Poor referencing � examples by r4NxxJ3V

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									              Putting things into your own words – the
                               extracts


      In academic work it is vital that you provide evidence for everything that you state or
      argue. You must also demonstrate where this information came from by way of
      referencing. It can, however, sometimes be difficult to know how to put information in to
      your own words.

      We have developed a three stage process that we hope will help you develop that skill:
        1. Understand the extract you wish to include – put it into your own words in a simple,
           straight forward way. It can often help to actually speak this out loud or tell the
           argument/policy/theory/information to someone.
        2. Decide which (if any) words or terms within the original text should not be changed
           for reasons of accuracy or because they are technical or precise phrases.
        3. Formalise what you want to say so that it conforms to academic conventions of
           writing.


      Extract from paper

      Nurse prescribers will encounter patients who are reluctant to take the medicines they
      prescribe. Where this person is a capable adult then the nurse prescriber will have to
      accept the decision as the free choice of the individual. Where the person is an incapable
      adult whose best interests require the medication to be administered then the nurse
      prescriber may use covert administration, but only as a last resort.

      Griffith, R. 2007. “Covert administration of medicines to adults must be the last resort”,
      Nurse Prescribing, Vol. 5, no.2, pp 79 -81.


      Having gone through the 3 stage process, I might use this extract within an essay in the
      following couple of ways:

         a. Where a patient has been deemed an ‘incapable adult’ and the treatment is for their
            benefit, Griffith (2007) argues that covert administration of medicine is permissible
            when no other options are available.
         b. For the nurse prescriber the key issue regarding covert administration of medicine
            is whether the patient is capable or incapable. In the latter case, such action may be
            acceptable when other possibilities are exhausted (Griffith, 2007).




studySMART@gcu.ac.uk
      Extract from Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) Code

      Ensure you gain consent
          You must ensure that you gain consent before you begin any treatment or care
          You must respect and support peoples’ rights to accept or decline treatment and
            care
          You must uphold peoples’ rights to be fully involved in decisions about their care
          You must be aware of the legislation regarding mental capacity, ensuring that
            people who lack capacity remain at the centre of decision making and are fully safe
            guarded
          You must be able to demonstrate that you have acted in someone’s best interests if
            you have provided care in an emergency

      Nursing and Midwifery Council. 2008. The Code: standards of conduct, performance and
      ethics for nurses and midwives, NMC, London.

      How could you summarise the above?




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