research methodology test sample by l97a7IOA


									Name: __________________________ Date: _____________

    4. Sensations, dreams, beliefs, and feelings are:
       A) are concepts with no biological basis.
       B) examples of behavior.
       C) psychological constructs that must be operationally defined in order to be measured.
       D) not considered appropriate subject matter for psychology today.
       E) cannot be successfully measured in any way.

    5. Several weeks after a political election, voters often exaggerate their ability to have predicted
       the election outcome. They are often heard saying, “I knew it all along!” This best
       A) the Hawthorne effect
       B) the placebo effect.
       C) the hindsight bias.
       D) the false consensus effect.
       E) illusory correlation.

    6. Jamie and Lynn were sure that they had answered most of the multiple-choice questions
       correctly because "they simply required common sense." However, they each received a 60% on
       the exam. This best illustrates:
       A) random assignment.
       B) the false consensus effect.
       C) overconfidence.
       D) the hindsight bias.
       E) illusory correlation.

    7. The two most fundamental characteristics of the scientific attitude are:
       A) skepticism and humility.
       B) pride and enthusiasm.
       C) bias and prejudice.
       D) creativity and patience.
       E) ingenuity and practicality.

    8. The scientific practice of formulating testable hypotheses before conducting research is most
       likely to reduce:
       A) the hindsight bias.
       B) the false consensus effect.
       C) random assignment.
       D) random sampling.
       E) the placebo effect.

    9. In order to understand the unusual behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist has
       carefully investigated the client's current life situation and his physical, social, and educational
       history. Which research method has the psychologist employed?
       A) experimentation
       B) the survey
       C) a case study
       D) the cross sectional study
       E) naturalistic observation

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10. A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n):
    A) control condition.
    B) case study.
    C) standard deviation.
    D) replication.
    E) operational definition.

11. In order to assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, Susan sent a questionnaire
    to every fifteenth person in the college registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled
    students. Susan employed the technique of:
    A) correlation.
    B) replication.
    C) random sampling.
    D) naturalistic observation.
    E) random assignment.

12. The greatest weakness of relying on case-study evidence is that it:
    A) may be unrepresentative of what is generally true.
    B) highly suceptible to bias.
    C) leads us to underestimate the causal relationships between events.
    D) is based on naturalistic observation.
    E) is unusually easy to explain in hindsight.

13. In which type of research is a representative sample of people asked to answer questions about
    their behaviors or opinions?
    A) the case study
    B) experimentation
    C) a longitudinal study
    D) the survey
    E) naturalistic observation

14. The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our own attitudes is known as:
    A) self fulfilling prophecy.
    B) the hindsight bias.
    C) the false consensus effect.
    D) illusory correlation.
    E) an illusion of control.

15. Correlational research is most useful for purposes of:
    A) control.
    B) replication.
    C) prediction.
    D) intervention.
    E) explanation.

16. In a test of the effects of sleep deprivation on problem-solving skills, research participants are
    allowed to sleep either 4 or 8 hours on each of three consecutive nights. This research is an
    example of:
    A) correlational research.
    B) a case study.
    C) an experiment.
    D) naturalistic observation.
    E) survey research.

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17. In a study of the effects of alcohol consumption, some participants drank a nonalcoholic
    beverage that actually smelled and tasted alcoholic. This nonalcoholic drink was a:
    A) replication.
    B) placebo.
    C) double blind.
    D) dependent variable.
    E) random sample.

18. Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzees in the jungle are using a
    research method known as:
    A) the case study.
    B) naturalistic observation.
    C) the survey.
    D) random sampling.
    E) experimentation.

19. Researchers and subjects in a drug-evaluation study are both ignorant about which subjects have
    actually received an experimental drug and which were given a placebo. This investigation
    involves the use of:
    A) random sampling.
    B) the false consensus effect.
    C) the double-blind procedure.
    D) replication.
    E) the hindsight bias.

20. The double-blind procedure is most helpful for minimizing:
    A) the placebo effect.
    B) replication.
    C) operational definitions.
    D) standard deviations.
    E) random assignment.

21. A researcher would be most likely to discover a positive correlation between:
    A) financial poverty and physical health.
    B) self-esteem and depression.
    C) years on the job and pay
    D) intelligence and age.
    E) school grades and school absences.

22. In order to study the effects of loud noise on worker productivity, Dr. Murphy had one group of
    research participants work in a noisy room and a second group in a quiet room. Those who
    worked in the quiet room were exposed to the ________ condition.
    A) variable
    B) control
    C) experimental
    D) survey
    E) correlational

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23. In an experimental study, people with high blood pressure where given a specific medication or
    a placebo. Those who received the medicine participated in the ________ condition.
    A) survey
    B) random
    C) control
    D) correlational
    E) experimental

24. In a group of five individuals, two report annual incomes of $10,000, and the other three report
    incomes of $14,000, $15,000, and $31,000, respectively. The mode of this group's distribution
    of annual incomes is:
    A) $16,000.
    B) $80,000.
    C) $31,000.
    D) $15,000.
    E) $10,000.

25. Mr. and Mrs. Klostreich have six children aged 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, and 16. The mean age of the
    Klostreich children is:
    A) 8.
    B) 7.
    C) 5.
    D) 6.
    E) 6 1/2.

26. During the past year, Zara and Ivan each read 2 books, but George read 9, Ali read 12, and
    Marsha read 25. The median number of books read by these individuals was:
    A) 10.
    B) 12.
    C) 9.
    D) 50.
    E) 2.

27. Seven members of a Girl Scout troop report the following individual earnings from their sale of
    candy: $4, $1, $7, $6, $8, $2, and $7. In this distribution of individual earnings, the mean is
    ________ the mode and ________ the median.
    A) greater than; greater than
    B) equal to; greater than
    C) equal to; equal to
    D) less than; less than
    E) less than; equal to

28. During the last Central High School basketball game, the starting five players scored 11, 7, 21,
    14, and 7 points, respectively. For this distribution of scores, the range is:
    A) 12.
    B) 14.
    C) 21.
    D) 7.
    E) 11.

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29. Which of the following is a measure of the degree of variation among individual data points and
    the mean?
    A) scatterplot
    B) standard deviation
    C) normal distribution
    D) correlation coefficient
    E) mean

30. An awareness of extensive cultural differences in attitudes and values is most helpful for
    A) random sampling.
    B) the hindsight bias.
    C) naturalistic observation.
    D) replication.
    E) the false consensus effect.

31. The scientific attitude of humility is based on the idea that:
    A) simple explanations of behavior make better theories than do complex explanations.
    B) researchers must be prepared to reject their own ideas in the face of conflicting evidence.
    C) there are no knew ideas and replication of others' work is the only viable research today.
    D) researchers must evaluate new ideas and theories objectively rather than accept them
    E) scientific theories must be testable.

32. Which research method provides the best way of assessing whether cigarette smoking boosts
    mental alertness?
    A) the survey
    B) naturalistic observation
    C) the experiment
    D) the case study
    E) the correlational study

33. In an experimental study of the effects of anxiety on self-esteem, anxiety would be the
    ________ variable.
    A) correlational
    B) independent
    C) control
    D) experimental
    E) dependent

34. In a psychological experiment, the factor that may be influenced by the manipulated
    experimental treatment is called the ________ variable.
    A) experimental
    B) independent
    C) operational
    D) control
    E) dependent

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    35. Martina believes that high doses of caffeine slow a person's reaction time. In order to test this
        belief, she has five friends each drink three 8-ounce cups of coffee and then measures their
        reaction time on a learning task. What is wrong with Martina's research strategy?
        A) There are no operational definitions.
        B) No independent variable is specified.
        C) No dependent variable is specified.
        D) There is no control condition.
        E) There is no provision for replication of the findings.

    36. Your roommate is conducting a survey to learn how many hours the typical college student
        studies each day. She plans to pass out her questionnaire to the members of her sorority. You
        point out that her findings will be flawed because:
        A) her statistics will be inferential.
        B) the sample will probably not be representative of the population of interest.
        C) of all the above reasons.
        D) she has not specified a dependent variable.
        E) she has not specified an independent variable.

    37. A professor constructs a questionnaire to determine how students at the university feel about
        nuclear disarmament. Which of the following techniques should be used in order to survey a
        random sample of the student body?
        A) Evaluate the first 250 surveys that are turned in completed.
        B) Only students living on campus should be asked to complete the questionnaire.
        C) From an alphabetical listing of all students, every tenth (or fifteenth, e.g.) student should be
            asked to complete the questionnaire.
        D) Every student should be sent the questionnaire.
        E) Only students majoring in psychology should be asked to complete the questionnaire.

    38. Rashad, who is participating in a psychology experiment on the effects of alcohol on perception,
        is truthfully told by the experimenter that he has been assigned to the "high-dose condition."
        What is wrong with this experiment?
        A) Rashad's expectations concerning the effects of "high doses" of alcohol on perception may
              influence his performance.
        B) Both b. and c. are correct.
        C) There is no control condition.
        D) Knowing that Rashad is in the "high-dose" condition may influence the experimenter's
              interpretations of Rashad's results.
        E) None of the above are problems with the experiment. It should be conducted this way.

    39. Which of the following sets of data would contain the greatest standard deviation?
        A) 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16
        B) 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
        C) 1111, 1113, 1114, 1116
        D) 2, 8, 14, 25, 100
        E) -1, -0.5, 0, 0.5, 1

40. Which of the following would be used to measure the relationship between age and reaction time?
      A) Correlation
      B) Central tendency
      C) a histogram
      D) Standard deviation
      E) A t test

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A student hypothesizes that high school students consuming different flavors of a drink before a spelling test will perform
differently. A study to test the hypothesis finds that with a bitter drink, performance is best 6 hours after drinking it,
whereas with a sweet drink, performance is better 1 hour after drinking it.

41. Which of the following are the independent variables?
      A) Test scores and high school students
      B) Test scores and time of consumption
      C) Flavor of drink and time of consumption
      D) Flavor of drink and high school students
      E) Flavor of drink and test scores

42. Which of the following is the dependent variable?
      A) Flavor of the drink
      B) Participant’s spelling test scores
      C) Participant’s ages
      D) Time the drink was consumed
      E) Number of drinks consumed.

43. Which of the following would likely be a confounding variable that might interfere with the test results?
      A) students’ spelling abilities
      B) flavors of the drinks
      C) the spelling test
      D) age of the student
      E) the amount consumed

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Answer Key
   1.   D
   2.   E
   3.   C
   4.   B
   5.   C
   6.   E
   7.   A
   8.   D
   9.   C
  10.   C
  11.   C
  12.   A
  13.   A
  14.   C
  15.   E
  16.   C
  17.   A
  18.   D
  19.   C
  20.   C
  21.   C
  22.   B
  23.   B
  24.   C
  25.   A
  26.   C
  27.   B
  28.   E
  29.   E
  30.   A
  31.   C
  32.   D
  33.   B
  34.   E
  35.   B
  36.   E
  37.   B
  38.   E
  39.   B
  40.   E
  41.   D
  42.   B
  43.   C
  44.   B
  45.   D

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