Cultural Sensitivity - Sustainable Development

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Cultural Sensitivity - Sustainable Development Powered By Docstoc
					Helping the Poor; Principles for
Culturally Sensitive, Sustainable
Change
    Understanding how people think, their world and
         their environment, helps us to develop
   sustainable solutions jointly with those affected by
     poverty. This workshop will explore how we as
   Christians can make this possible whether we are
      working in the US or in a developing country.
About Me
• German
• Living in the Frankfurt area, originally from the South-
  West of Germany (Stuttgart)
• Married, 2 children (16 y.o. and 13 y.o.)
• Trained banker, state certified paramedic
• BSc EMS, MSc DevMngmt
• Career in Emergency Medical Services
• Worked for 7 years in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia
• Working since 2006 with PartnerAid in Germany
• Since 2008 CEO
Defining It
• Poverty
• Sustainability and Sustainable
  Development
• Why being culturally sensitive?
    We Define the Cause of
How How We Define the Cause of Poverty
    Determines the the Solutions
Poverty Determines Solutions We Propose
We Propose
The Cause of Poverty        Proposed Solution

Lack of Knowledge           Education
Oppression by Powerful      Work for Social Justice
People
Personal Sins of the Poor   Evangelism and Discipleship
                            of the Poor

Lack of Material Things     Provide Greater Access to
                            Material Things
What is poverty?
Poverty is not simply “a lack of jobs or
income”, but rather “a web of
interwoven problems—poor schooling,
bad health, family troubles, racism,
crime and unemployment—that can
lock families out of opportunity,
permanently”.

Joan Walsh “Stories of Community Building and the Future of
Urban America”
                                                              5
                              God


                          Economic System
Political System




                                                        Social System
                   Self                      Rest of
                              Others         Creation




                          Religious System
                   Poverty of Spiritual       God
                        Intimacy




                                          Economic System
Political System




                                                                           Social System
                                                             Rest of
                              Self                           Creation
                                             Others
                           Poverty of                         Poverty of
                             Being          Poverty of       Stewardship
                                            Community




                                          Religious System
What is Poverty?
    “Poverty is a result of relationships
 that do not work, that are not just, that
             are not for life, that are not
             harmonious or enjoyable.”

    Bryant Myers in Walking with the Poor, p. 86.
If poverty is rooted in broken
relationships, who are the Poor?

   • We are!

   • Until we embrace this, our attempts to help
     the people we want to serve, may do more
     harm than good.
                                           God            Poverty of Spiritual
                                                               Intimacy




                                       Economic System
Political System




                                                                                 Social System
                                                               Rest of
                         Self                                  Creation
                                          Others
                     Poverty of                                 Poverty of
                       Being             Poverty of            Stewardship
                    god-complexes        Community




                       Feelings of
                   Inferiority/Shame   Religious System
Poverty Alleviation
 Poverty Alleviation is the Ministry of
 Reconciliation:
 moving people—including ourselves-
 closer to glorifying God by living in
 right relationship with God, self,
 others, and the rest of creation.
Poverty Alleviation
•     Note that “the good life” is not just
    having more material things.
The Relationships are Broken
Due To:
• Individual Sin:
  – Sinful hearts
  – Often includes a faulty worldview concerning
    God, self, others, and the rest of creation

• Broken Systems
  – local, national, and international levels
  – The poor typically have little control over
    these
                                    God            Poverty of Spiritual
                                                        Intimacy




                                Economic System
Political System




                                                                          Social System
                                                        Rest of
                       Self                             Creation
                                   Others
                   Poverty of                            Poverty of
                     Being        Poverty of            Stewardship
                                  Community




                                Religious System
         Individual Sin
                +
        Broken Systems
                =
Broken Relationships for the Poor
Broken Relationship with God

  • God the Supreme Creator is distant and
    unapproachable
  • Distorted picture of God
Broken Relationship with Creation

  • Spirits / Behavior determine the level of
    fertility and harvest

  • The creation is not responsive to individual
    action, so exercising stewardship and
    dominion is not considered fruitful
Broken Relationship with Others

  • Blood and religion determine acceptance
  • Class and color determine status
  • People outside are viewed as competitors for
    influence and goods
  • Alignment with power is essential for survival
Broken Relationship with Self

 • Feelings of inferiority and shame
 • Dependent on group identity for honor and
   dignity
 • Fear of being outside of group
 • Moral decisions are group directed (family,
   neighborhood, etc.) undermining one’s sense
   of personal, moral responsibility
If poverty is rooted in broken
relationships, who are the Poor?

   • We are!

   • Until we embrace this, our attempts to help
     may do more harm than good.
                                             God              Poverty of Spiritual
                                                                   Intimacy




                                         Economic System
Political System




                                                                                     Social System
                                                                  Rest of
                         Self                                     Creation
                                            Others
                     Poverty of                                     Poverty of
                       Being           Poverty of Community        Stewardship
                    god-complexes




                       Feelings of
                   Inferiority/Shame     Religious System
We all need a reconciler!

For God was pleased to have all his
fullness dwell in him (Jesus), and through
him to reconcile to himself all things,
whether things on earth or things in
heaven, by making peace through his
blood, shed on the cross.
                    Colossians 1:19-20
  The Church is the body, bride,
   and fullness of Jesus Christ

It has been given the “Ministry of
          Reconciliation”
Local and Universal Church
• Need to focus on increasing the
  “testimony” of the local church (where
  there is one)

• Avoiding Paternalism

• Avoiding Dependency
Connection of the Church
with Community Work
• Church-Encouraged

• Church-Supported

• Church-Based
 Sustainable Development

•What about this
 buzz word?
The term “sustainable development”
is being used in many different ways,
for example:


In the context of
forestry, sustainable
development can mean the harvesting
of trees and other forest products at a
rate that does not exceed the capacity of
the forest to regenerate itself.
                                            27
In the context of
urban planning,
sustainable
development can
mean managing
growth within the
capacity of
infrastructure to
service the
population.


                    28
In the context of international development
projects, sustainable development can mean
those activities designed not to exceed the
socio-ecological capacity of the community to
carry on from within.
                                                29
Question:
What are other contexts within
which you have heard the term
sustainable development being
used?



                                 30
What is sustainable
development?

In 1980 the International Union for
the Conservation of Nature
published the World Conservation
Strategy in which the term
“sustainable development” was
first used.
                                      31
Question:
What other definitions of
sustainable development have
you heard/used? Which
definition do you prefer? Why?


                             32
Development:

A process by which potentialities
become apparent; by which a
fuller, greater or better state is
realized




                                     33
 Development:
A process through which something is
made more available or put into use



 A process through which something is
                              exploited,
      or converted into a new function,
             or has its value increased
                                       34
What is sustainability?


The capacity to keep up or keep going




                                        35
Development is sustainable if it
“meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability
of future generations to meet
their own needs”.
(The 1987 Brundtland Commission, set up by the United
Nations General Assembly)


                                                        36
Other Definitions:

“Sustainable development is a
socio-ecological process
characterized by the fulfillment of
human needs while maintaining the
quality of the natural environment
indefinitely.”
(Wikipedia)


                                      37
“Human beings are at the center of
concern for sustainable
development.
They are entitled to a healthy and
productive life in harmony with
nature.”
(Rio Declaration, adopted by the United Nations
conference on Environment and Development in 1992)

                                                     38
Interdependent and Mutually Reinforcing
Pillars of Sustainable
Development
                           Social
                        Development


               Environ-            Economic
               mental               Develop-
               Protection              ment

United Nations 2005 World Summit Outcome Document
                                                    39
Question:
What are the desired outcomes of
sustainable development?



                                   40
Characteristics of Sustainable
Development that Lead to these
Outcomes
                             Social
Economic
                         Development
development is
carried out in a
way that is                    Equitable
equitable for all
the world’s                         Economic
peoples.                        Development

                                               41
Economic development is carried out
in a way that is viable in terms of
environmental protection.



   Environ-        Viable     Economic
   mental                      Develop-
   Protection                     ment


                                          42
Social develop-
ment that is                 Social
bearable by the           Development
environment.

                     Bearable
             Environ-
             mental
             Protection


                                        43
                Social
             Development

      Bearable            Equitable
             Sustainable
Environ-                       Economic
mental                          Develop-
                 Viable
Protection                         ment


                                           44
Example of key features for the
“pillars” of sustainable
development:
•   Environmental sustainability
•   Economic development
•   Social development
•   Cultural diversity
•   Political participation (Source: CIDA)
                                             45
       Environmental
         Protection

 •Caring for the place we live in
•What has been entrusted to us
      •Ecosystem integrity
       •Biological diversity
   •Called to care for creation


                                    46
       Environmental
         Protection


Political Participation
Human rights
Democratic development
Good governance




                          47
                       Environmental
                         Protection
Political
Participation

                     Economic Development
                Appropriate economic policies
                  Efficient resource allocation
                      More equitable access to
                                     resources
                     Increasing the productive
                           capacity of the poor


                                                  48
                Environmental
                  Protection
Political                         Economic
Participation                   Development




     Social Development
 Improved income distribution
         Gender equity
  Investing in basic health &
           education
 Emphasizing participation of
       the beneficiaries
                                              49
                 Environmental
                   Protection
 Political                         Economic
 Participation                   Development


                                          Social
Cultural Diversity                  Development

Sensitivity to cultural
factors
Recognition of values
conducive to
development


                                                   50
Global consensus agrees
Sustainable development cannot be
achieved until three key issues are
addresses

                    •   extreme poverty,
                    •   centuries-old
                        conflicts, and
                    •   environmental
                        degradation

                                           51
Sustainable Development can not be
achieved until God is allowed to
bring reconciliation and healing.

• God is our sustainer (Psalm 24:1)
• God calls us to be good stewards (Leviticus
  19:9-10)
• A world not reconciled with God can not be
  sustainable (Sin in the world…)



                                                52
Why Bother?

• Demonstration of the Kingdom of God
• Wittness to the nations
• Taking part in the Mission of God
Community development
approaches
•   Listening & visioning
•   Participatory planning
•   Capacity building
•   Building systems & mechanisms for
    people-centered development

And: throughout the process - being
learners

                                        54
Learning-driven development
requires cultivating the discipline of
reflective practice:
•   Learning to read complex patterns & systems
•   Learning to stand still long enough to see what is
    around you (the context)
•   Learning to adjust thinking & behavior as a result
    of reflection on experience
•   Learning new knowledge & skills related to
    emergent challenges


                                                     55
Listening & Visioning
 •   Building relationships between
     partners
 •   Recovering cultural resources
 •   Understanding local knowledge
 •   Establishing a values foundation
 •   Documenting the peoples’ story
 •   Setting sustainable goals

                                        56
Participatory Planning

Engaging the hearts & minds of peoples in:
•Mapping their real situation
•Defining problems
•Discovering solutions
•Planning strategic action

                                             57
Capacity Building
   •   Both formal and non-formal training for
       development leaders




                                                 58
Systems Building

•   Families
•   Communities
•   Organizations
•   Governance mechanisms
•   Livelihood practices
•   Social, economic, political and cultural
    relationships within & between communities, the
    wider world.



                                                  59
Required    Listening &
             Visioning
Processes


            Sustainable
 Capacity     Vision,     Participatory
 Building    Values &     Planning
             Principles




             System
             Building
                                     60
           Planning




            Values &
Learning    Principles   Action




           Reflection
                                  61
Poverty & Culture
The knowledge about the local culture,
language and customs and the sensitivity to
cultural issues can help to bridge the
information gap. Such sensitivity can lead to
greater cultural awareness and
competences of actors within the field of
development management.
Definition of Culture
Culture is a dynamic, symbolically-based, and learned
system. It forms the mechanism through which people
construct and enact meaning. It is a learned system of
meanings, communicated by natural language and
symbols that allows groups of people to manage social
and physical diversity and to adapt successfully to their
environment. It does this by enabling members of a
social group to construct a particular sense of reality.
Based on this image of the world, people: (1) base
expectations about what motivates others; (2) learn the
"correct" way of responding to challenges in their
environment; and(3) develop emotional responses to
their experiences.
(Rubinstein, 2003, p.30)
Cultural Sensitivity

• helps us to identify brokenness
• helps us to understand the situation at
  hand ( mapping / picture)
• provides us with opportunities to work
  for change
Ancient philosophies have to be
scrapped; old institutions have to be
disintegrated; bonds of caste, creed and
race have to burst; and a large number of
persons who cannot keep up with
progress have to have their expectations
of a comfortable life frustrated. Very few
communities are willing to pay the full
price of economic progress.
                    (United Nations 1951)
Cultural Sensitivity
“Mr. Director General, why is it that you people
from UN agencies when you come here, instead
of asking us for our experience and our skills,
our thoughts and our dreams, you give us
lessons and advice?
Why do you not come here to listen first, then
give us advice based on what you heard?”

(A teacher in a village in Burkina Faso to Frederico
Mayor, former Director General of UNESCO, during
a visit he made to the country)
Culture: how human beings make sense
of the world
•   how people think, learn and solve problems, what they
    value and respect, what attracts and delights them, what
    offends them and their sense of what is appropriate
•   manifests itself in human relations, systems of
    organization, technology, arts, politics, economics,
    community life - all the things that humans do.




                                                           67
A Metaphor for Culture
                        Language
                 Laws                  Folklore
 Artifacts and             Customs                Visible
   Behaviour     Music                 Food
                                                  Culture


  Beliefs and
       Values             highly patterned
                                                  Primary
                          implicit rules of       Culture
                               behavior
                           hidden cultural
                               grammar
Assumptions
 The Lens of Cultural Sensitivity
• Cultural sensitivity should not be another tool
  in the toolbox for development
• Cultural sensitivity should be the lens through
  which we learn to look for our work.
• This image of a lens can potentially help not
  to view cultural sensitivity as another
  instrument in the development manager's
  toolbox but as approach which reveals
  information that has not been seen before
Potential Issues
• Don‘t become an achiever – stay a
  learner
• Don‘t become a cultural preservesionist
• Training for cultural sensitivity
• Funding for this approach
Cultural Sensitivity Directing
Development

Development priorities need to be
understood and developed based on the
local context and the viewpoint of each actor
within this local context, which is largely
shaped by culture.
           Planning




            Values &
Learning    Principles   Action




           Reflection
                                  72
Helping without
    Hurting

				
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