ze science curriculum v by k8326xD

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									                            ( Harishanker Singh Kharayat)




         DIFFERENT TYPE OF CURRICULUM




fo"k; iz/kku ikB~;dze   cky dsfUnzr                     dksj
ikB~;dze   vuqHko dsfUnzr




              foKku ikB~;Øze               (science
curriculum)

   v/;kid viuh d{kk esa D;k] dSls] o fdruk
Ik<+k;sa lc ikB~;dze }kjk fuf’pr gksrk gSA
                (Meaning of curriculum)
ikB~;dze dks vaxzsth Hkk”kk esa curriculum
dgrs gSa tks ysfVu ‘kCn currere ls cuk gS
ftldk vFkZ ^nkSM+ dk eSnku* gksrk gSA
      bl izdkj ,d dq’ky v/;kid ikB~;dze dk
       vuqlj.k djds fo/kkFkhZ dks f’k{kk ds
       y{;ksa rd igqpkuk gS A
 ikB~;dze---- ikB~; $          dze
     vFkkZr~ ikB dk dze
lh[kus&fl[kkus dh oLrqvksa dk             dzec} laxBu


equjks ----
   ikB~;dze esa os lHkh vuqHko lfEeyr gSa
ftUgsa f’k{kk ds mn~ns’;ksa dh iwfrZ ds fy,
fo|ky; iz;ksx esa ykrk gSA
Curriculum embodies all the experience which are utiliged
by the school to attain the aim of Education.


Qzkscsy
     ikB~;dze dks ekuo tkfr dks lEiw.kZ Kku
,oa vuqHkoksa dk fupksM+ le>k tkuk pkfg,A


  vr% ikB~;dze og nkSM+ dk eSnku gS ftl ij
ckyd y{; dks izkIr djus ds fy, nkSM+rk gSA
foKku ikB~;dze fuekZ.k ds fl)kUr (Principle of
science curriculum construction)


1— fdz;k’khyrk dk fl)kUr


2----yphysiu dk fl)kUr


3--- mi;ksfxrk dk fl)kUr


4--- jpukRedrk dk fl)kUr


5--- ,dhdj.k dk fl)kUr


6--- iztkrkfU=d ewY;ksa ij vk/kkfjr gksus
dk fl)kUr


7----   euksoSKkfud fl)kUr


8--- vuqHko dh iw.kZrk dk fl)kUr


9---    thou ls   lacaf/kr   gksus dk fl)kUr
10---- vodk’k ds izf’k{k.k dk fl)kUr




          ikB~;dze fuekZ.k ds vk/kkj


    1-   nk’kZfud vk/kkj&
               f’k{kk dk dksbZ Hkh ,slk i{k
               ugha gS ftldk ikB~;dze ij mruk
               izHkko iM+rk gS ftruk fd
               n’kZu dk A

            vkn’kZokn vkSj ikB~;dzeA
            Izkd`frokn vkSj ikB~;dzeA
            Izk;kstuokn vkSj ikB~;dzeA
            ;FkkFkZokn vkSj ikB~;dze



2-euksoSKkfud vk/kkj


3-- ,ssfrgkfld    vk/kkj


4    lkaLd`frd vk/kkj


5    lkekftd vk/kkj
6   oSsKkfud vk/kkj


        orZeku foKku ikB~;dze ds nks”k


1-- orZeku foKku dk ikB~;dze fo”k; dsfUnzr
gSA
2 ikB~;dze y{;ksa ,oa mn~ns’;ksa dh izkfIr
ugha djrkA
3   ikB~;dze ijh{kk iz/kku gSA
4 Le`fr ds fodkl ij vf/kd /;ku gSA ekufld
fdz;kvksa dk de fodkl gks jgk gS A
5- ikB~;dze esa yphysiu dk vHkko gS A
6-- izdj.k dk laxBu veukSoSKkfud gS A
7 vodk’k ds le; ds mi;ksx dh O;oLFkk ugh
gSs A
8 iz;ksx o ‘kks/k dh vis{kk fopkjkas         ,oa
lwpukvksa ij vk/kkfjr gS A
9 f’k{kk ds vukSipkfjd lk/kuksa         dk
iz;ksx ugha fd;k tkrk gSA


    ikB~;dze fuekZ.k ds fl)kUr (Organization of
               curriculum in science)
  ikB~;dze dk laxBu eq[;r;k nks i)fr;ksa ds
vk/kkj ij fd;k tkrk gSA


1   Topical Vs concentric
2 Incidental   Vs Organised




           TOPICAL METHOD
   bl fof/k esa fdlh izdj.k ;k fo”k; dks
mlh d{kk esa lekIr dj fn;k tkrk gS ftl d{kk
esa mls i<+k;k tkrk gSA
   bl izdkj lHkh izdkj dh ljy ,oa tfVy
leL;kvksa dks mlh d{kk esa lekIr dj fn;k
tkrk gSA




                      Vs
       SPIRAL OR CONCENTRIC METHOD


   bl i)fr esa ,d izdj.k ;k fo”k; dks
tkudkjh ckyd ds ekufld Lrj ds vk/kkj ij
izR;sd d{kk esa FkksM+h&FkksM+h djds nh
tkrh gSA
 ;g fof/k ljy ls dfBu ls vksj ds f’k{k.k
lw= ij vk/kkfjr gS




   2    ORGANISED Vs INCIDENTAL
 ;g izkstsDV fof/k ij vk/kkfjr gS blesa ,d
fo”k; dks dsUnz ekudj i<+k;k tkrk gSA ml
fo”k; dks i<+krs le; tks vU; fo”k; i<+k;s
tkrs gSa] os vdLekr~ gh i<+k;s tkrss gSa
;|fi i<+kus okys dks budks i<++kus ds fy,
dksbZ ;kstuk ugha cukuh iM+rhA
 bl fof/k dk [ksy fof/k ls cgqr xgjk laca/k
gS foKku fo”k; dks i<+kus ds fy, ;kstuk
vfuok;Z gS foKku dks foKku :i essa gh
i<+k;k tkuk pkfg;s] tks fd vk;ksftr fof/k
}kjk gh laHko gSA
                             STAGE




               Primary   secondary   higher


 1 izkbejh Lrj (Primary stage)
    vkSipkfjd f’k{kk ds bl izFke Lrj ij
foKku dk Lo:Ik ,d lkekU; foKku vFkkZr~
lk/kkj.k foKku ds :Ik esa j[kuk mÙke gSA
bl le; rd ckydksa es iw.kZ ekufld ifjiDork
ugha vk ikrh gSA muds fy;s lwph Hkh
izkjfEHkd Lrj dh gksuh pkfg;sA HkkSfrd
foKku ,oa jlk;u foKku dks LFkku nsuk
pkfg;sA
               çkjfEHkd Lrj
 1 issM+&ikS/kksa rFkk tUrqvksa dk muds
   okrkoj.k ds lkFk v/;;u
 2 ok;q
 3 Lkk/kkj.k e’khusa
 4 ‘kjhj rFkk mldh ns[kHkky
 5 czgkz.Mh; fi.M
 6 ckxokuh
 7 jkseu v{kj ekyk
           2-ek/;fed Lrj (Middle stage)


     bl Lrj ij foKku dh vyx vyx
   ‘kk[kkvksa dks tSls] HkkSfrd foKku]
   jlk;u foKku] ouLifr foKku rFkk tUrq
   foKku ds laca/kkas rFkk rF;ksa dks
   izLrkfor fd;k tkrk gSA ek/;fed Lrj ij
   foKku dks fuEu fo”k;ksa ds :Ik esa
   i<+k;k tk;A

 1 HkkSfrdh
 2   jlk;u
 3   tho foKku
 4   Hkw&foKku
 5   T;ksfr”k foKku


  mPp rFkk mPprj Lrj (high and higher secondary
                   stage)
    f’k{kk dk ;g og Lrj gS tgka Nk= ds
Hkfo”; dh uhao j[kh tkrh gS] blh ds p;fur
fo”k; vkxs pydj ckyd ds O;kolkf;d Hkfo”;
dks fu/kkZfjr djrs gSaA bl Lrj ij foKku
f’k{k.k nks oxksaZ esa foHkkftr gks tkrk
gSA
       lHkh ds fy, vfuok;Z lk/kkj.k foKku
ikB~;Øe
 1 oSdfYid fo”k;ksa ls lEcfU/kr fof’k”V
   foKku ikB~;dze
 2 lk/kkj.k foKku dkslZ esa foKku dh
   fuEu ‘kk[kkvksa ds
   izlaxksa dks lfEefyr fd;k tkuk pkfg;sA
   1- HkkSfrdh 2- jlk;u 3- tho foKku 4-
     LokLF; foKku
     5- Hkw&foKku     6- u{k= foKku   7- Hkwxksy
     8- x`gfoKku


  dksBkjh vk;ksx ds lq>ko (suggestions of Kothari
commission)
 1 izkFkfed Lrj ij foKku dh f’k{kk ckyd ds
   lkekftd HkkSfrd rFkk tSfod okrkoj.k dh
   ifjf/k esa gksuh pkfg;sA
 2 izkFkfed d{kkvkssaa esa ckyd esa
   LoPNrk LoLFk vknrksa dks fuekZ.k rFkk
   mudh fujh{k.k ‘kfDr rhoz djus ds iz;kl
   fd;s tkus pkfg;ssA
 3 bl Lrj ij ckydksa dks ty]ok;q] ekSle]
   vkdk’k] Hkwfe] e’khu rFkk ‘kjhj rFkk
   ‘kjhj dh ns[kHkky dk Kku nsuk pkfg;s
   ckxokuh dh f’k{kk dk vkjEHk Hkh bUgh
   o”kksa esa gksuk pkfg;sA
 4 ek/;fed Lrj rFkk izkFkfed Lrj ij
   i<+kbZ tkus okyh foKku dh fo”k;oLrq esa
   vkilh lEcU/k gksuk pkfg;sA
 5 bl Lrj ij Kku izkfIr dks LFkku fn;k
   tkuk pkfg;ss rFkk rdZiw.kZ fpUru dk
   fodkl fd;k tkuk pkfg;sA
 6 Ckkydksa dh ekufld‘kfDr;kssa dks fodflr
   fd;k tkuk pkfg;ssA




                ewY;kadu
(EVALUATION)
               f'k{kk ds mn~ns’;
    f'k{k.k fof/k&izfof/k
vf/kxe&vuqHko


                        ewY;kaadu (Evaluation)
   f’k{k.k izfØ;k dk izkFkfed fcUnq
f’k{k.k mn~ns’; gksrs gSaA tc rd f’k{k.k
mn~ns’; fu/kkZfjr ugha gksrs rc rd f’k{k.k
dh fn’kk Hkh fuf’pr~ ugha gksrh A vr%
f’k{kk ds mn~ns’;ksa dks izkIr djus ds fy,
v/;kid ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksaa dks mRiUu djrk
gS ftlls fd ckyd ds O;ogkj esa okafNr
ifjorZu vk lds bldss fy, v/;kid fofHkUu
izdkj ds fof/k&izfof/k dk iz;ksx djrk gSA
vc bl izfd;k ds ckn v/;kid ;g tkuus dk
bPNqd jgrk gS fd mn~ns’;ksa dh izkfIr gqbZ
gS]fd ughaA vr% ,d ,slk lk{kh] ftlds vk/kkj
ij v/;kid dks viuh lQyrk ;k vlQyrk dk Kku
gksrk gS rFkk ftldss vk/kkj ij og viuh
fof/k&izfof/k ;k çHkko’khyrk ds ckjs esa
tkudkjh çkIr djrk gS] ewY;kadu dgykrk gSA
 ewY;kadu             ekiu          $      ewY;
fu/kkZj.k
(Evaluation)   (Measure)   (Value judgement)




     ewY;kadu ds míss’; (Purpose Evaluation)
 1-   bldk mn~ns’; ckydksa dk oxhZdj.k
   djuk gSA
 2-   ewY;kadu ds }kjk ckydksa ds O;kogkj
   esa okfNar ifjorZu ykuk gSA
 3-   ewY;kadu ds }kjk ikB~;Øe esa
   la’kks/ku fd;k tk ldrk gSA
 4-   ewY;kadu fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds mn~ns’;ksa
   dh lhek dks fu/kkZfjr djrk gSA
 5-   ewY;kadu f’k{k.k fof/k;ksa dh
   mi;qDrrk dh tkap djrk gSA
 6-   ewY;kadu ds }kjk f’k{kd vius f’k{k.k
   dh çHkko’khyrk dh tkap djrk gS fd Nk=
   us Kku izkIr fd;k gS ;k ughaA
 7-   ewY;kadu ds }kjk fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh
   leL;kvksa dks le>us o mudh izkfIr dks
   tkuus esa lgk;rk feyrh gSA
 8-   ewY;kadu ds iz;ksx }kjk fo|kfFkZ;ksa
   dks mfpr ‘kSf{kd o O;kolkf;d funsZ’ku
   iznku fd;k tk ldrk gSA
 9-   ckydksa dh :fp] ;ksX;rk] {kerk dk
   irk yxkus esa lgk;d gSA
 10-ewY;kadu ds }kjk midj.kksa esa lq/kkj
 o ifjorZu yk;k tk    ldrk gSA




   ewY;kadu dk egÙo (Importance of Evaluation)
    1- ckydksa esa fufgr ;ksX;rkvksa ds
       laca/k esa tkudkjh izkIr
       djus ds fy,A
    2- mn~ns’; izkfIr dh lhek ds laca/k esa
       tkudkjh izkIr
       djus ds fy,A
    3- fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh miyfC/k ds laca/k esa
       tkudkjh izkIr djus ds fy, A
    4- iznÙk Kku dh lhek Kkr djus ds fy, A
    5- f’k{k.k esa ifjorZu rFkk okafNr
       lq/kkj ykus ds fy,A
    6- ckydkas dks izsfjr djus ds fy,A

                vPNs ijh{k.k ds xq.k
                        (Characteristics of a Good test)




     O;kogkfjd dlkSfV;ka
rduhdh dlkSfV;k
        mn~ns’;iw.kZ
oS|rk
      ewY;
fo’oluh;rk
      iz’kklu esa lQyrk
oLrqfu”Brk
      le;
ekudhdj.k
      O;k[;ku esa ljy
foHksnhdj.k
        vadu esa ljy
xgurk


                          ijh{k.k ds izdkj
                           (Type of Test)




 v/;kid fufer ijh{kk;sa
izek.khd`r ijh{kk;sa
(TEACHER MADE TEST )            (STANDARDIZED TEST)
                                ijh{k.k (TEST)




ekSf[kd                               fyf[kr
iz;ksxkRed




                   fucU/kkRed
oLrqfu”B




nh?kZ mRrjh;    y?kq mRrjh;     vfry?kqmRrjh;
v/;kid fufeZr     izekf.kd
iz’u             iz’u                 iz’u
ijh{k.k          ijh{k.k




                                iqUk%Lej.kkRed
igpkukRed iz’u


        lk/kkj.k iqu%Lej.kkRed iz’u             fjDr
LFkku iwfrZ
feykukRed         cgqfodYih;   vuqikrkRed
f}fodYih;

                                      lR;@vlR;
    gkWa@ugh   ‘kq)@v’kq)

								
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