RESEARCH TIPS by o9S16v4

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									ACADEMIC RESEARCH
and WRITING




    Peter Paolucci, Ph.D.
 TWO TYPES OF SOURCES

POPULAR
ACADEMIC
Neither necessarily has truth but one is
   more legitimate
See                              for
      http://www.kyvl.org/html/tutorial/research/infosources.shtml

   more examples and (+/-) of both
 TWO TYPES OF LIBRARIES

PUBLIC
UNIVERSITY

Housing two very different kinds of
   materials
ACADEMIC PUBLISHING
1. Books
2. Journals (published monthly)
3. Peer review process
 a. Sent to several 3rd party experts for scrutiny
 b. Returned with: rejected, publish with minor
    revs, major revs, or as is
ALAN SOKOL
    Published an article through peer
    review process that was “BS”
–    Only one article by one journal BUT
–    Made critical world wonder about the whole
     process
–    Where does truth live?
–    What is the relationship between truth and
     legitimacy?
 PUBLISHING SCANDALS

Sokal's Hoax (see next slide)

The Scandal of Poor Medical Research (1/7)

About the Peer Review Process


The Abuse of Science
    INTERNET / LIBRARY
     KEY DIFFERENCES
Librarians standardize
everything, incl. booleans (and,
or, adj, not)
              but

Internet search engines
standardize little (they compete)
LIBRARY SCIENCE

 Is all about standardization
 ISBN numbers
 Library of Congress
 Standard “subjects”
INTERNET SEARCH ENGINES
 3 Kinds:
– Generic (Yahoo)

– Meta: search other engines
  (Metacrawler)


– Dedicated    (Lawcrawler). See
  http://searchenginewatch.com/
SEARCH ENGINES
     Each
 –     collects
 –     filters
 –     stores
 –     eliminates
 –     serves data …

                           differently

     See http://www.learncanada.org/e2nginez/
PROBLEMS WITH
SEARCH ENGINES

 Research and promotion = 2 sides
 of same coin
 Sometimes what you find has
 nothing to do with your research
 skills
HOW YOU ARE MANIPULATED
  Research and promotion        = 2 sides
  of same coin

  What you find has little to do
  with your research skills
  Promotion can be
        Passive (in the HTML code)
        Active (submitting abstracts or
        buying ads which are
        measured in CPMs)
TWO APPROACHES

1. Searching with purpose
    takes HUGE amounts of time




2. Exploratory (relying on serendipity)
    takes STAGGERING amounts of time –more than
      you have in any course
SOLUTIONS

The “answer” is NOT in the
    library or on the Internet
    …
It’s
      in your head !
OBJECTIVES
1. Thoroughness
   While you’re at it, research more than you need
   Explore more than is necessary
   Bring home (copies of) everything you come across



2. Accuracy & Meticulousness
   Record all meta information (author, title, journal, URL,
      date, call #, page #, editor, which library)
   Where you were
   What the date is
OBJECTIVES

3. Balance & fairness
  Choose a variety of sources, opinions and viewpoints
   Always choose current sources, but older ones are not
   always wrong or outdated



4. Clarity in complexity
   Retain paradoxes, dilemmas and inconsistencies
   Don’t oversimplify
INTENTION

Not always to narrow
  down your data, but to

open up possibilities and
  generate choices
SCRUTINIZE SOURCES

The key is
      TRANSPARENCY

Who wrote it? Credentials?
When? Why?
Are sources used documented and traceable?
EVALUATE SOURCES

1. Thoroughness
2. Accuracy
3. Balance
4. Clarity
= TRANSPARENCY
PREDICT !

Speculate specifically about
  what you could find; what
  you're likely to find

Even if wrong, it’s better to
  approach research with
  articulated assumptions
KNOWLEDGE / WISDOM
Knowledge =
  –    Mere data (who, where, what, when)


Wisdom = data that’s been
  1.   scrutinized
  2.   labelled
  3.   categorized and clustered (linked relationally and to
       other data)


Wisdom = Why and how
MAP IT!


Try to locate data in a schematic
or map showing its relation to
  –other   data
  –other   problems
  –other   concepts
  –other   ideas
IMPOSSIBLE TO
UNDER ESTIMATE …
The time and trouble it will take
   (power of bad luck)


The power of serendipity
   (power of good luck)
PROCESS

 Predict
 Search (gather more than you need)
 Evaluate
 Document / record
 Cluster/group/categorize
SOME GOOD SOURCES !

1. How to do research
2. Advice on Research & Writing
3. Scott Library resources (York)
5. Style, formatting documentation
     (Monash U)

6.   Academic Integrity (avoiding
     plagiarism)

								
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