Food and Nutrition Security and Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

Session Chair: Dr. Paskasie Adedze, University of Illinois, USA

Rapporteur: Ms. Beatrice Umumukiza, National University of Rwanda, Rwanda

The session focused on various systems and tools that can be used to improve agricultural productivity
which can lead to the achievement of food security.

“Integrating ICT in Agriculture for Knowledge-Based Economy: The Rwandan Case” by Punitha Lakshmi
Balraj, S.M. Pavalam analysed the impact of ICT in the Rwandan Agriculture. The authors established that
farmers are able to cope up with the technology inspite of the bottlenecks such as language, accessibility,
static content.

“Food safety and Food security: Legal Analysis” by Odette Nyiramuzima Concerned the linkage between
Food security and food safety in Rwanda, with that of legal instruments of Rwanda. The Research
identfies the hurdles of food security and stresses on the hamonization of legal instruments , estalishment
of a special law on consumer protection in order to maintain food quality and food safety.

“Trade, Standards, and Vertical Coordination: Evidence from Rwanda Coffee sector” by Jean Chrysostome
Ngabitsinze explored the impact on small farmers of several recent investments in Rwandan Coffee supply
chain. This research demonstrated farmers’ membership of a cooperative positively affects the probability
of his participation in speciality coffee value chain, in contrary to the other studies.

“Rabbit dung From Integrated Agriculture-Aquacurture Systems Affect Water and sediment Quality and
Increases Growth of Oreochromis niloticus L.in Tropical Earthen Ponds in Rwanda” by Simon Rukera
showed that on integration of aquaculture-agriculture system (rabbi-fish-food crop) is a simple system for
farmers by saving time yet it provides both animal and agricultural products, a more balanced natural diet.

“Combined Application of Soluble silicon and Bauveria bassiana to Control the Two Spotted Spider Mite”
by Tetranichus urticae Koch M.C Gatarayiha, M.D. Laing and R.M. Miller revealed that the use of Biological
control agents in pests/diseases control is beneficiary on contrary to chemical which creates other side
Food and Nutrition Security                                                               ISRC 2010

effects and also they are costly for farmers. As an example, results from a study on a Combined
Application of Soluble silicon and Bauveria bassiana to Control the Two Spotted Spider Mite was
presented. From this study, two spotted spider mite (TSM), a very economically important pest of crops
can be efficiently controlled by a fungus (Bauveria bassiana). The combination of B. bassiana with soluble
silicon also resulted in significant reduction of TSM damage to plants.

“The role of Non-Farm Household Enterprises in Poverty Reduction. Employment Creation and Economic
growth in Rwanda” by Murenzi Ivan shown that, Non-farm household enterprises contribute to poverty
alleviation, employment creation, and economic growth in Rwanda; however, they still have some barriers
such as lack of skills, limited access to finance, and lack of projects that are focused on Non-Farm
Enterprises. The audience agreed that IPM is very important in the way that it is environmental friendly
which leads to the increase of agricultural productivity. In addition to this, the integration of agriculture
and livestock is for high economic importance in such way that it increases both production and
nutritional value that results in improvement of household welfare and poverty alleviation.

“Assessing the Taxation of SMEs in Rwanda Encouraging Tax Compliance for SMEs” by Murenzi Ivan
assessed challenges faced by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in terms of Tax compliance in Rwanda
and came up with suggestion of a simple taxation system , which can reduce the challenges and
encourages the formalisation of SMEs , which leads to increased number of registered tax payers.

Food and Nutrition Security                                                                  ISRC 2010

Session 2: Natural and Engineering Sciences

Session Chair: Prof. Dawoud Shenouda Dawoud, National University of Rwanda, Rwanda

Rapporteur: Dr. Hermogene Nsengimana, National University of Rwanda, Rwanda

The session gave two perspectives - natural and engineering sciences with new theory development
and application of mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology and The application of natural science in
environmental protection, food security and nutrition extending to resolving energy problem faced by
developing country such as Rwanda has been demonstrated.

In new theory development, “Parallel Vector Fields And Einstein Equations Of Gravity” by Mahara
Isidore proved that nontrivial parallel vector fields in relation with the Einstein equations of gravity, thus
rising the problem on how the parallel vector field is connected to the serial numbers theory using
reference frame.

“Integrated Management For Accounting And Authentication Of Wimax that is based On CDMA2000” by
Muhire Mashaku and D.S. Dawoud talked about the technologies used for authentication,
authorization, acccounting system on WiMax system, which ultimately helps to share the resources and
saves exisiting network infrastructure and the tests conducted on CDMA2000 and WiMax and the test
results positively affect the concept.

“Simulation of a shielded thermocouple” by Fredrik Berntsson, Fidele Ndahayo, Yves Nyalihama and JMV
Munyeshyaka established the means of reducing errors in the measurement process, by formulating
and solving an appropriate inverse heat conduction problem which uses numerical models for a
shielded thermocouple.

“A variational approach to image inpainting” by Fredrik Berntsson, George Baradish, Japhet
Niyobuhungiro and Froduald Minani gave a presentation on the variational approach to image painting,
ion contrary to the previous and famous total variation model, by introducing the parameter q, that
controls the degree of smoothness of image reconstruction that raised comment on how this theory and
its application can help in restoring the ancient and cultural image on old newspaper and archives.

Food and Nutrition Security                                                              ISRC 2010

“A Methodology of statistical estimation of the short-range parameters in high- precision measurement
of X-Ray diffuse scattering by solid solution on the palladium and gold “ by Skorobogatova, Krisko,
Silonov suggested the statistical evaluation of short range order parameters on the component alloys for
reliability degree of different coordination spheres can be appreciated when compared with the least
squares method.

“Air Pollution tracking model” by Ndahayo Fidele, Ntigura Habingabwa Marie Emmanuel proposed an air
pollution tracking model based on convection-diffusion equation for the resolution of two dimension
convection – diffusion equation by the Crank Nicholson method.

For the application of natural science aligning with national development priorities and impactful
innovation, “Development of fuel efficient smokeless firewood stove for rural households of Rwanda” by
Jean de diew Iyakaremye , Sankaranarayanan, deepak das talked about the development of fuel efficient
smokeless firewood stove for rural households of Rwanda in order to resolve the problem of energy,
which didn’t address the issues related to health and deforestation.

Health related research have not been left out as a study on “Bacteriological agents of urinary tract
infections and their antibiograms in Rwanda” by Nkuranga Innocent, Ravichandran, Ashok explored the
high occurance of bacteria in female than males, in every age group using data from the Kingfaysal

“HIV/AIDS in the mobile workforce: A case study of security forces in Namibia” by Olukemi Asemota
investigated management of HIV/AIDS pandemic at Namibia Security Forces and nature of workforce
and found out that the majority of the workforces experienced frequent transfers or redeployments
from their original work locations as work duty demands and also exposed more vulnerably to HIV/AIDS
and recommended strategic management approach to pandemic management.

In nutrition, “a review on the diet and health-promoting phytochemicals” presented by Murebwayire
Sengabo, in-vitro and in-vivo assessment at clinical level revealed that the diet can help to avoid many
diseases such as cancer and that a lot should be done in the Rwandan community to mobilize people to
eat food that contain antioxidant in their daily diet.

Food and Nutrition Security                                                             ISRC 2010

In the same trend of eating healthy and choosing the right diet, “ Contribution to the evaluation of
Toxicological profiles of overheated oil on Guinea Pigs case of sunflower oil” by P.Muahyimana, J.P.
Kabuyenge, J. Migisha, H.Nsengimana, T.Muhizi, revealed harmful physiological effects when the oil is
overheated during foof preparation using different physico-chemical analysis and recommend to avoid
the reuse of cooking oil.

“Physico-chemical analysis of overheated oil” by Theoneste Muhizi, Pacifique Umubyeyi, Claudien
Kabera, Protais Muhayimana, Hermogene Nsengimana compared the two branded oils for its resistance
confirmed reduced iodine index and increased samples of carbonyls compounds in the overheated

In biodiversity and environmental protection, “ Study on Indigenous species regenration in Nyungwe
buffer zone” by Gatarigamba moise, Elias bizuru presented a study conducted on northern and eastern
part of Nyungwe forest, revealed that it has suffered from loss of indigenous species in the buffer zone,
exhibited how indigenous species can be regenerated in the park.

Food and Nutrition Security                                                               ISRC 2010

Session 3: Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities

Session Chair: Prof. Rama B Rao, National University of Rwanda, Rwanda

Rapporteur: Mr. Bernard Rutikanga, National University of Rwanda, Rwanda

“Outreach and Performance of Banque Populaire : Pre And Post Transformation Comparison” , by
Augustin Rutamu and P.Ganesan assessed the outreach of the performance of Banque Populaire(BP)
with the performance indicators and Banking indicators such as deposits, loans, members, branches,etc.
This research used analytical study to compare the before and after transformation of BP in search of
the accessibility of banking and financial products and services by rural inhibitants of Rwanda.

“A Study of Institutional Environment And Household Food Security At Local Level in Rwanda”, by Jose
Mathai, Celine Niwemahoro , Leonidas Banamwana , Martin Uwitonze and Alponsine Mukamana looked
at the scenario of food access among rural households, taking account into one of the districts of
Rwanda by collecting primary data. The study established that genuine integration of food security
concerns are on the district development plans, inspite of other obstacles found.

“The Gospel of Foreign Aid: Theoretical Note” by Vincent Byusa demonstrated a great degree of
continuity in the policy concerns of the foreign aids discourse from the antiguity to modern era where
devlopment assistance becomes a state of resonsibility and politically organised as a balancing act
between donor/receiver relationships and partnership.

“Exploiting Market Opportunities For Value Added Dairy and Meat Products in Eastern and Central
Africa” by Herman Musahara, Juvenal Kagarama, and Angelique Muhorakeye explored the value chain
actors and products in Rwanda and how small scale individuals can explot niche and competitive market
opportunities along the value chain using rapid market assessment and product chain analysis based on
quality and safety opportunities and recommended to identify innovations and policies that can
stimulate the opportunities arising from the big consumer demand.

“Beyond land Tenure Security in Muhima Informal Settlement” by Bizimana Jean Pierre, Mugiraneza
Theodomir, Twarabamenye Emmanuel and Mukeshimana Marie Rose aimed to identify the challenges
related to lack of land ownership, assessing exisiting planning policies using Muhima sector as case study

Food and Nutrition Security                                                             ISRC 2010

using primary data collections. Findings revealed that a big percentage of households are holding land in
informal arangement where land rights are not recognised in public land registry. Due to the distortion
of land market, local authorities and land owners are not having common understanding in transferring
defacto land rights through purchase and selling. The study recommend to spped up land tenure
regularisation and formalisation of urban informal settlements.

“Economic Assessment of Sustainable Land Management in Rwanda” by Miyuki Iiyama, Mukuralinda
Athanase, Peter Badege, Bernard Musana, Raphael Rurangwa , Joy Tukahirwa , Kenneth Masuki ,
Jeremias G. Mowo presented the cost benefit analysis of four sustainable land management pilot
projects in northern and western Rwanda namely Rwaza, Kagogo, Kabaya and Mukamira and the study
identified the gaps in planning capacity over the sustainable land management among extension
workers and farmers and recommend the strategies and assessment tools for effective extension

Food and Nutrition Security                                                                  ISRC 2010



The keynote address was given by Prof. Brigitte Nyambo of ICIPE-IPM. Her topic was “Status of
Horticultural Pest Management in Africa: Challenges and Opportunities in a Changing Global
Environment” which dealt with fruits, vegetables and species. She said that when pests are kept at bay
through effective pest management it ensures: food security; employment for rural and urban
communities; and foreign exchange earnings. She identified two types of challenges: biotic i.e. insect
pests and diseases, Alien invasive species and Quarantine species; and Abiotic, i.e. climate change,
market access and access to user friendly and viable technologies.

She highlighted about Alien Invasive Species (AIS) and gave AIS cases in sub-Saharan Africa, e.g. Banana
wilt, Banana bunchy top virus, Batrocera invaders, spiraling whitefly, citrus greening disease, Iris yellow
spot virus, etc. She said that the concern for such pests is due to its effects on: food security, market
access at domestic, regional and international levels as well as rural livelihoods.

Describing R& D at ICIPE on fruit and vegetables, she described Liriomyza leaf mining flies and their
exotic species prevalent in East Africa. She highlighted Liriomyza management options and touched on
biological and conservation control strategies. She drew examples on Thrips both indigenous and exotic,
Western Flower Thrips, Onion Thrips and Scirtothrips dorsalis, Chilli thrips.

On management options under investigation, she touched on: mulching, habitat management/
intercropping, botanical pesticides, classical conservational bio-control, Entomopathogens, and effective
monitoring and technology transfer. Talking on classical biological control she gave examples on fruit
flies such as Batrocera invandens, solanum fruit fly and the melon fruit fly. She discussed on Batrocera
invandens- its origin, invasion of Africa, its spread and current IPM options available against it.

She described bio-control of the diamondback moth in Eastern Africa and the viability of DMB bio-
control. She outlined lessons learnt from the DMB as:

                 Recognition and acceptance of the problem affected countries;
                 Supportive policy;

Food and Nutrition Security                                                            ISRC 2010

                 Adequate funding;
                 Availability of accredited quarantine facilities;
                 Need for good science: multidisciplinary team of scientists, international and
                    regional collaboration;
                 Cropping systems/ pest complex approach; and
                 Staff continuity.

She asserted that the challenges of AIS in sub-Saharan Africa were:

             Lack of enabling national/ regional policies on long term strategies to deal with new
                invasive pest species;
             Poor national/ regional early warning infrastructure;
             Lack of transparency and poor information flow;
             Lack of good taxonomists and capacity at national & regional levels;
             Inadequate knowledge on viable alternative control measure;
             Restrictions imposed by the current convention on Biological Biodiversity(CBD); and
             Climate change and weather variability

Whether it is possible to deal with AIS, she advised the following:

              Establishment of functional national and regional policy framework for dealing with AIS;
              Developing/ strengthening regional taxonomic capacity and capability to deal with new
              Strengthening/ establishing infrastructure for early warning systems and information
                 sharing at national and regional levels.
              Lobby CBD

Concluding on AIS management strategies she pointed out that:

             Most important horticultural pests in Africa are invasive;
             CBC should be first line of action;
             Even partial CBC success substantially contribute to reduced pest status of invasive
                when imbedded in compatible IPM; and

Food and Nutrition Security                                                               ISRC 2010

             International and regional collaboration was very important.

On good agricultural practices in vegetable production, she outlined the following:

             Seed        selection,   land preparation,   nursery   management,      transplanting,   field
             Issues related to use of synthetic agro-chemical inputs;
             Crop scouting and decision-making;
             Soil-water management;
             Soil conservation; and
             Market access

She pointed out that to mobilize the farmers the following tools are necessary: leaflets, posters, Radio&
TV, mobile phones, frequent scheduled technical support, role model farmers, extension workers and
farmer-farmer trainers.

She concluded by saying that through her experience partnerships resulted into:

             50% reduction tomato spraying;
             Increased income; and
             Reduced potential human and environmental health hazards.


The invited speech by Dr. Jean-Pierre Busogoro, a BTC Technical Assistant of IPM project, presented
about “Development of IPM Experiences at the Level of Farmers in Rwanda for Sustainable Production
of Various Crops”.

He started by highlighting about BTC IPM project in Rwanda whose main implementers are BTC, RADA/
MINAGRI and ISAR collaborates with them. He said that the specific objective of the project was
‘contributing to improve agricultural productivity and environmental protection especially by setting up
of an integrated management system of pests and diseases’. He pointed out how pests are destructive-
destroying 25-30% at the field level and 20% at the post-harvest level. He gave recent examples of pests
in Rwanda- CMD (Cassava Mosaic Disease) in Nyamata, CBSD (Cassava Brown Streak Disease) in
Food and Nutrition Security                                                                  ISRC 2010

Muhanga, BXW (Banana Xanthomonas Wilt) in Muko/ Musanze, and Tamarillo virus diseases and their
vectors in Rutsiro.

Control methods he mentioned were: chemical control, host plant resistance, good cropping practices,
biological control, integrated IPM control, i.e. combination of the different control methods and
maintaining pest and pathogen populations at levels below those causing injury.

Basic principles of IPM he mentioned were: growing health crops, managing the genetic resources,
conservation of natural enemies i.e. maintenance of balance between pathogen/ pests populations and
their natural BCA; use of appropriate cropping practices i.e. crop rotation, appropriate level of quality
inputs, adapting planting dates and density, regular interaction with farmers, i.e. increasing farmers
skills and knowledge that enables them to take decisions.

He dealt with extension approach through Farmer Field Schools (FFS) that has two main steps; training
of Trainers/ facilitators (TOT) and training of Farmers (FFS).

He said FFS are important because they develop solutions involving human communities, participants
become active in developing solutions, and activities are facilitated by skilled trainers.

He said Rwanda BTC IPM project has 4 phases namely, development phase; implementation phase, (i.e.
field establishment and management, and testing various parameters by farmers); evaluation phase
involving monthly report prepared with participation of farmers; and sharing of information through
study tours.

He showed examples of BTC IPM activities in the districts of Burera, Nyabihu, Nyaruguru, Kirehe,
Gakenke, and Gatsibo.

He showed how IPM implementation involves participatory identification of problems, e.g.
inappropriate maintenance of diseased plants; bad elimination of BXW affected bananas; overlapping
cropping seasons, e.g. maize; inappropriate rotation scheme; and diseased crops.

He highlighted farmers’ access to basic knowledge and IPM aspects such as, participatory isolation of
pathogens; microscopy analysis of participants; farmers testing leaf elimination; and removal of
bacterial wilt; and BCA in pest control action.
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On the effectiveness of FFS, he said that it led to high level of participation of grassroots beneficiaries;
rapid availability of extension agents; increase of farmers’ skills for production and crop protection (IPM-
ICM); and practical solutions to farmers’ problems. He added that FFS also imparted farmers with
suitable and simple solutions, e.g. better knowledge about pests and diseases; decrease of pesticide
application; participatory research and solution in the crucial problem of seed production.

He concluded by recommending that IPM-FFS should be adopted for various crops because it would
increase farmers-skills; improve the quality of production; it would result into higher level production; it
would boost crop processing and marketing by farmers who are organized in groups; and it would lead
to sustainable management of natural resources.

Panel Discussion

In a panel discussion that was held on Integrated Pest Management (IPM), 4 farmers from 4 sectors (
Maraba, Simbi , Mbazi, and Mugombwa) of Huye and Gisagara districts talked about Farmers- Field
Schools , good agricultural extension services, role model farmers , cooperative and individual
agricultural practices, small farmer priority needs and other related issues. Two experts, one from
Ghana ( Dr Samuel Asante Mensah ) and another from U.S.A ( Dr. Mosbab M. Kushad) gave their
experiences about IPM and agricultural extension services. Participants too, gave inputs on these issues.

Food and Nutrition Security                                                              ISRC 2010

Parallel Sessions

Session 1: Food and Nutrition Security and IPM

Session Chair: Prof. Esron Munyaneza, National University of Rwanda, Rwanda

Rapporteur: Dr. Basinga Paulin, National University of Rwanda, Rwanda

“The Evolution Of Agricultural Cooperatives In Rwanda: Implications On Food Security Policy” by Birasa
Nyamulinda established the significant role of agricultural cooperatives contribution on food security of
Rwanda, taking the case of “COAIRWA” by collecting the primary data from farmers,inspite of the
marketing strategies, policy,...

“Early Warning Information System For Food Security In Rwanda” by S.Arun Balaji, Pavalam and
M.Sankaranarayanan proposed a system, with cyclic unit of operations needed to collect the relevant
data, data processing requirements, algorithms to monitor food security and nutritional status which
can help the decision makers to implement necessary actions about food shortages at national and local

“Simulation And Modeling On Soil Moisture Migration Pattern In Kigali, Rwanda” by Deepak Das, M.
Sankaranarayanan, P.Mambani and J. De Dieu Iyakaremye presented an approachon simulation and
modelling on soil moisture migration pattern of Rubrizi area of Kigali, Rwanda during the long dry
season. Software is used for computation and analysis using numerical integration technique and the
outcomes can be a road map for the irrigation engineer for areas with similar soil and climatic

“Incorporation Of Mucuna Pruriens Forage In Diets Of Lactating Dairy Cows – The Effect On Milk Yield
And Milk Composition” by Mupangwa J.F, Uwimana G and Niyireba R.T established that foarge legumes
such as mucina pruriens can be effective protein supplements for use in feeding lactattion dairy cowsin
Rwanda by dividing the cows in to 2 groups and compared their lactation by administering them with
Mucuna – Napier diet.

“Development Of Expert System On Integrated Pest Management For Wheat” by S.Arun Balaji, Pavalam
and M.Sankaranarayanan proposed an expert system which combined the best available information

Food and Nutrition Security                                                             ISRC 2010

regarding the wheat pest management of disease pathogens, weeds, and insects which can provide a
decision support system , that can provide potential outbreak risk and pest control information.

“Redistributive land reform in Rwanda: the Impact of Household Food Security” by Aline Mutabazi
established that the land access has increased the number of people with adequate food quantity
compared with to the previous period, inspite of the nutritional difficulties of the childeren as well as
policies that support the redistrbution of land.

“Role Of Biotechnology (Tissue Culture) On Food Security” by Theodore Asiimwe, Joelle Kajuga, Placide
Rukundo, Esperance Munganyinka, Clementine Muhawenimana and Jane Kahia discussed the tissue
culture, which has been deployed at ISAR help to increased food productivity and food security.

“Influence Of Tillage On Soil Moisture Retention” by Deepak Das, M. Sankaranarayanan and J. De Dieu
Iyakaremye experimented a three factor randomised split plot design in two blocks with eight tillage
treatments for twelve weeks duration and with certain depth revealed that manual tillage with hoe
treatment and no tillage operation have the lowest soil moisture retention capacity.

“Use Of Mayflies (Ephenoptera) As Total Replacement Of Rastrineobola Argentea In Diets For
Catfish,(Clarias Gariepinus) In Lake Victoria Basin” by Tamale Andrew; Sifuna Mayende Thomas; Kenji
Glaston Mwangi; Ayieko Monica;Ndonga Millicent F.O. ;Otude Thomas. Assessed the nutrient
composition of may flies and growth and feed conversion rates with the standard fish feeds for 90 days.
The study used proximate analysis of the dried constituents using AOAC analysis and oil using Blair and
Drier methods, which revealed that may flies can act as a perfect replacement for the fish meal in fish

“Analysis And Strategies For Improving Productivity Of Farming Systems In Southern Rwanda: Diagnostic
Assessment Of Farming Systems” by C. Bucagu,B. Uwumukiza and J.J. Mbonigaba Muhinda aimed at
conducting a diagnostic assessment of farming systems in southern Rwanda using complementary
survey and focus group discussions and found the poor farmers, mainly female headed with poor
literacy own small ruminants having poor soil fertility and strategies for improving production of key
crops like bean and legumes to increase nutritional status and animal production.

“Application of a simplified sampling protocol for rapid molecular detection of Cassava Mosaic Disease
at different stages of plant development” by Dr. Jean Pierre Busogoro established a simplified protocol
that could detect PCR of Cassava Mosaic Disease by suspending cassava leaves in KAJI extraction buffer

Food and Nutrition Security                                                              ISRC 2010

which could detect Cassava Mosaic Disease agents and also helped in the successful evaluation of health
status of invitro cassava plantlets submitted to chemotheraphy to sanitise infected materials.

Food and Nutrition Security                                                             ISRC 2010

Session 2: Natural and Engineering Sciences

Session Chair: Dr. Fidele Ndahayo , National University of Rwanda, Rwanda

Rapporteur: Dr. Theoneste Muhizi, National University of Rwanda, Rwanda

This session focused on three fields which include biodiversity, GIS and Remote Sensing Research,
applied physics and both environmental and bioorganic chemistry.

In biodiversity,

“Large mammal’s population decline in volcanoes national park, Rwanda” by B. Arakwiye, D. Tuyisingize,
K. A. Fawcett studied the large mammals population density and distribution across seven vegetation
zones and seasons at regular intervals using market pellet group method. The study identified the
decrease in population density in the four surveyed mammal species namely bushbucks, duikers,
buffalos and elephants by 11%, 9%, 26%, 2% respectively over the last 20 years and recommend a large
monitoring system to track changes in their population and distribution across vegetation zones and
seasons and also plant biomass study alonside inorder to understand mammals’ vegetation zones.

“Terrestrial small mammal community composition at Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda” by
D.Tuyisingize , G. N. Bronner, J.C. Kerbis Peterhans and K.A. Fawcett analysed the terrestrial small
mammal communities in the volcanoes national park, Rwanda by trapping the mammals’ to determine
species diversity and altitudinal/ habit associations and found species richness and diversity increased
with elevation upto the middle altitudes (2850 – 3255m) and then declined with increasing elevation.

“Phytosociological study of Nyungwe montane savannas” by Protais Niyigaba, Elias Bizuru conducted
vegetation study in three sites harboring five savannas using vegetation sampling according to Braun-
Blanquet method and analysed using Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) with MVSP software to
identify plant communities. Phytogeographical spectrum analysis of geographical distribution of species
shows the predominance of montanne element (Mo) distribution in all sampled savannas , ultimately
favorable to species coming from almost all the seven african montanne systems.

“Study of Physical, chemical and Biological parameters in Wastewaters of Urban regions and Industrial
Centre of Kigali within summer” by Noël Gahamanyi And Emmanuel S. Bajyana estimated the pollution
load of waste water in 4 areas of the city of Kigali during the summer and compared the results to the

Food and Nutrition Security                                                                 ISRC 2010

previous studies in the same site at different season using physico-chemical analysis and bacteriological
investigations. The study found that all investigated sites doesn’t possess a good biodegradability index
and the bad condition of industrial waste water and sewage pipes, causing threat to the public health
and environment as the waste water is used to irrigate the fields surrounding marshes.

In GIS and remote sensing field,

“Remote Sensing and GIS technology for Sirex noctlio detection and prediction” by Onisimo Mutanga
and Riyad Ismail used statistical models such as Random Forest Algorithm in combination with GIS and
remote sensing to identify areas that are susceptible to pest infestations, as the emerging evidence
suggests new pests and pathogens are appearing at an increasing rate and has an impact on the
sustainability of agricultural and forestry. The proposed model identified highly susceptible forests in
relation to the sitribution of wasps and also it can be extended to monitor potential crop infestations by
pests and diseases.

“Geospatial Techniques for Urban Land Use Changes Detection and Mapping in Butare Town” by Jean
Pierre Bizimana and Gilibert Nduwayezu examined the use of geospatial techniques in urban use
changes detection using butare as a case study by using data collection methods (both primary and
secondary) and created a urban land use database and the corresponding temporal maps for the study
area. The result show increased built area, contrary to agricultural lands and woodlands.

“A Spatial Analysis of Poverty in Kigali, Rwanda using indicators of household living standard” by Felicia
O. Akinyemi and Florent Bigirimana examined the poverty pattern occuring in Kigali through the use of
spatial analysis techniques. Four poverty dimensions such as expenditure, health, education and services
were employed in the analysis of urban poverty in kigali and found the poverty pattern which showed a
clear urban and rural dichotomy.

“Spatial-Temporal Mapping of Land Use Change Dynamics in the Mid-Cocoa Belt of South-Western
Nigeria” by Felicia O. Akinyemi studied land use dynamics in the cocoa belt of south western nigeria
using SPOT Panchromatic and Multispectral images, false color composite images were derived and
analysed the trend of land use which aided in the identification of the driving forces of change. Results
revealed incursion of built-up into cultivated/exposed land use type, settlement expansion and the
reduction of agricultural land area, which poses great dangers for human and aquatic lives.

In applied physics,
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“Ab initio calculation of properties of ions Cs2Cl+, CsCl2−, Cs3Cl2+, and Cs2Cl3−: Effect of Basis set and
Computation Method” by J. B. Hishamunda, C. Girabawe, T. P. Pogrebnaya, and A. M. Pogrebnoi
explained new method to calculate properties of different chemical ions .

“Kinetic modelling and thermodynamic studies on purification of Polyvinylpyrrolidone by Adsorption” by

Umereweneza Daniel, Li Sifang demonstrated NVP adsorption affected by effect of contact time,
adsorbent dosage, temperature, PVP concentration by mathematical fitting of equilibrium data using
the freundlich isotherm and langmuir isotherm.

In environmental and bioorganic chemistry

“Characterization of chitin and chitin-glucan complexes extracted from raw sources of Rwanda” by J.P.
Intwali, E. Kovaleva, V. Habumugisha, Ch. Ukundineza, D. Niyoyita , A. Pestov, Yu. Yatluk established
that chitin and chitin-glucan complexes can be extracted from insects, mushrooms, waste bananas and
beer products of Rwanda and the elementary analysis of the samples were found rich in chitin and
chitin-glucan complexes.

“Assessment Of Heavy Metals Leachability From Traditional Clay Pots “Inkono ”And “Ibibindi ” Used As
Food Contact Materials” by Hermogène Nsengimana, Alexis Munyentwali , P. Muhayimana, T. Muhizi
compared the leachability of traditional clay pots with the heavy metals whether it transfer its
constituents into the foods when brewing or cooking, using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The
result revealed that heavy metals are having higher concentration of Pb, Cd and Fe when compared to
the clay pots, that exceeds safe limits in food set by WHO.

“Assessment of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd and Fe) in the groundwater wells in the vicinity of Nyanza
Municipal Solid waste in Kigali City- Rwanda” by H. Nsengimana, B. Bigirimana, M. Suwa, A. Mukubwa,
W. Debruyn, D.K. Nyilimbibi assessed the impacts of Nyanza Municipal Solid Waste dumping site on
ground water and leachate were taken at the edge of waste bulk and ground water samples were
collected from the dumping site. The analaytical results of leachates are found to have heavy metals.

“Helminth Parasites In Mountain Gorillas Of Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda” By Kamana Fidele,
Ngirabakunzi Octavien, Tony Mudakikwa And Ravichandran.G assessed the faecal samples for helminth
parasites by sugar floatation methods and found higher concentration of anoplocephala and
trichostrongylus, which generated threats to mountain gorillas.

Food and Nutrition Security                                                      ISRC 2010

“Diet, phytonutrients, cancer prevention and management” by Murebwayire S ,      talked      about
the importance of diet in the prevention and management of cancer and the ways and strategies to
incorporate polyphenols in to the daily diet.

Food and Nutrition Security                                                                 ISRC 2010

Session 3:

Session Chair: Dr. Emmanuel Ugirasebuja, National University of Rwanda, Rwanda

Rapporteur: Dr. Jonas Barayandema, National University of Rwanda, Rwanda

“ Integrating The Human Resource Into The Science And Technology Paradigm For Development: The
Case Of Kinyarwanda As An Endangered Resource” by Dr Abubakar KATAREGA explained that half of the
7,000 languages in the world were threatened by larger ones. This has serious economic, political and
social repercussions.Data were collected using various techniques including questionnaires, field
observations, and interviews with students (i.e. primary, secondary and university), teachers, local
people, business people and specialists. The study showed that the elite held the use of English in higher
esteem than Kinyarwanda. The young generation had a negative mindset on the use of Kinyarwanda in
jobs, interview, social status, education, etc. The study recommended sensitisation and motivation to
prevent the African’s indigenous languages, including Kinyarwanda are at risk of falling out of use.

“Economics Of Tourism Industry In Rwanda” By Satya K. Murty, P. Ganesan focused on analysing the
economic impact of tourism resulting from country level tourist flows, accomodation, tourist sites and
tourist expenditure. The analysis is based on secondary data from EAC sites, Annual reports of NBR,
Statistical reports of WTTC. It was evident that all selected tourism indicators recorded consistency and
significantly high growth rate over the period from 2000 to 2009 and the trend shows that tourism
sector may outperform other core sectors if adequate attention is paid towards bringing in more
investments and effective management of the tourism sector.

“Alternative approaches to free and subsidized distribution of agricultural inputs to famers in rwanda:
policy and implementation experiences from zimbabwe and elsewhere” by Ignatius Govere, , Zacharie
Manirarora, Richard Foti, Edward Mutandwa, and Aimable Nsabimana critique the merits and demerits
of of alternative agricultural relief input distribution approaches, by identifying the inherent distribution
and resource use inefficiencies associated with free or subsidized inputs and proposes alternative policy
implementation policy and strategies for maximizing the impact and minimising the inefficiencies, based
on practical lessons and experiences from Zimbabwe

Food and Nutrition Security                                                           ISRC 2010

“Factors Influencing The Working Of E-Government System In Developing Countries: Rwanda Case
Study” by Marc Sentwali & Rama B. Rao investigated the barriers associated with the development and
working of eGovernance in developing countries by focused literature review and primary data
collection. The study found out the barriers such as lack of IT knowledge, awareness and motivation,
absence of marketing campaigns to mention a few and proposes a technical framework for adoption
and strategies for implementation.

“Impact of suboptimal international standards on the diagnosis and treatment of child malnutrition” by
Dr Agnes Binagwaho, Dr Fidel Ngabo, Corine Karema, Dr Alexandra Peltier, Dr Gilles Ndayisaba, Niloo
Ratnayake, Claire Wagner, Dr Narcisse Muganga, , Dr Kizito Kayumba reviewed the children height,
weight according to the age, who are less than 18 months old who were born to HIV infected mothers
and hospitalized in CHUK and considered a chikd to be severrely malnourished if weight to age is less
than three Z-score and found 40% of the children with chronic severe malnutrition are not diagnosed as
underweight, which may result in death of malnourished children.

“Gender and Food Security Dimensions in a Changing Institutional Environment: Lessons from Uganda”
By Rebecca Mukyala, Mary Ejang and Sulayman M. Babiiha examined the impact of Structural
Adjustment Programmes on gender relations in food security by interviews and questionnaires and
suggested a pro active policy to ensure sufficiency at home by promoting household and local
authorities responsive food banking are needed.

Food and Nutrition Security                                                               ISRC 2010


Parallel Sessions

Session 1: Food and Nutrition Security and IPM

Session Chair: Prof. Kakoma Jean Baptiste, National University of Rwanda, Rwanda

Rapporteur: Prof. Francois Naramabuye, National University of Rwanda, Rwanda

“Drinking Water Accessibility Analysis In The Rapidly Urbanising Tumba Sector In Huye Town, Rwanda”
by Twarabamenye Emmanuel, Uwemerimana Celontine assessed the scale of accessibility to drinking
water at tumba sector analysed the underlying factors through literature review, filedwork and water
points data (collected through GPS) revealed that only 39% are connected to piped water grid while the
remaining has to travel 200 metres to the nearest drinking water point and called for strategies to
improve drinking water accessibility.

“Relationship Between Catecholamine Levels And Meat Quality Of Nguni Steers Subjected To Different
Pre-Slaughter Conditions” by C. Mapiye, S. Siyamcela, M. Chimonyo, K. Dzama And M. C. Marufu
established that there was no correlation between meat quality attributes and catecholamine levels in
steers subjected to pre-slaughter conditions by diet analysis and lab analysis of urine samples.

“Integrating Indigenous Vegetables Into Smallholder Production Systems For Enhanced Food Security:
Analysis Of Experiences From Musanze District, Northern Province,Rwanda” by Edward Mutandwa and
Isaiah Gakwerere aimed to study and identify the different traditional vegetables which are consumed
by local communities in the district, their contributions to livelihoods and assessment of the policy
environment with respect to production, use, conservation and commercialization by collecting
quantitative and qualitative data from farmers revelaed the underutilization of traditional vegetables
which needs awareness and promotion from the government and policy makers.

“Introgression of Phythium roots” by J Nzungize, P.Gepts, R.Buruchara, A.Male, P.Ragama, J.P. Busogoro,
J.P. Baudoin introduced resistance genes for root rot caused by phythium species in common bean
cultivars by extraction of DNA and analysed using Polymerase Chain Reaction, proved to be resistant.

Food and Nutrition Security                                                                 ISRC 2010

“Postharvest Handling And Nutritional Quality Of Fresh Vegetables And Fruits” by Mosbah M. Kushad
assessed the influence of various factors on the formation of glucosinolates in brassica crops including
sulphur nutrition, post harvest handling resulting in the long shelf life of many vegetables and fruits.

“Preparation Of Food Additives Based On Chitosan And Cassava” by E. Habimana, E. Kovaleva, A. Pestov,
Yu. Yatluk established the preparation of food additives based on chitosan and cassava leaves and roots
improve the quality of agricultural food products by streaker reaction at different conditions and
analysed using NMR spectrometer and elementary analyser.

“Contribution To The Assessment Of Grilled Meat Contamination By Culinary Material Manufactured
Locally” by P. Muhayimana, S. Murebwayire, S. Habihirwe, H. Nsengimana, J. Ntaganda, T. Muhizi
established a higher concentration uptake of the heavy metals than the recommended international
standards by skewer meats during heat treatment, by collecting samples from two restaurants in
southern province of Rwanda and were digested with nitric acid prior to heavy metal analysis by atomic
absorption spectrometer.

“Role Of Soy Protein In Human Health And Its Impact On Food Security” by Kalinda Beau K established
the significant role of soy protein in improving health and diet , and to reduce protein deficinecy and
fight malnutrition.

“Progress In The Development Of Regional Ruminant Feed Resource Database: The Rwanda Chapter” by

Mupenzi Mutimura ; Celestin Barahenda Myambi; Remmy Niyireba and Cyprian Ebong confirmed that
Menke Gas systems is a cost of effective method for rapid screening of available feed resources in the
regional forage development programs.

Food and Nutrition Security                                                         ISRC 2010

Session 2: Natural and Engineering Sciences

Session Chair: Prof. John Iraka, National University of Rwanda, Rwanda

Rapporteur: Eng. Umereweneza Daniel, National University of Rwanda, Rwanda

“Performance Analysis of User Scheduling Schemes in Next Generation Wireless Systems with MIMO
Links” by Charles KABIRI, Wang Desheng demonstrated that future wireless communication
systems like 3GPP long term evolution are required to support extreme high speed packet data
transmission. He showed the audience that due to the limitation of available spectrum
resource, high spectrum efficiency technologies are needed to be explored for different OSI
layers. The study investigated the impact of MIMO and scheduling in the increasing of the
system throughput of the next generation mobile wireless systems when transmitting on
different channels for several transmission modes.

“Some physico-chemical characteristics of ground water in Rwanda” by H. Nsengimana*, F.
Masengesho*, , D. Kalisa Nyirimbibi highlighted some physico-chemical characteristics of ground
water in Rwanda, he indicated that different levels of pollution have been identified in ground
water of Rwanda such as Nitrates and nitrites concentrations, pH, hardness, conductivity
exceeded the recommended values for drinking water.

“Potentiometric determination of Tantalum content in ores using an ion selective membrane electrode”
by Kalisa N., Usanzineza D., Uwamariya V., Sekomo C proposed a method for determining tantalum
in ores by direct potentiometry using selective membrane electrode sensitive to the ion TaF 6-
after checking. The author showed that during this study, Nerstian behavior of the electrode vis
-à-vis TaF6-, the influence of NbF6- concentration on the determination of the of Tantulum was
investigated. The accuracy of the method conducted on a series of potentiometric
measurements was about 1%. The technique developed has then been applied to the
determination of tantalum in samples of Colombotantalite from various regions of Rwanda.

“Specification of Arsenic in island groundwater of the Okavango Delta, Botswana” by Hermogène
Nsengimana , Philippa Huntsman-Mapila , Nelson Torto, Ewa Cukrowska Luke Chimuka investigated on

Food and Nutrition Security                                                           ISRC 2010

speciation of Arsenic in island ground water of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. It was shown that
Arsenic (III) was found to be the dominant species by a factor ranging from 0.92 to 9.48 from
the edge of the island to the center, a distance of approximately 250 m. The distribution and
composition of Arsenic species in ground water seem to indicate the effect of evapo-
transpiration along the island fringes.

“Arsenic determination and chemical interaction in geothermal water from volcanic region in north and
western province in Rwanda” by H. Nsengimana, J.B Nkuranga, P. Muhayimana, J. Ntaganda, T. Muhizi
shared with the insights the audience on arsenic determination and chemical interaction in
geothermal water from volcanic region in the northern and western provinces of Rwanda. It
was found a considerable concentration of Arsenic in geothermal from the three areas studied,
Rugaji, Mashyuza and Bitagata exceeding world health organization limit.

“Water quality assessment of the main Nile basin’s tributary rivers of Rwanda” By H.Nsengimana, Jp.
Niyigena, And Jb. Rulinda presented the work on water quality assessment of the Nile basin’s
tributary rivers of Rwanda, it was suggested that this water should not be used as drinking
water without any physical treatment because some parameters such as pH, alkalinity,
…exceeded standard values recommended by World Health Organization.

“Seasonal and diurnal variation of soil respiration in monospecific stands of Entandrophragma excelsum
and Eucalyptus maculata in Rwanda” by Nsabimana D., G. Wallin focused on seasonal and diurnal
variation of soil respiration in monospecific stands of Entandrophragma excelsum and
Eucalyptus maculata in Rwanda. It was shown that since Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main green
house gas in the atmosphere and has a contribution, the diurnal variations of soil CO 2 efflux
(SCE), soil temperature (TS) and soil water content (SWC) were measured and it was found out
that some of these parameters were affected by partly different factors that vary seasonally,
weekly and diurnally.

Gilbert in his presentation dealt with ecology, distribution and habitat requirements of Turacos
in Gishwati Forest Reserve in Rwanda. This study suggested that Gishwati Forest needs more
protective and conservation attention for his restoration. During this study, established maps of

Food and Nutrition Security                                                            ISRC 2010

species distribution showing the most suitable areas for Turacos will be used for tourism and

“Geo-ICT Application in Land Surveying and Land information Development in Rwanda” by Mugiraneza
Theodomir , Uwayezu Ernest demonstrated the Geo-ICT application in land surveying and land
information development in Rwanda. The findings show that based on progress made, GIS and
remote sensing techniques are found as effective as tools and cost effective to speed up the
process of land surveying and land titling. It was noticed that the use of geo-ICT in land
registration increases accountability, citizen involvement in boundary demarcation and
contributes in developing national land information.

“Microsatellite analysis of selected Lablab purpureus genotypes” by Shivachi A., Kiplagat O., Kinyua M.
shared his findings with the audience about Microsatellite analysis of selected Lablab purpureus
genotypes wherein Clustering by UPGMA and PCoA showed similarity between genotypes
grown by farmers and genebank accessions. Genetic distance computed using Popgene ranged
between 0.000 and 0.620 suggesting a narrow variability among the materials. The genetic base
cultivated lablab is relatively low and ought to be expanded.

“Monthly Wind Characteristics and Wind Energy in Rwanda” by Bonfils SAFARI, Jimmy GASORE
demonstrated monthly characteristics and wind energy in Rwanda. In this study Weibull
distribution was used to model empirical distribution of wind. The scale and shape parameters
were estimated using four methods, the least square method, the likehood method, the
method of moments and the Chi-square method. It was observed that the method used for the
estimates of the probability density of wind speed and giving the best overall fit to the
distribution of the measured wind data varies from location to another. However the energy
output calculated using wind speeds derived from Chi-square method gave the best overall fit
to the empirical distribution of the wind density.

“Antibiogram Of Shigella Spp In King Faisal Hospital, Kigali From 2007 To 2010” by Manirakiza Benjamin,
Ashok.R * and Ravichandran.G presented the results of the study on antibiogram of Shigella SPP
in King faisal Hospital, Kigali from 2007 to 2010. He showed that out of 3460 stool samples

Food and Nutrition Security                                                            ISRC 2010

diagnosed in that study, only 74 (2.13%) yielded Shigella species. It was also demonstrated that
a high percentage of Shigella species (7.45) was found in samples isolated from people with

“Gastrointstinal Parasites In Cattle Of Girinka-Program: Case Study Of Rarda” By Hakizimana B. Leopold ,
Ngiragasani Valerien ,Dr. Ntegeyibizaza Samson and G.Ravichandran worked on Gastrointestinal
parasites in cattle of Gira inka programme in Rwanda. During this work genuine information
was compiled from several sources. All samples were morphologically identified by using
microscope. The field investigation and laboratory analysis revealed that Haemoncus and
Trichostrongloiditis were the most prevalent parasites of study areas. Ascaris is the very
common infection among young cows and both cross and pure-breeds are mostly infested than
local-breeds list.

NUMBERS EQUALS n RAISED TO A GIVEN POWER” by Jimmy Alani talked about why and how the
sum of a given series sequence of first n Pattern of terms of natural numbers equals n raised to
a given power. The author presented the results obtained using different methods for deriving
formulas for series sums of powers for the first n natural numbers were each equal to n: (i)
squared, (ii) cubed, (iii) raised to power four up to power ten, (iv) including general proof and

Food and Nutrition Security                                                             ISRC 2010


The keynote address was given by Hon.Dr. Richard Sezibera, Minister for Health titled, ‘Rwanda’s
Progress Towards Attainment of Nutrition Security and Related MDGS’. The following are the
highlights of his talk:

     Malnutrition is a stumbling block against development, so, Rwanda was leaving no stone
         unturned to ensure that the population are protected from food and nutrition insecurity;
     Rwandan policies and programmes, e.g. EDPRS , Vision 2020, etc. were aimed at eradicating
         extreme poverty and hunger and in so doing , the problem of malnutrition would be solved;
     The eradication of malnutrition would contribute significantly to the reduction of infant, child
         and maternal mortality hence attaining the 4th MDG and also 6th MDG because lack of
         adequate and balanced diet lead to easy vulnerability to various diseases and aggravate the
         fatality of those people who are HIV/AIDS positive;
     He equated the past frequent famines and high rate of malnutrition cases to bad governance of
         the past regimes;
     Successful struggle against malnutrition needs good governance, arousing the awareness of the
         population about how to combat it, establishing good partnership between the population, and
         decision makers; and
     He reminded the audience that appropriate research should be aimed at generating results that
         convince and help the population to acquire skills and knowledge that would for instance,
         eradicate food and nutrition insecurity.

After the keynote address there was a Panel Presentation about ‘Government of Rwanda’s Response
to Malnutrition: The Case for District Plans to Eliminate Malnutrition’.

The Panel Presentation involved 5 people; the first was Nyirahabineza Alphonsine, the Nutrition Desk
Officer at the Ministry of health whose presentation was titled “Government of Rwanda’s response to
Malnutrition: The Case of District Plans to Eliminate Malnutrition”. The four others were
representatives of 4 districts – Nyabihu, Kirehe, Kamonyi and Rulindo who spoke about the state of
malnutrition in their districts.

Nyirahabineza’s presentation focused on the following aspects:
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     The three priority responses of the global efforts to address malnutrition, i.e. Food and Nutrition
        for all; Nutrition focused development; and Nutrition Specific Interventions.
     On nutrition status of the Rwandan Population she elaborated on, EPEM screening of 2009,
        Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Assessment and Nutrition survey; and Rwandan
        Demographic and Health Survey of 2005. On Micronutrient Deficiencies she talked on Anemia,
        iodine deficiency disorders, and Vitamin A deficiency. Elaborating on the nutrition status of
        children below 5 years, she touched on cases of acute malnutrition/wasting (VIH); chronic
        malnutrition/stunting H/A; underweight (W/A).
     She concluded by showing the importance of District Plans to Eliminate Malnutrition (DPEMS).

The four representatives of he districts of Kirehe, Nyabihu, Rulindo and Kamonyi talked about the three
important issues of DPEMS, that is: District Situation Analysis: existing problems linked with health,
nutrition, water and sanitation and food security; development of priorities of interventions based on
results and National Multisectoral Strategy to Eliminate Malnutrition 2010-2011; District Plans to
Eliminate Malnutrition based on science research and known nutrition interventions.

Having presented about situation analysis of malnutrition in their respective districts, the 4 presenters
showed strategies underway to eliminate malnutrition in their districts and these revolved around the
following issues as highlighted by Dr. Jean Pierre Abega of Nyabihu district: strengthening the
identification and management of under nutrition; strengthening and scaling-up community-based
nutrition intervention/programs (CBNP); elimination of micronutrient deficiencies; consolidating multi-
sectoral District Plans to Eliminate Malnutrition (DPEMS); prevention and management of nutritional
deficiencies and excess-related diseases; consolidating Behaviour Change Communication, and
strengthening the coordination of partners involved in nutrition . After the presentations, questions
were asked and the presenters responded to them and the audience also aired their opinions on a
number of issues related to food and nutrition security.

Food and Nutrition Security                                                              ISRC 2010


The chairperson of the Local Organising Committee, Prof. Verdiana Masanja thanked the guest of honor,
Hon.Dr R. Sezibera, Minister for Health for accepting the invitation and gave an overview of the
conference. She lauded the Minister for Education, Hon.Dr Charles Murigande, “who opened the
conference and gave very encouraging words on the role of NUR as a research provider to the country
and beyond”. She hailed 134 oral presentations and 17 posters that imparted crucial knowledge in the
realm of Food Security, Nutrition, Pest Management, Natural Science, Social Sciences and Humanities.
She said that presentations dealt with basic fundamental research, applied research and practical
aspects e.g. the panels on malnutrition and on IPM that involved peasant farmers from Huye and
Gisagara districts.

Talking on the participation of local and foreign participants, central government and grassroots
representatives, researchers and peasant farmers, she said that this was an evidence of NUR’s
encompassing approach to accomplish Rwanda’s development goals, also to generate high quality
research results that would be published in credible world journals. Lastly, she thanked the conference
sponsors, mentioned above, the presenters and participants, especially those who covered long
distances to attend the conference.

After these remarks, the Vice- Rector of Academic Affairs, Prof. Martin O’ Hara took the floor and having
commended the organizing committees’ efforts to make the conference a success as well as the
presenters and the participants at large; he presided over the awarding of certificates to 15 best paper
authors and poster presenters. Also, certificates were awarded to keynote speakers, Dr. B. Nyambo,
and Dr. S.S. Korban, the five panelists on DPEM and organizing committee members and nominees of
best presentation award. The nominees of the best presentation award were selected after careful
analysis of their performance, essence of the subject by the Scientific experts group.

Thereafter, the Rector of NUR, Prof. Silas Rwakabamba invited the guest of honour to give his speech.
The guest of honour thanked the organizing committee for having organised a successful conference,
and the NUR authorities for creating conducive research atmosphere for students and researchers. He
called for transformation from food insecurity to food security, from nutrition insecurity to nutrition
security especially by changing people’s retrogressive culture and mindset and by transforming

Food and Nutrition Security                                                              ISRC 2010

knowledge into practical actions that would give the population improved livelihoods and wellbeing.
Once more, he thanked NUR for organizing the conference and participants especially those who came
from distant areas.

A vote of thanks was given by Prof. Esron Munyaneza on behalf of the organizing committee. He
thanked all those who contributed in making the conference a success , the members of the organizing
committee, participants, NUR authorities, sponsors and last but not least, the guest of honour.


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