GENDER AUDIT OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, MALAWI AND by o9S16v4

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									GENDER AUDIT OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN
 ETHIOPIA, KENYA, MALAWI AND UGANDA

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            UNICEF

Eastern and Southern Africa Region
             (ESAR)




     Nairobi - September 2007




      Study Co-ordinators:       Wycliffe Otieno
                                  Aster Haregot
                                Yumiko Yokozeki
                                                  Table of Contents


Table of Contents ............................................................................................................... iv

List of Tables and Figures.................................................................................................. iii

Abbreviations and Acronyms .......................................................................................... viv

Executive Summary ......................................................................................................... viii



Part I: Background and Methodology ................................................................................. 2



Part II: Gender Dimensions of Educational Participation in ESAR: A Review ................. 9



Part III: Qualitative Country Summaries .......................................................................... 38

        A: Ethiopia ............................................................................................................... 38

        B: Kenya .................................................................................................................. 48

        C: Malawi................................................................................................................. 60

        D: Uganda ................................................................................................................ 70



References ......................................................................................................................... 90



List of Interviewees........................................................................................................... 95
                                     List of Tables and Figures

Tables
Table 1: Estimated NERs for the Age Group 6-11 and 12-17 by Region, 2002 ....... Error!
Bookmark not defined.8
Table 2: Gender Disparities in 19 African Countries, 2003Error!                                     Bookmark       not
defined.9
Table 3: ESAR Countries Where School Fees Still Exist Error! Bookmark not defined.9
Table 4: Distribution of Countries by EDI Values, by region, 2002Error! Bookmark not
defined.10
Table 5: Countries by prospects for achieving gender parity in education................ Error!
Bookmark not defined.10
Table 6: Change in EDI and its components between 2003 and 2004Error! Bookmark
not defined.11
Table 7: Pre-Primary and Primary GER and GPI in ESAR and SSA, 2000 and 2005
........................................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.13
Table 8: NER in ESAR ..................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.14
Table 9: Repetition rate in ESAR, 2000 and 2005.........Error! Bookmark not defined.15
Table 10: Survival Rate in Primary Education in ESARError!                                         Bookmark        not
defined.16
Table 11: Gender Parity and Primary Education ...........Error! Bookmark not defined.17
Table 12: Secondary GER, 2000 and 2005 ....................Error! Bookmark not defined.19
Table 13: Secondary Net Enrolment Rates in ESAR, 2000 and 2005Error! Bookmark
not defined.20
Table 14: Percentage of Repeaters in Secondary, All GradesError!                                     Bookmark      not
defined.21
Table 15: Gross Intake Rate and Net Intake Rate, ESAR Countries, 2000 and 2005 Error!
Bookmark not defined.22
Table 16: Out of School Children in ESAR...................Error! Bookmark not defined.23
Table 17: Female Students by level of education in ESARError!                                       Bookmark       not
defined.25
Table 18: Percentage of Trained Teachers in ESAR, 2000 and 2005Error!                                       Bookmark
not defined.26
Table 19: PTRs and Percent of Female Teachers ..........Error! Bookmark not defined.27
Table 20: Performance in Examinations, SACMEQ I and II ResultsError!                                        Bookmark
not defined.29
Table 21: Public Education Spending: Overall and per pupil (%), 2000 and 2005 ... Error!
Bookmark not defined.33
Table 22: ESAR Countries by Financing Gap Required to Meet EFA by 2015 ....... Error!
Bookmark not defined.34
Table 23: Ethiopia Higher Education Entrance Examinations Results, 2005 ........... Error!
Bookmark not defined.40
Table 24: KCPE Raw Mean Score by Gender and Subject, 2002 - 2005 .................. Error!
Bookmark not defined.52
Table 25: Selected Primary Education Indicators, 2006 Error! Bookmark not defined.64
Table 26: Malawi Primary School Leaving Examinations, 2002 - 2005Error! Bookmark
not defined.65
Table 27: Malawi School Certificate Examinations (MSCE), 2002 – 2005.............. Error!
Bookmark not defined.65
Table 28: Selected Primary Education Indicators ..........Error! Bookmark not defined.77
Table 29: SEC school GER and NER, 2005 ..................Error! Bookmark not defined.78

Figures
Figure 1: The Child Friendly School (CFS) Framework .Error! Bookmark not defined.6
Fig. 2: Percent of Sixth Grade Students without Books in 14 ESAR Countries (2000)
........................................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.28
                 Abbreviations and Acronyms

AARI      -   Average Annual Rate of Increase
ABE/NFE   -   Alternative Basic Education/Non Formal Education
AfDB      -   African Development Bank
AGEI      -   African Girls’ Education Initiative
AIDS      -   Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
BTVET     -   Business, Technical Vocational Education and Training
CCTs      -   Conditional Cash Transfers
CFS       -   Child Friendly Schools (framework)
CPAP      -   Country Program Action Plan
CRC       -   Convention on the Right of the Child
CSA       -   Central Statistical Authority
DFID      -   Department for International Development
E.C       -   Ethiopian Calendar
ECD       -   Early Childhood Development
EDI       -   EFA Development Index
EFA       -   Education for All
EFAG      -   Education Funding Agencies Group
EMIS      -   Education Management Information System
ESAR      -   East and Southern Africa Region
ESCC      -   Education Sector Consultative Committee
ESDP      -   Education Sector Development Plan
FAWE-K    -   Forum for African Women Educationalists, Kenya Chapter
FAWEMA    -   Forum for African Women Educationalists, Malawi Chapter
FAWEU     -   Forum for African Women Educationalists, Uganda Chapter
FGM       -   Female Genital Mutilation
FPESP     -   Free Primary Education Support Program
FTI       -   Fast Track Initiative
FY        -   Financial Year
GEI       -   Gender Education Index
GER       -   Gross Education Rate
GIR       -   Gross Intake Rate
GOM       -   Government of Malawi
GPI       -   Gender Parity Index
GTZ       -   German Technical Cooperation Agency
HICS      -   Household Income and Consumption Survey
HIV       -   Human Immunodeficiency Virus
KCPE      -   Kenya Certificate of Primary Education
KCSE      -   Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education
KESSP     -   Kenya Education Sector Support Program
KNEC      -   Kenya National Examinations Council
MDGs      -   Millennium Development Goals
MK        -   Malawian Kwacha
MoE       -   Ministry of Education
MoES      -   Ministry of Education and Sports
MoEVT     -   Ministry of Education and Vocational Training
MoWCD     -   Ministry of Women and Child Development
MoYS&C    -   Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture
MTSP      -   Medium Term Strategic Plan
MPRSP     -   Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
NER       -   Net Enrolment Rate
NESP      -   National Education Sector Plan
NPA-OVC   -   National Plan of Action on Orphans and Vulnerable Children
PASDEP    -   Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty
PLCE      -   Primary School Leaving Certificate Examination
PLE       -   Primary Leaving Examination
PPET      -   Post Primary Education and Training
PTRs      -   Pupil Teacher Ratio
SACMEQ    -   Southern African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality
SFAI      -   School Fee Abolition Initiative
SIP       -   School Improvement Plan
SSA       -   Sub Saharan Africa
SWAps     -   Sector Wide Approaches
TPR       -   Textbook Pupil Ratio
TSC       -   Teachers’ Service Commission
TTC       -   Teacher Training College
UBOS      -   Uganda Bureau of Statistics
UIS       -   UNESCO Institute of Statistics
UNDG      -   United Nations Development Group
UNESCO    -   United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
UNHCR     -   United Nations’ High Commission for Refugees
UNICEF    -   United Nations’ Children’s Fund
UPE       -   Universal Primary Education
UPPET     -   Universal Post Primary Education and Training
                                Executive Summary

Part I: Introduction and Methodology
This report is the outcome of a gender audit commissioned by UNICEF in the ESAR
countries to track the progress being made in achieving the gender equality goals set out
in both Jomtien and Dakar meetings. It was implemented in three phases. The first step
entailed refining a Gender Audit Tool that was to be completed by a selected first batch
of countries in the region: Ethiopia, Kenyan, Malawi and Uganda. The second stage
involved a general review of the progress that all countries in ESAR have made in
improving participation in education between 2000 and 20007. The review constitutes
Part II of this report. Upon completion of the review, visits were made to the selected
countries for interviews with Ministry of Education officials, UNICEF staff and
stakeholders from other agencies such as international organizations, development
partners, local NGOs and CBOs. Brief country summary reports were prepared based on
observations, interviews and review of documents. The summaries comprise Part III of
this report.

Part II: Gender Dimensions of Educational Participation in ESAR: A Review
Pre-Primary and Primary Education
Five features are discernible from the available statistics on pre-primary and primary
education. First, compared to the rest of the continent, ESAR countries are doing better.
The statistics are either the same as or better than those for the continent, and, in some
cases, by a reasonably big margin. Second, the GPI for pre-school is better than primary,
even though both have remained constant in ESAR. Third, for countries where data is
available, it is encouraging to observe that not a single one records a decline in GPI.
Notably, Ethiopia had a 20% gain in primary GPI between 2000 and 2005. Fourth,
Mauritius remains a best example in ESAR: data is available on all aspects of
participation, and it has a GPI of 1.0 for both pre-school and primary, which has not
changed over the five year period.

Primary NERs range from a low of 42.4 % for Eritrea in 2005 to a high of 95.4% for
Seychelles, more than double. The disparities between countries are therefore stark. But
there is some progress, as even countries with low female NERs in 2000 such as Ethiopia
have registered reasonable progress, increasing by 23 percentage points to 54.6. Notably,
though, the pace of change is slow. The NERs for the rgion of 70.7% imply that up to
30% of school going age children are out of school.

Secondary participation trends by gender
Just like in pre-primary and primary education, ESAR performs better than the rest of the
continent. The GPI in 2005 is worse than it was in 2000, declining from 0.9 to 0.8.
Only a few countries have had a GER of over 50% (Botswana, Mauritius, Namibia,
Seychelles and South Africa). In 2005, only Mauritius has a GPI of 1.0. Some countries
have also regressed, e.g. Eritrea, which has reduced from 0.7 to 0.6. A few countries had
higher female GERs than total GER in 2000, e.g. Botswana. The trend of low NERs in
the region is evident at the secondary level, where on average, the NER is about 37.2%
(total) and 34.2% (female). Overall, the region recorded a decline in secondary NER GPI
from 1.0 to 0.8, though this is still better than the overall African performance in 2000.
Whereas Mauritius, Uganda and Ethiopia retained GPIs of 1.0, 0.9 and 0.6 respectively,
Eritrea declined from 0.8 to 0.7 over the period. It is not clear how the other countries
performed over the period for lack of data, but there is reason to be concerned that there
has not been much improvement in NER in the region.

Teachers
Though data is not available for all countries, there is an increase in the proportion of
trained teachers in the region. Significantly, the proportion of trained female primary
teachers increased from 76.2% in 2000 to 89.6% in 2005, an increase of 23.4 percentage
points. At the secondary level, the proportion declined by 2.5 percentage points to
72.2%. The decline may be attributed to either of two factors. One is that while a good
number of women qualify for training in primary teacher training colleges, those that
obtain the necessary qualification for entrance to secondary teacher training colleges
(normally a diploma which requires higher secondary qualification) is low. Not many
women therefore graduate with the necessary qualification to join these colleges. The
other alternative explanation is that the opportunities for women are just limited, even
where they qualify. This is highly probable in systems where there are no gender
sensitive or affirmative action policies to empower women.

Other than the wide variation between countries, PTRs in ESAR have deteriorated.
Fewer teachers are handling an increased number of pupils in 2005 compared to 2000. In
Ethiopia for instance, there was one teacher for every 64 primary school pupils in 2000
but the same teacher was handling 72 pupils in 2005. In ESAR, the ratio also reduced
increased from one teacher for every 43 pupils in 2000 to one teacher for every 50 pupils
in 2005. The increased load reflects increased enrolment and lack of or reduced teacher
recruitment. This is probably because of the pressure exerted by teacher costs in the
national education budgets, which in some cases such as Kenya constitutes a high of 88%
(Kenya, 2007c). Countries that have not registered any change like Eritrea may be
experiencing serious problems in increasing enrolment.

Performance in examinations
Results of tests administered by the Southern African Consortium for Monitoring
Educational Quality (SACMEQ) reveal major differences between girls and boys. In
SACMEQ I, girls performed poorer than boys in all countries by an average of four
percentage pints. The only exception is Mauritius that consistently record better
performance by girls, even in participation. In SACMEQ II, girls in the region performed
better than boys in reading by a remarkable difference of 12 percentage points. The only
countries where boys performed better than girls in reading are Malawi, Mozambique,
and Zambia (only marginally). On the other hand, boys outperform girls in mathematics
by an average of five percentage points. There are a few exceptions where girls
performed better than boys. These are Mauritius, Lesotho, Seychelles and South Africa.

The Policy Front: Education SWAps and Gender Policies
SWAps exist in at least seven ESAR countries: Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia,
Lesotho, Kenya, Mozambique and Malawi. In Ethiopia, a SWAp and has been in place
since 1997. The active participation of donors and community has been instrumental in
improving the education sector. Effective implementation of a SWAp is limited by the
lack of knowledge on the precise number of donors and what they do. In Kenya, the
SWAp process is helpful to the extent of recognizing gender as one of the main
investment programs. KESSP provides an intervention for the girl child education
through improvement of sanitation – including the provision of sanitary materials.
Having developed the Policy and Investment Framework in 2001, Malawi is currently
finalizing the National Education Sector Plan (NESP) that covers the period 2007 – 2016.
In Uganda, the current Education Sector Strategic Plan (2004-2015) and its predecessor
(1998-2003) provide the framework for sector wide approach in education in Uganda.
Even though a SWAp is in place, there are concerns that a number of partners still engage
in the project mode, and sometimes, there are multiple studies and projects being
implemented by partners independently. However, there has been progress, e.g. agreeing
on targets, indicators, joint monitoring and evaluation together, among others.

All countries in the region have endeavored to put in place national gender polices from
which education sector gender policies have been or are being designed. The Uganda
Gender Policy provides the framework for redressing gender imbalances, is a guide to
other development practitioners, and provides the framework for the development of
sector specific gender policies. The policy sets priority areas of action at the national,
sectoral, district and community levels. Its ultimate objective is to “evolve a society that
is both informed and conscious of gender and development issues and concerns”. In
Ethiopia, the Women’s National Policy is now being changed to Gender Policy. It has
also established a Gender and Equity Department in every ministry, and prepared a
National Action Plan for Gender Equality (2006 – 2010). In the plan, every activity is
budgeted complete with an implementation matrix. There are specific indicators for
health, education, roads, agriculture, mining, etc. Most of the budget goes to these
sectors. Kenya has a national gender policy that was approved by the Cabinet in 2006
and passed by Parliament the same year. The policy, Sessional Paper No. 6 of 2006 on
Gender Equality and Development recognizes the importance of regulatory and
institutional reforms in achieving equitable and sustainable development.

Complementarity: UNGEI and National Education Programs
In supplementing the efforts of national policies and programs, UNICEF has partnered
with FAWE and respective governments to synergistically work for the elimination of
gender gaps and ensure successful completion of good quality education by girls and
boys. Though all the four countries have the United Nations’ Girls’ Education Initiative
(UNGEI) task forces, Uganda has done better in ensuring that the task forces are
established to the grassroots level to root for the girl child.  In Kenya, UNGEI is
focusing on children in ASAL (Arid and Semi-Arid) districts in northern parts of the
country. Other activities implemented within the UNGEI framework include:
  Kenya: embedding gender in the education SWAp, using FTI funds to improve
   girls’ education, gender mainstreaming in education policies, conducting gender
   audits on national education policies, using GEM to empower girls
  Uganda: conducting gender audits on national education policies, using GEM to
   empower girls, documenting best practices in girls’ education
  Malawi: conducting an evaluation study on SWAps in education, developing a
   SWAp Pack and mounting capacity building program, conducting gender audits on
   national education policies.
  Ethiopia: conducting gender audits on national education policies, developing
   gender sensitive education budgeting handbook, documenting best practices in
   girls’ education.

The girls’ education movement (GEM) is one of the strategies adopted by UNICEF to
scale up the effective participation of girls in education. In all the countries, GEM is a
partner in UNGEI playing a complementary role especially in mobilising and sensitizing the
young people and other stakeholders at the local level. However, the effectiveness of GEMs
in various countries differs. In Uganda, where UNGEI was launched in 2004, it has been
rolled out at district level in order to create new sector wide partnerships, for instance,
with        the         health       sector.       In      some        districts       (e.g.
Gulu, Amuru, Katakwi and Kaberamaido), UNGEI has been rolled out at the
community       level     with     many      positive   results  since      2005.     Child
mothers have been able to return to school thanks to an initiative of UNGEI community
groups (known as Camp Education Committees in Gulu and Amuru). UNGEI groups at
district level are engaged in advocacy work e.g. initiating district ordinances in
Kaberamaido, Gulu and Amuru. UNGEI has therefore helped to provide a vital link
between schools and communities, and has largely been effective in galvanizing
communities to support girls’ education.

Education Budgets – Extent of Funding for Gender Specific Programs
Data on educational spending in the region is not engendered or disaggregated by gender.
It is therefore difficult to determine how much is spent on the education of girls. It may
be argued that there is no need to disaggregate data specifically by gender because per
pupil spending gives a picture of equality in spending between girls and boys. While this
is mostly true, and given credence by the fact that most primary schools are co-
educational institutions, where the average spending per pupil is available, and if male
pupils dominate in enrolment as is common in the region, the reverse argument that boys
disproportionately benefit from public funding can be sustained. The picture however
remarkably changes at the secondary level, where most boarding schools are single sex,
but boarding schools are not the majority. In fact, secondary education in Africa tends to
be the most expensive and inequitably accessed by girls and boys. Fewer girls in
secondary schools points to the inequity in funding. However, the line of argumentation
here is hypothetical and it is safe to conclude that so far, we do not have enough
knowledge on the gender dimensions of public education spending.
Part III: Qualitative Country Summaries

Ethiopia
The Ethiopian government initiated an education reform program in 1997 that focuses on
decentralization and standardization of the education sector service delivery system at all
levels. The program is implemented under the Education Sector Development Program
(ESDP). ESDP was designed to implement the Education and Training Policy (ETP) of
1994. The overriding goal of ESDP III is the production of citizens with the requisite
skills and to meet the national development objectives at all of education (Ethiopia,
2006a). ESDP is anchored on improving five main pillars: quality, relevance, efficiency,
equity and access. Special emphasis is given to primary education in rural and
underserved areas, as well as the promotion of the education of girls (Ethiopia, 2005).
ESDP I and II have lapsed, and the current one (ESDP III) covers the period 2005/06 to
2009/10.

ESDP III is candid in its assessment of the current status of education in Ethiopia, and
objectively identifies the major challenges facing the sector. It also effectively articulates
the policies and strategies to address them to enable Ethiopia achieve the MDGs. The
strategies for its implementation include a strong emphasis on gender issues in a
decentralized framework. Most of the implementation of education programs is vested in
the Woredas. Being closer to the schools and the community, this approach should prove
more effective in monitoring the progress of ESDP implementation.

Kenya
The educational process in Kenya is about gaining lost ground. At the dawn of Jomtien
conference in 1990, Kenya had attained a GER of 95% in primary education. The gains
were to be wiped out by the implementation of cost sharing program in the late 1980s and
early 1990s. The GER declined to a low of 76% (Deolalikar, 1999). The Dakar meeting
was held against a backdrop of low enrolment at all levels, with more girls being out of
school than boys. Strides have been made to equalize access especially at the primary
level. The current policy environment is clear on addressing four challenges: access and
equity, retention, relevance and quality. The policy framework is forthright on the
challenges facing the sector, and recognizes gender inequality as a serious obstacle to the
realization of the right to education and lost opportunities in human capital formation. As
the country strives to recoup the lost opportunities, new targets are formulated for all
levels of education. Sector objectives and strategies have clear statements that reflect
commitment to gender mainstreaming at all levels and in all spheres.

But challenges remain. Girls trail boys in examinations and there is clear evidence of
specialisation asymmetries in primary, secondary and university level. Affirmative
action to increase participation of women is gaining political support at the macro level.
Its implementation in education, particularly on headship of educational institutions
(schools and other important national institutions), though largely progressing well, still
confront the challenge of male domination.
Malawi
Much of the progress in achieving gender equity is due to the interventions by
development partners, notably UNICEF. The UNICEF supported schools have been able
to enroll more girls than the public schools. The public system must therefore strive to
achieve greater efficiency even without external support. Second, strategies to reduce
drop out have been weak in both the public non UNICEF supported and the UNICEF
supported schools. This is evidenced by the high drop out rates in the two categories of
schools. Funding for education also increased by a significant 26.9% in 2003/2004 FY to
MK 6.8 million of the total budget. Like most other African and developing countries,
the bulk (80%) of this goes to salaries, leaving little for development.

The MPRSP has, as one of its main strategic components, human capital development
that emphasizes education and health. At the primary level, it focuses on improving
access and equity by emphasizing special needs and girls’ education. Equity is also
emphasized at secondary level, alongside improvement in quality, relevance and
management services in secondary education. 80% of women are illiterate.

Uganda
Uganda has made major strides in the education sector. Primary education is free (and
soon to be compulsory). The expected enactment of the Education Bill, 2007 that is
currently before Parliament will be a major breakthrough in as it is expected to provide a
legal basis for enforcing compulsory schooling. At the secondary level, a phased
implementation of universal secondary education begun in January 2007. Evident
political will has adequately supplemented the efforts of implementing agencies in the
sector (ministry, development partners) resulting into a fairly vibrant implementation of
education programs.

Gender remains an important area of focus. All policy documents and major stakeholder
meetings give prominence to discussions of gender issues in education. However, there
seems to be an implicit assumption that the current challenge centres on sustaining the
gender parity in primary education at the PPET and tertiary education levels. Data does
not show that there is equity in all aspects in these levels, though. Even at the primary
level, equally important issues like improving girls’ and boys’ completion, reducing drop
out, repetition and bridging the gap in achievement remains key challenges that do not
come out very strongly in the policy reviews.

A National Gender Policy developed in 1997 has since been revised in 2007. The policy
provides an important framework for redressing gender imbalances, is a guide to other
development practitioners, and provides the framework for the development of sector
specific gender policies. The draft education sector gender policy, while capturing the
main gender issues in the sector, is not adequately aligned with the national gender
policy. Being a draft nevertheless provides opportunities for further revision to provide a
strong framework for the implementation of a gender sensitive and responsive education
system.
Conclusion
Much progress has been made by ESAR countries in facilitating the achievement of the
gender specific EFA and MDG goals. Success has varied between countries. There are
instances where some have regressed, and while others have made tremendous leaps. A
common challenge to all countries is the need to look at all the MDGs holistically and not
separately. Progress in achieving gender parity will be hardly realized when participation
of women in public affairs, headship of important institutions and decision making
process is limited.

Overall Recommendations
a). Improving the education of girls: Three areas of focus
Three measures seem to be standing out as needing specific and intense focus: a).
strengthening education SWAps by entrenching the gender agenda; b). special attention
to the excluded groups; and, c). improving the EMIS (including capacity strengthening).

b). Strengthening Education SWAps and Entrenching Gender Mainstreaming
Measures that may need to be taken here are three fold: i). introduce the approach where
none exists; ii). strengthen SWAps where they are weak; and, iii). take advantage of the
SWAp process to engender the entire education programs, specifically strengthening
government technical capacity in gender mainstreaming

c). Focus on the excluded
To address the needs of the excluded, majority of whom are girls, governments should:
     Alter education policies and address discriminatory laws and administrative rules;
     Expand options for educating out of school children, especially girls;
     Improve quality and relevance of schools and classrooms by ensuring that
       excluded girls receive basic educational inputs and providing professional
       development to help teachers become agents of change;
     Support compensatory preschool and in-school programs that engage and retain
       excluded children, particularly girls;
     Create incentives for households help overcome both the reluctance to send girls
       to school and the cost of doing so (Lewis and Lockheed, 2006):

This recommendation does not overlook the role of other stakeholders. Scope exists for
serious engagement of the development agencies/donors could in facilitating increased
school attendance by the excluded groups through a variety of measures.

d). Improving EMIS
Countries must make efforts, and be supported, to maintain and up date a comprehensive
data base for the entire education sector. To avoid the current fragmentation of sources
and variations in data, here should be concerted efforts to make the data available from
one complete source. The linkage and coordination between ministries of education and
other departments need to be strengthened. A well functioning EMIS system will provide
adequate information for planning and implementation of programs for the improvement
of education and involvement of other stakeholders.
                     Part I: Background and Methodology

Introduction
Ever since nations gathered in Dakar in 2000 to review the progress in meeting the goals
of education for all as agreed in Jomtien in 1990, countries have put in substantial
resources to improve their education systems. There has been a high degree of
partnership between countries and international bilateral and multilateral institutions in
bridging the resource gaps required to meet the agreed upon development goals.
UNICEF is one of the partners that have been active in supporting education for all
(EFA) initiatives worldwide. While substantial progress has been made, challenges
remain. In particular, gender differences still characterize most education systems in
developing countries, and especially in Africa. Improving the education of girls remains
a priority area, as most countries record better participation and other indices for boys as
opposed to girls.

This report is the outcome of a gender audit commissioned by UNICEF in the ESAR
countries to track the progress being made in achieving the gender equality goals set out
in both Jomtien and Dakar meetings. The Jomtien meeting set six goals, namely:
   a). Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and
       achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on girls’ full and
       equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality
   b). Ensuring that by 2015, all children, particularly girls, children in difficult
       circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and
       complete free an compulsory primary education of good quality
   c). Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through
       equitable access to learning and life skills programs
   d). Achieving a 50 per cent improvement in adult literacy by 2015, especially for
       women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults
   e). Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so
        that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially
        in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills
   f). Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education,
       especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children

A review of progress one decade later at Dakar in 2000 came up with the following six
resolutions.
   a) Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education,
      especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children;
   b) Ensuring that by 2015, all children, particularly girls, children in difficult
      circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and
      complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality;
   c) Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through
      equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills program;
   d) Achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015,
      especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for
      all adults;
   e) Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and
      achieving gender equality by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal
      access to and achievement in basic education of good quality; and,
   f) Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so
      that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially
      in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills (UNESCO, 2002).

It became increasingly clear that achieving these goals would call for a radical shift in
policy, reconfiguration of the funding regimes, greater collaboration between states and
the non-state actors, more focus on gender specific interventions and specifically the
education of girls, and. introduction of alternative and complementary modes in
providing education, among other measures.

The adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provided a further impetus
to speed up the realization of internationally accepted targets in education. The MDGs
that generally relate to education and gender are five, though only the first three are
specific on education.
   a) Meet the development goal contained in the Millennium Declaration of achieving
      universal primary education, ensuring that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys
      and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.
   b) Provide all children, particularly those living in rural areas and those living in
      poverty, especially girls, with the access and opportunity to complete a full course
      of primary education.
   c) Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005, as
      provided in the Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All, and at all
      levels of education no later than 2015 to meet the development goals contained in
      the Millennium Declaration, with action to ensure, inter alia, equal access to all
      levels and forms of education, training and capacity-building by gender
      mainstreaming, and by creating a gender-sensitive educational system.
   d) Strengthen national and regional information, and statistical and analytical
      services relevant to sustainable development policies and programs, including
      data disaggregated by sex, age and other factors, and encourage donors to provide
      financial and technical support to developing countries to enhance their capacity
      to formulate policies and implement programs for sustainable development.
   e) Encourage further work on indicators for sustainable development by countries at
      the national level, including integration of gender aspects, on a voluntary basis, in
      line with national conditions and priorities.
A number of countries in Africa have adopted a series of reforms of their education
systems to remove obstacles to the realization of these goals as well as build in system
efficiency. At the broader macro level, the focus is increasingly being laid on access,
quality, equity and relevance. Countries have therefore initiated national development
plans, adopted sector wide approaches (SWAps) to addressing the systemic problems of
the education system.

The current report endeavours to examine the extent to which countries have succeeded
or are succeeding in meeting the internationally agreed upon targets. These targets to a
great extent form the core of UNICEF
                                                 Importance of Girls’ Education
and partner countries’ programming in
                                             "Educating girls yields a higher rate of
education. This effort requires a proper        return than any other investment available
orientation of policies, plans, programs,       in the developing world."(L.H. Summers,
projects and activities within an               former Chief Economist of the World
objective       gender        perspective.      Bank (1992:7).
Importantly, the processes put in place      "Almost every other aspect of progress,
in the implementation of policies and           from nutrition to family planning, from
programs (national strategies), as              child health to women's rights, is
evident in specific activities (actual          profoundly affected by whether or not a
execution of strategy), must be                 nation educates its girls" (Hadden 1996:
gendered. Mainstreaming is therefore at         31).
the core of achieving the internationally    ‘Girls’ education is “…one of the most
accepted commitments and targets. The           worthwhile investments available to
                                                governments.” (Abu Ghaida and Klasen
volume of resources that countries
                                                2002).
commit to the education sector generally     “Gender inequality in education is bad for
and to gender mainstreaming in                  economic growth” (Dollar and Gatti
particular    become      an    important       1999). Source: www.worldbank.org
parameter in judging the progress made
by countries.

Methodology
The gender audit was implemented in three phases. The first step entailed refining a
Gender Audit Tool that was to be completed by a selected first batch of countries in the
region. These are Ethiopia, Kenyan, Malawi and Uganda. Once the tool was developed,
it was sent to the respective countries. The second stage involved a general review of the
progress that all countries in ESAR have made in improving participation in education
between 2000 and 20007. The main objective of this review was to contextualize the
main country studies (and ESAR as a whole) within a comparative perspective of the rest
of SSA and developing world using a gender analysis framework. Consequently,
comparison is made throughout with the rest of the world, developing countries, Sub-
Saharan Africa (SSA) and, where information is available, with other regions within
SSA. The review focused on examining the impact of efforts made by countries in
mainstreaming gender in their education systems. Data obtained for this review was
gathered from a variety of sources. The bulk of statistical data is from the UNESCO
Institute of Statistics (UIS), published and unpublished reports and websites of various
organizations. It is hoped that the gaps identified, particularly data, will be filled once
completed questionnaires are received from the country offices. The review constitutes
Part II of this report.

Upon completion of the review, visits were made to the selected countries for interviews
with Ministry of Education officials, UNICEF staff and stakeholders from other agencies
such as international organizations, development partners, local NGOs and CBOs.
During the visits, brief country summary reports were prepared based on observations,
interviews and review of documents. The summaries comprise Part III of this report.
The documents were mainly policy blueprints, UNICEF’s own program documents,
literature on girls’ education, research reports and press reporting on gender and girls’
education. These are detailed in the reference section of this report.

Parameters of analysis. The major areas of interest in analysis of girls’ education
employed in this review include access and participation (enrolment, repetition, drop
out), transition, quality, policies (extent to which national policies identify girls’ issues as
priority areas of intervention), etc. For the countries that have embraced education
SWAps, the interest lies in the extent to which the SWAps identify and incorporate
gender issues in the prioritization of interventions.

The MDGs listed above do not include early childhood education. The importance of
ECD in providing an early start to learning and influencing the progression and
performance of children in subsequent levels of education cannot be gainsaid. The
MDGs alone do not therefore provide a sound framework for tracking the progress
countries are making in improving basic education. A comprehensive framework that
this review adopts include the EFA and Dakar targets, the MDGs and UNICEF’s own
objectives as spelt out in the medium term strategic plan (MTSP). The MTSPs are
translated into specific action plans and objectives at the country level and spelt out in the
respective country program action plans (CPAPs).

The Analytical Frame
Gender analysis provides the right framework for carrying out a gender audit of
education systems. Most of the implementation of education in developing countries is
premised on the internationally defined goals that have specific gender targets. Gender
analysis is defined “as the collection and analysis of sex-disaggregated information. Men
and women both perform different roles. This leads to women and men having different
experience, knowledge, talents and needs. Gender analysis explores these differences so
policies, programs and projects can identify and meet the different needs of men and
women. Gender analysis also facilitates the strategic use of distinct knowledge and skills
possessed by women and men” (United Nations’ Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) [www.unesco.org]).               According to the World Bank
Participation Source Book (www.worldbank.org/wbi/sourcebook/), gender analysis
focuses on understanding and documenting the differences in gender roles, activities,
needs, and opportunities in a given context. Gender analysis involves disaggregating
quantitative data by gender, and helps to:
   a) identify gender-based differences in access to resources to predict how different
      members of households, groups, and societies will participate in and be affected
      by planned development interventions,
   b) permit planners to achieve the goals of effectiveness, efficiency, equity, and
      empowerment through designing policy reform and supportive program
      strategies, and
   c) develop training packages to sensitize development staff on gender issues and
      training strategies for beneficiaries.

From the foregoing, the main purpose of gender analysis is to assess the progress in
mainstreaming gender dimensions in the process of development. The process of
mainstreaming requires integration of equality concerns in the conceptualization,
analysis, formulation of policies, projects and programs with the objective of ensuring
positive impact on women and men and in bridging existing gender disparities. The
concept takes on board the inclusion of interest, needs, experiences and visions of women
and men in the definition of development approaches, policies and programs and in
determining the overall development agenda. Mainstreaming gender concerns requires
deliberate and positive action to ensure improved results and development. Thus, gender
analysis in education is a monitoring tool to check whether the world is on track to
meeting the internationally agreed goals and targets.

Gender audit must be anchored on equity of access to and completion of quality
education at all levels. A number of international initiatives to monitor educational
quality have developed specific quality indicators, or defined quality with specific
indicators as overriding1. UNICEF’s definition provides a framework for determining
quality of education given the environment, the inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes.
In brief, it embraces the following five parameters:
  a) learners who are healthy, well-nourished and ready to participate and learn, and
      supported in learning by their families and communities;
  b) environments that are healthy, safe, protective and gender-sensitive, and provide
      adequate resources and facilities;
  c) content that is reflected in relevant curricula and materials for the acquisition of
      basic skills, especially in the areas of literacy, numeracy and skills for life, and
      knowledge in such areas as gender, health, nutrition, HIV/AIDS prevention and
      peace.
  d) processes through which trained teachers use child-centred teaching approaches in
      well-managed classrooms and schools and skilful assessment to facilitate learning
      and reduce disparities.
  e) outcomes that encompass knowledge, skills and attitudes, and are linked to national
      goals for education and positive participation in society.

Quality education is offered within the framework of a child friendly school (CFS). In
fact, the generic CFS model that UNCEF has developed offers an effective complement
to the gender analysis framework. The CFS framework examines education systems
from a comprehensive quality perspective, as it endeavours to integrate all aspects of
      learning within the school, in the immediate school environment/community, as well as at
      the policy level (Fig 1).

      Figure 1: The Child Friendly School (CFS) Framework

                                    CFS proactively seeks out-of-school
                                    children and encourages them to
                                    enroll, irrespective of gender, race,
  CFS ensures that all              ability, social status etc.
  children can learn in a safe                                                  CFS promotes equality and
  and inclusive environment,                                                    equity in enrolment and
  through strong violence-                                                      achievement among girls and
  prevention policies and                                                       boys by eliminating gender
  innovative     mechanisms                                                     stereotyping,    guaranteeing
  allowing pupils to report                                                     gender -sensitive facilities,
  abuse.                                                                        curricula, textbooks etc.




                                                                            CFS encourages partnership
                                                                            among communities, parents
CFS provides children with
                                                                            and children in all aspects of
relevant knowledge and skills
                                                                            the education process (through
for surviving and thriving in
                                                                            student governance bodies and
life      through      enhanced
                                      CFS promotes the physical and         clubs,    school    management
classroom     participation by
                                      emotional health of children by       committees,        parent-teacher
pupils,     and   adoption     of
                                      meeting key nutritional and           associations etc.)
interactive,       child-centred,
                                      health care needs within schools
gender-sensitive teaching and
                                      (such as de-worming, school
learning methods.
                                      meals, immunisation, and vitamin
                                      A supplementation).

      Source: UNICEF

      The six dimensions in the model (Figure 1) exert considerable influence in determining
      access, survival in the school system and the teaching and learning process. The degree
      of influence they exert on the education of girls and boys varies. The gender analysis
      framework provides a prism or a lens through which to examine these differences. The
      examination should not treat the six dimensions as mutually exclusive; rather, they are
      mutually reinforcing. National policy frameworks provide the overarching focus in the
realization of these dimensions. For instance, an effective school would depend, among
others, on the national school curriculum and its implementation at the school level,
teacher proficiencies and competencies, and resource availability. On the other hand, a
community engaged school depends on the degree of decentralization in the management
of education, and community empowerment through devolution and deconcentration of
management responsibilities to the school level. Health promoting school can also only
succeed on the broader framework of a national health policy. The CFS is therefore a
composite model.

Consequently, the determinants of effective participation by girls and boys, are deeply
captured and embedded in the CFS model. The role of the government, the school, the
community, the impact of policy and management on access and participation, etc cannot
therefore be studies in isolation as they are mutually reinforcing. For instance, the
autonomy that schools have from the central authority determine the input that local
community will have in the school system (in terms of resources and contribution to
decision making as well as motivating their children to learn), the level of support they
will give to their children and school administration, among others. Abagi (1997)
summarises the factors in the CFS model above into three broad categories: educational
policies and institutional processes, school based factors and household/community based
factors.
 Part II: Gender Dimensions of Educational Participation in ESAR: A
                               Review
Introduction
Educational participation at all levels revolves around an examination of four variables:
enrolment, participation (retention, repetition, drop out), completion and transition.
Interest is on the actual indices, the factors explaining trends in the indices and
interventions necessary or already put in place to remedy the situation. A major problem
in this exercise is the paucity of accurate data, even where there are multiple sources. In
other instances, the organization of that data is not helpful, either because of the
clustering system of aggregation over a number of years. For instance, UNICEF’s own
State of the World’s Children has good statistical tables but traditionally, the
attendance/enrolment, household spending, adult literacy rates, etc, are aggregates of
several years, on average five, but sometimes as long as seven years. This aggregation
makes it impossible to compare levels of spending and participation rates, say, in 2000
with, for instance, 2007. Things are not made any easier by the inaccuracy of national
Ministry of Education data, which are not grounded on sound EMIS systems. The only
way to overcome this problem is to rely on other sources, such as the World Bank,
UNESCO through its UIS, national policy documents, research reports by the civil
society, individual researchers, etc. as will be evident, even these are on average two
years behind.

Trends in Educational Participation: Global, SSA and ESAR
Even though nations are making significant progress in advancing the education of girls,
in some cases reaching up gross enrolment rate (GER) of up to 90% in low income
countries, major challenges remain. In particular, net enrolment rates, a more precise
measure, reveals the stark differences between Africa and the rest of the world, and girls
and boys (Table 1).

Table 1: Estimated NERs for the Age Group 6-11 and 12-17 by Region, 2002 or Recent Date
 Region                                    6- 11                          12 – 17
                                   Males           Females        Males             Females
 Sub-Saharan Africa                55.2              47.4         48.0                35.3
 Arab States                       83.9              71.6         59.2                47.1
 Latin America/Caribbean           88.5              87.5         68.4                67.4
 East Asia/Oceania                 88.6              85.5         54.7                51.4
 Southern Asia                     84.3              65.6         50.5                32.2
 Developed Countries               92.3              91.7         87.1                88.8
Source: World Bank (www.worldbank.org)

Statistics indicate that NERs are still low in most of the developing countries, and Africa
lags behind in total participation rate, and disparities between girls and boys are highest
in Africa.

A comparison of GER, intake, survival and completion rates for selected 19 countries in
Africa also shows the magnitude of the challenge facing most African countries (Table 2)
Table 2: Gender Disparities in 19 African Countries2, 2003
 Indicator                   GER (%)       Intake rate in the   Survival rate (%)   Completion rate
                                           1st year (%)
 Sample average               78.2         71.9                 58.0                41.7
 Boys                         84.5         76.9                 61.4                47.2
 Girls                        72.1         66.8                 54.2                36.2
 Difference (Boys-Girls)      12.4         10.1                 7.2                 11.0
 Ratio (Girls/Boys)           0.84         0.87                 0.88                0.77
Source: Mingat, 2003 as cited in Vespoor (2005).

The education of girls still trails that of boys. According to UNICEF (2007), for every
100 boys out of school, there are 115 girls, with the proportion of girls not likely to
complete schooling standing at one for every five enrolled. Resource constraints
continue to be a major limitation. Where there are school fees and other form of levies,
participation tend to be low, and is worse for girls. The realization led UNICEF and the
World Bank to launch the school fees abolition initiative (SFAI) in 2005. The objective
of SFAI is to increase access to basic education and scale up progress to meet the MDGs
and EFA targets for the next decade. School fees abolition is a powerful demand side
response to increasing access. As a result of abolition of levies in primary school in
Kenya in 2003, enrolment has increased from about 5.9 million to nearly 7.7 million, an
increase of 30.5% in four years (Kenya, 2007).

The SFAI initiatives have not eliminated gender differences, neither have they ensured
full enrolment for all children out of school. While financial obstacles are a major
hindrance to participation, other non monetary factors remain a major hindrance to full
enrolment and participation at all levels. Nevertheless, despite the global SFAIs, school
fees still exist in various forms in many countries, including at least half of ESAR, even
where there has been official declaration of free education (Table 3).

Table 3: ESAR Countries Where School Fees Still Exist
 Category                        ESAR countries in category
 Legal fees                      Burundi, Eritrea, Comoros, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland
 Illegal fees                    Ethiopia, Mozambique, Lesotho, Uganda
 Both types                      Kenya, Mauritius
Summary based on Bentaouet-Kattan (2005) as cited in UNESCO (2006)

The continued existence of school fees in a number of countries, combined with the non-
financial obstacles, the challenges facing ESAR is enormous. Country analysis on the
prospects for achieving UPE by 2015 lists South Africa as the only ESAR country in the
category. Lesotho and Mauritius are in the ‘high chance of achieving EFA’ category
while Botswana, Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia,
Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe fall in the group of 44 countries not likely
to achieve UPE by 2015 (UNESCO, 2006).
     SSA Performance on EFA Development Index (EDI)
     Available evidence also demonstrates that SSA has the highest number of countries with
     the lowest EFA Development Index (EDI) which provides a measure of the progress
     countries are making in achieving EFA goal by 2015 (Table 4).

     Table 4: Distribution of Countries by EDI Values, by region, 2002
                                                                       Far from EFA:       Intermediate          Close to EFA:       EFA achieved:
                            Region                                     EDI< 0.80           position:    EDI      EDI 0.95 –          EDI 0.98 – 1.00
                                                                                           0.80 – 0.94           0.97
                            Sub-Saharan Africa                         16                  7                     1
                            Arab States                                5                   10                    1
                            Central Asia                                                   2                     1                   2
                            East Asia and the Pacific                  3                   7                     2                   1
                            South and West Asia                        3                   1
                            Latin America/Caribbean                    1                   20                    4                   1
                            North America/West. Europe                                     1                     7                   8
                            Central and Eastern Europe                                     1                     12                  4
                            Total                                      28                  49                    28                  16
     UNESCO, 2006

     SSA countries constitute more than half of all countries in Table 4 that have the lowest
     EDI. The proportion of African countries with the lowest EDI in the sample is 50%. The
     gender dimensions of likelihood of achieving MDGs and EFA targets in Africa are even
     more worrying. An analysis by UNESCO (2006) indicate that achievement of goal five of
     EFA (gender parity in primary and secondary education) is also at peril in a number of
     countries, even though an equally notable number has already achieved or are in the
     process of achieving the goal (Table 5).

     Table 5: ESAR Countries grouped by prospects for achieving gender parity in primary and
     secondary education by 2005 and 2015
                                                           Gender parity in secondary education                                                 No.
                                                           Achieved in 2002      Likely to be        Likely to      be   At risk      of not    of countries
                                                                                 achieved       in   achieved       in   achieving   goal by
                                                                                 2005                2015                2015
                                     Achieved in 2002      Mauritius,            Kenya               Botswana            Rwanda,     Uganda,
                                                           Seychelles                                (4)                 Zimbabwe,   Lesotho,
Gender parity in primary education




                                                           (49)                  (4)                                     Namibia,
                                                                                                                         (43)                   (100)
                                     Likely     to    be
                                     achieved in 2005
                                                           (1)                   (1)                 (2)                 (5)                    (9)
                                     Likely     to    be                                                                 Zambia
                                     achieved in 2015      (1)                   (1)                                     (7)                    9
                                     At risk of not        Swaziland                                 South Africa        Burundi, Comoros,
                                     achieving the goal                                                                  Eritrea,  Ethiopia,
                                     by 2015               (3)                                       (4)                 Malawi,                (31)
                                                                                                                         Mozambique
                                                                                                                         (24)
No. of countries                                           54                    6                   10                  79                     149
     UNESCO (2006)
     Note:
       Where countries are shown in blue, enrolment disparities at the expense of boys are
        observed in secondary education
  Some ESAR countries do not appear in the list, e.g. Angola, Somalia and Congo DRC
  Parentheses () include the total number of countries in the category, though only
   ESAR countries are highlighted

The 13 ESAR countries in Table 6 below are evenly distributed in the medium and low
EDI categories. It is notable that all countries in the medium EDI category are in the
South (the only exception being Lesotho and Mozambique), while all the Eastern
countries are in the low EDI category. The negative change in EDI among most
countries in this later category (4 out of 6) implies a regression. Compared to the former
group of countries, only two (Mauritius and Lesotho) had negative changes in EDI, but
they retain better participation indices than the countries in the former category that had
positive changes in EDI. However, more countries in the medium EDI category had
negative changes in their GEI than the low EDI group of countries, even though the
magnitude of change is marginal. The negative change in GEI for Eritrea is particularly
worrying. At 3.7%, it is more than twice that of the combined change in three countries
in the medium EDI category that recorded a regression. Whereas countries that have low
change in GEI already have favourable gender equity indices, Eritrea’s case stands out
negatively because it also has some of the most unfavourable gender participation indices
in the region.

Table 6: Change in EDI and its components between 2003 and 2004
                                                     Change in the EDI constituents between 2003 and
                               EDI                   2004 (% in relative terms)
                                   Variation         Total         Adult       Gender-
                                   2003-             primary       literacy    specific  Survival rate
 Countries           2003  2004    2004              NER1%         rate %      EDI (GEI) to grade 5
                                         Medium EDI Countries
 Mauritius           0.943 0.936 -0.7                -2.1          0.1         -0.5      0.0
 South Africa        0.840 0.888 5.7                 -0.5          0.0         0.3       29.9
 Botswana            0.859 0.885 3.0                 3.8           2.9         1.5       4.1
 Namibia             0.883 0.853 -3.4                -5.9          0.0         -0.7      -6.9
 Zambia              0.748 0.829 10.8                15.7          0.2         -0.5      28.4
 Swaziland           0.810 0.826 1.9                 1.9           0.5         0.8       4.8
                                           Low EDI Countries
 Lesotho             0.817 0.797 -2.4                0.0           1.0         0.9       -13.1
 Kenya               0.731 0.797 8.9                 13.9          0.0         0.5       27.6
 Rwanda              0.715 0.686 -4.0                -15.6         1.5         2.4       -1.7
 Burundi             0.653 0.646 -1.1                -0.5          0.7         2.1       -6.7
 Eritrea3            0.652 0.644 -1.2                5.9           4.9         -3.7      -6.9
 Mozambique3         0.543 0.599 10.4                28.4          8.3         4.6       0.0
 ESAR                0.766 0.782 2.3                 3.7           1.7         0.6       5.0
Source: EdStats, based on Annex, Statistical Tables 2, 5, 7 and 8; UNESCO (2005); UNESCO Institute for
Statistics database;
Notes:
    1.   Total primary NER includes children of primary school age who are enrolled in either primary or
         secondary schools.
    2.   The adult literacy rate is a proxy measure based on educational attainment, that is the proportion
         of the adult population with either no or incomplete primary education.
    3.   Adult literacy rates are non-publishable UIS estimates generated in July 2002, using the UIS
         previous Assessment Model.
   4.   The NER in primary education is not published in the statistical tables as the reported number of
        pupils of official primary school age is believed to be under-estimated. However, in order to
        calculate EDI, an estimate of the total primary NER has been made.

The GEI for ESAR is only 0.6, which indicates high disparity in favour of boys, despite
the prediction by UNICEF in 2003 that 12 countries in the region would have achieved
the gender parity goal by 2005.

Failure of achievement is not limited to Africa; some developed countries such as the UK
are also at risk of not achieving the goal by 2015, and are in the same category with
Lesotho and Namibia. In all instances, the challenge of achieving the EFA goal of
gender parity is increasing the enrolment of girls. Some countries have better enrolment
rates for girls than boys, but even then, the gender disparity is still evident in the type of
schools girls attend, access to resources, teaching and learning materials and other
facilities and performance in the main exit examinations. Higher access in terms of
numbers does not therefore necessarily translate to quality learning. In a majority of
cases where girls outnumber boys in enrolment, it is only in lower levels. When they
proceed to higher levels, boys have the upper hand. In post secondary education is
skewed in favour of boys who take up most of the places and substantially higher
proportions in the sciences and technological fields of study.

Record of progress: Dawn of Dakar to 2007
A comparison of the enrolment and participation situation in most countries in 2000 and
current situation should give an indication of the progress that countries have made in
achieving the EFA targets set out in Dakar, as well as the MDGs.

Pre-Primary and Primary Education
Table 7 presents a summary of pre-primary and primary GER and GPI in ESAR countries
and the SSA average between 2000 and 2005.
     Table 7: Pre-Primary and Primary GER and GPI in ESAR and SSA, 2000 and 2005
             Total     Pre-   Pre-primary    GPI for Pre-   Total Primary   Primary         GPI         for
Data         primary GER      Female GER     Primary GER    GER             Female GER      Primary GER
Year         2000    2005     2000    2005   2000    2005   2000   2005     2000    2005    2000    2005
Angola       -       -        -       -      -       -      -      -        -       -       -       -
Botswana     -       -        -       -      -       -      102.2 -         102.3 -         1.0     -
Burundi      0.8     -        0.8     -      0.9     -      60.8   -        54.1    -       0.8     -
Comoros      1.7     -        1.8     -      1.1     -      84.2   -        77.3    -       0.9     -
DR Congo     0.8     -        0.8     -      1.0     -      -      -        -       -       -       -
Eritrea      5.6     11.9     5.4     12.1   0.9     1.0    62.1   64.1     55.8    57.2    0.8     0.8
Ethiopia     1.5     2.2      1.5     2.1    0.9     1.0    63.4   93.4     50.8    86.1    0.7     0.9
Kenya        44.7    -        44.9    -      1.0     -      97.7   -        97.0    -       1.0     -
Lesotho      21.7    -        21.9    -      1.0     -      119.6 -         121.8 -         1.0     -
Malawi       nil     -        nil     -      nil     -      139.0 -         136.2 -         1.0     -
Mauritius    95.9    95.5     97.2    95.9   1.0     1.0    105.3 102.2     105.2 102.3     1.0     1.0
Mozambique   nil     -        nil     -      nil     -      74.2   -        63.9    -       0.8     -
Namibia      21.6    -        23.4    -      1.2     -      101.9 -         102.8 -         1.0     -
Rwanda       2.4     -        2.4     -      1.0     -      101.8 -         100.1 -         1.0     -
Seychelles   102.5 -          102.7 -        1.0     -      118.1 -         117.9 -         1.0     -
Somalia      nil     -        nil     -      nil     -      -      -        -       -       -       -
S. Africa    31.0    -        31.2    -      1.0     -      106.7 -         104.3 -         1.0     -
Swaziland    nil     -        nil     -      nil     -      100.4 -         97.5    -       0.9     -
Uganda       4.0     -        4.0     -      1.0     -      127.3 117.5     123.6 117.3     0.9     1.0
Tanzania     -       28.7     -       28.9   -       1.0    66.0   106.0    65.6    104.1   1.0     1.0
Zambia       -       -        -       -      -       -      74.7   -        72.1    -       0.9     -
Zimbabwe     40.9    -        41.4    -      1.0     -      98.1   -        96.5    -       1.0     -
ESAR         26.8    34.6     27.1    34.8   1.0     1.0    94.9   96.6     91.8    93.4    0.9     0.9
SSA          10.0    -        9.9     -      1.0     -      81.8   -        75.7    -       0.9     -
     Source: UIS website (2007)

     Five features are discernible from the table above. First, the figures suggest that
     compared to the rest of the continent, ESAR countries are doing better. The statistics are
     either the same as or better than those for the continent, and, in some cases, by a
     reasonably big margin. Second, the GPI for pre-school is better than primary, even
     though both have remained constant in ESAR. However, some individual countries have
     had at least a ten percentage point increase in 2005 over 2000. Third, for countries where
     data is available, it is encouraging to observe that not a single one records a decline in
     GPI. Notably, Ethiopia had a 20% gain in primary GPI between 2000 and 2005. Fourth,
     Mauritius remains a best example in ESAR: data is available on all aspects of
     participation, and it has a GPI of 1.0 for both pre-school and primary, which has not
     changed over the five year period.

     The NER is low in ESAR countries and Africa in general (Table 8).
Table 8: NER in ESAR
                Total     Pre-   Female Pre-    GPI for NER    Total Primary   Female         GPI         for
 DATA           primary NER      primary NER    Pre-Primary    NER             Primary NER    Primary NER
 YEAR           2000    2005     2000    2005   2000    2005   2000    2005    2000    2005   2000    2005
 Angola         -       -        -       -      -       -      -       -       -       -      -       -
 Botswana       -       -        -       -      -       -      79.6    -       81.3    -      1.0     -
 Burundi        -       -        -       -      -       -      43.3    -       39.4    -      0.8     -
 Comoros        -       -        -       -      -       -      55.1    -       50.5    -      0.8     -
 DRC            -       -        -       -      -       -      -       -       -       -      -       -
 Eritrea        4.4     8.5      4.3     8.8    0.9     1.1    40.9    46.0    37.9    42.4   0.9     0.9
 Ethiopia       -       -        -       -      -       -      36.1    56.3    31.6    54.6   0.8     0.9
 Kenya          -       -        -       -      -       -      66.8    -       67.7    -      1.0     -
 Lesotho        -       -        -       -      -       -      81.6    -       84.7    -      1.1     -
 Malawi         nil     -        nil     -      nil     -      -       -       -       -      -       -
 Mauritius      74.7    -        75.7    -      1.0     -      92.9    94.5    93.4    95.4   1.0     1.0
 Mozambique     -       -        -       -      -       -      55.5    -       49.9    -      0.8     -
 Namibia        -       -        -       -      -       -      74.1    -       76.9    -      1.1     -
 Rwanda         -       -        -       -      -       -      -       -       -       -      -       -
 Seychelles     84.7    -        85.1    -      1.0     -      -       -       -       -      -       -
 Somalia        -       -        -       -      -       -      -       -       -       -      -       -
 South Africa   16.6    -        16.7    -      1.0     -      90.4    -       90.6    -      1.0     -
 Swaziland      -       -        -       -      -       -      76.1    -       76.4    -      1.0     -
 Uganda         2.5     -        2.5     -      1.0     -      -       -       -       -      -       -
 Tanzania       -       28.7     -       28.9   -       1.0    51.4    91.4    52.0    90.5   1.0     1.0
 Zambia         -       -        -       -      -       -      62.6    -       61.9    -      1.0     -
 Zimbabwe       -       -        -       -      -       -      82.2    -       82.2    -      1.0     -
 ESAR           36.6    18.6     36.9    18.9   1.0     1.1    65.9    72.1    65.1    70.7   1.0     1.0
 SSA            -       -        -       -      -       -      57.2    -       54.3    -      0.9     -
Source: UIS website (2007)

Though there is a problem with obtaining relevant data for countries, data on NERs seem
to be the most scant, with five countries not having any data at all. Primary NERs range
from a low of 42.4 % for Eritrea in 2005 to a high of 95.4% for Seychelles, more than
double. The disparities between countries are therefore stark. But there is some
progress, as even countries with low female NERs in 2000 such as Ethiopia have
registered reasonable progress, increasing by 23 percentage points to 54.6. Notably,
though, the pace of change is slow. The NERs for the rgion of 70.7% imply that up to
30% of school going age children are out of school.

Repetition rate in primary education
Participation indices such as enrolment can often be undermined by high wastage.
Repetition can beguile the overall picture of an education system’s indices, such as the
survival rate and overall proportion of one gender in the total school population. Interest
in the proportion of students in an education system can be positive with GPI of 1.0, but
it is possible that among the students in school are a high number of repeaters. This
attests to a system’s systemic (and sometimes endemic) inefficiency. Unfortunately,
most of those that tend to repeat are girls, for a variety of reasons, including frequent
absenteeism. Repetition rate in ESAR is presented in Table 9.
Table 9: Repetition rate in ESAR, 2000 and 2005
                      Percentage of repeaters in primary, All grades
       Data             Total                        Female              GPI for repeaters, All grades
       Year         2000        2005         2000              2005        2000               2005
 Angola         -             -         -                 -            -                  -
 Botswana       3.4           -         2.6               -            0.6                -
 Burundi        25.0          -         25.9              -            1.1                -
 Comoros        26.0          -         25.3              -            1.0                -
 DRC            -             -         -                 -            -                  -
 Eritrea        19.4          21.3      20.0              22.2         1.1                1.1
 Ethiopia       13.4          7.0       13.4              6.3          1.0                0.8
 Kenya          -             -         -                 -            -                  -
 Lesotho        18.3          -         16.4              -            0.8                -
 Malawi         15.4          -         15.2              -            1.0                -
 Mauritius      4.2           4.8       3.8               4.0          0.8                0.7
 Mozambique     23.5          -         24.1              -            1.0                -
 Namibia        13.2          -         11.4              -            0.8                -
 Rwanda         32.5          -         34.1              -            1.1                -
 Seychelles     .             -         .                 .            .                  -
 Somalia        nil           -         nil               -            nil                -
 South Africa   8.8           -         7.3               -            0.7                -
 Swaziland      16.1          -         13.2              -            0.7                -
 Uganda         -             -         -                 -            -                  -
 Tanzania       -             4.3       -                 4.4          -                  1.1
 Zambia         6.2           -         5.9               -            0.9                -
 Zimbabwe       .             -         .                 .            .                  -
 ESAR           16.1          9.4       15.2              9.2          0.9                0.9
 SSA            -             -         -                 -            -                  -
Source: UIS website (2007)

Survival in the school system
An education system’s internal efficiency is determined by, besides repetition rate, the
survival of children within the system and the final completion rate. High survival and
completion rates imply limited losses of pupils/students through drop out. But that is also
dependent on a number of factors, largely, the absence of inhibitors such as school costs,
gender specific barriers, school curriculum, teacher related factors, dysfunctional (or
sometimes absence of) national education policies, etc.

In most cases, survival rate is computed at the intermediate and final grades. Survival
rates for the region are presented in Table 10.
Table 10: Survival Rate in Primary Education in ESAR
                Survival Rate to Grade 5          Survival Rate to Last Grade
 Data           Total             Female          Total             Female
 Year           2000     2005     2000     2005   2000     2005     2000    2005
 Angola         -        -        -        -      -        -        -       -
 Botswana       89.5     -        92.3     -      84.9     -        88.5    -
 Burundi        56.1     -        55.3     -      50.0     -        49.4    -
 Comoros        -        -        -        -      -        -        -       -
 DRC            -        -        -        -      -        -        -       -
 Eritrea        60.5     -        60.1     -      60.5     -        60.1    -
 Ethiopia       -        -        -        -      68.1     -        68.7    -
 Kenya          -        -        -        -      -        -        -       -
 Lesotho        66.7     -        74.2     -      54.3     -        62.6    -
 Malawi         51.9     -        -        -      39.5     -        -       -
 Mauritius      99.3     -        99.3     -      98.3     -        98.7    -
 Mozambique     51.9     -        46.8     -      32.0     -        29.1    -
 Namibia        94.2     -        -        -      84.4     -        -       -
 Rwanda         39.1     -        39.9     -      27.2     -        26.7    -
 Seychelles     91.0     -        91.6     -      90.0     -        89.5    -
 Somalia        -        -        -        -      -        -        -       -
 South Africa   -        -        -        -      -        -        -       -
 Swaziland      73.9     -        79.2     -      58.2     -        63.7    -
 Uganda         56.7     -        57.5     -      38.7     -        38.4    -
 Tanzania       81.4     -        83.3     -      73.9     -        76.5    -
 Zambia         -        -        -        -      -        -        -       -
 Zimbabwe       -        -        -        -      -        -        -       -
 ESAR           70.2              70.9            61.4              62.7
 SSA            -        -        -        -      -        -        -       -
Source: UIS website (2007)

Eight countries in the region do not have any form of data at all on survival in primary
education, while all the rest do not have data for 20053. A few features of the above table
are nevertheless notable. First, female survival rate in the region in 2000 was marginally
higher than the overall rate, and therefore that of the boys. Despite the absence of current
data, the table above reveals the stark differences between countries in the region.
Whereas Mauritius had a female survival rate to the last grade of 99%, in Mozambique,
less than 30% of girls made it to the last grade in 2000. This is twice lower than the
regional average, and three times lower than Mauritius.

The Challenge Ahead in Primary Education
The data presented so far indicate that as much as many countries in the region are
making substantial progress in primary education, most countries remain behind schedule
in meeting the 2005 UPE and 2015 EFA goal. A review by UNICEF (2005) reveals the
differences between countries in the average annual rate of increase required to meet
these goals.
        Table 11: Gender Parity and Primary Education
                                                                               AARI observed (1980-   AARI required for 2015
Data            Primary NE/AR (c.2001)          Primary NAR *2005)             2001)                  goal
Year            Total    boys    Girls   GPI    Total    boys   Girls   GPI    Total   Boys   Girls   Total   Boys    Girls
Angola          61.5     66.0    56.9    0.86   67.8     68.8   67.2    0.98   0.90    0.39   1.46    2.27    2.00    2.53
Botswana        81.1     79.3    82.9    1.05   86.0     84.7   87.4    1.03   1.23    1.35   1.13    1.35    1.48    1.22
Burundi         53.5     58.9    48.1    0.82   56.8     61.2   52.4    0.86   0.83    0.59   1.08    3.32    2.94    3.71
Comoros         55.1     59.9    50.2    0.84   64.3     68.5   60.5    0.88   1.54    1.43   1.73    2.81    2.51    3.11
DR Congo        -        -       -       -      -        -      -       -      -       -      -       -       -       -
Eritrea         42.9     46.1    39.6    0.86   48.5     50.6   46.0    0.91   1.41    1.13   1.61    4.08    3.85    4.32
Ethiopia        30.6     33.1    28.0    0.85   34.6     37.0   32.1    0.87   1.02    0.98   1.03    4.96    4.78    5.14
Kenya           70.2     69.7    70.8    1.02   73.2     71.0   75.1    1.06   0.73    0.33   1.08    2.13    2.16    2.09
Lesotho         84.7     81.4    88.0    1.08   86.0     83.3   89.0    1.07   0.35    0.48   0.26    1.10    1.33    0.86
Malawi          81.5     81.5    81.5    1.00   85.0     83.3   86.5    1.04   0.89    0.44   1.25    1.32    1.32    1.32
Mauritius       99.2     98..5   100     1.02   …        …      …       …      …       …      …       0.05    0.11    0.00
Mozambique      59.7     63.5    56.0    0.88   63.7     66.5   60.7    0.91   0.99    0.75   1.19    2.88    2.61    3.14
Namibia         78.4     75.9    80.9    1.07   81.3     78.6   83.9    1.07   0.71    0.66   0.76    1.54    1.72    1.36
Rwanda          84.3     83.1    85.4    1.03   89.3     86.4   91.7    1.06   1.25    0.81   1.58    1.12    1.20    1.04
Seychelles      94.8     94.9    94.7    1.00   …        …      …       …      …       …      …       0.37    0.36    0.38
Somalia         10.8     11.6    10.1    0.87   12.1     12.6   12.1    0.96   0.32    0.24   0.50    6.37    6.31    6.42
S. Africa       93.9     92.9    94.9    1.02   96.0     94.6   97.4    1.03   0.53    0.43   0.62    0.44    0.51    0.36
Swaziland       77.0     76.6    77.4    1.01   80.0     79.0   80.9    1.02   0.74    0.59   0.87    1.64    1.67    1.61
Uganda          78.9     78.4    79.4    1.01   82.6     80.0   84.4    1.06   0.92    0.41   1.35    1.51    1.51    1.47
Tanzania        54.4     54.3    54.5    1.00   58.1     55.7   60.1    1.08   0.91    0.34   1.41    3.26    3.26    3.25
Zambia          66.6     66.9    66.3    0.99   68.2     67.1   69.1    9.03   0.39    0.04   0.70    2.39    2.36    2.41
Zimbabwe        80.5     80.0    81.0    1.01   82.4     81.1   83.5    1.03   0.62    0.34   0.84    1.50    1.54    1.46
ESAR            68.6     67.7    67.9    1.0    69.3     68.9   69.5    1.4    0.9     0.6    1.1     2.2     2.2     2.2
SSA             68.6     67.7    67.9    1.0    69.3     68.9   69.5    1.4    0.9     0.6    1.1     2.2     2.2     2.2

        Source: UNICEF (2005b)

        In a majority of cases, AARI required for girls is much higher than boys, pointing to the
        enormous challenge in improving the education of girls in the region, and especially for
        countries with huge gaps. Countries that have the lowest participation rates also have the
        highest expected AARI both for girls and boys. In order of magnitude, these countries
        (those that have AARI for girls of more than 3%) are Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Burundi,
        Mozambique and Tanzania.

        The Education for All – Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) Window
        The challenges facing basic education in ESAR and developing countries as a whole is
        beyond the financial scope of the countries that are far from achieving the EFA and MDG
        goals. This realization led major bilateral and multilateral donors to come up with a
        facility that could help the countries to fast track the achievement of the set goals. The
        EFA-FTI initiative is driven by two main, commitments (Bruns, Mingat and
        Rakotomalala, 2003):
            Accelerating efforts to achieve UPE cost effectively and within a transparent global
             accountability framework
  Sustaining incremental funding (as much as possible on a grant basis), where credible
   plans to accelerate progress in primary education exists.

Improving the education of girls in underperforming countries stands to benefit from the
EFA initiative, provided that countries have put in place realistic programs to improve
education of girls. Countries where girls are doing much better than boys such as
Mauritius and Seychelles have the challenge of targeting both boys and girls, the former
to ensure that they catch up with the girls, while at the same time sustaining the current
situation. In relation to the gender audit, an immediate task is to investigate the extent to
which countries in the region have benefited from EFA-FTI grants, the projects and
programs funded and impact, or at least indicative results from a gender perspective.

Secondary participation trends by gender
Goal three of the Dakar framework for achieving EFA is reinforced in goal three of
MDGs. The emphasis that not just primary education is crucial in the advancement of
equity of access is an important recognition of the role of subsequent levels of education
in achieving individual and social development. The available evidence
(www.wroldbank.org) suggests that educating females at all levels yields substantial
benefits, monetary and non-monetary, economic and social, to both the society and the
individual. It is estimated that the impact of girls’ education on development will be
greater in Africa than in any other region. It is therefore important that an assessment of
the progress in girls education must be undertaken for all levels, not least because post
secondary education is so crucial in acknowledge economy, and the impact o educating a
girl beyond primary level on an illiterate community can be enormous. The impact of
educating women is even more powerful at the secondary level. The World Bank (2005),
citing a variety of studies, observes that secondary education and above are consistently
positively related to most aspects of gender equality, regardless of other conditions. In
addition, it has a positive effect on a woman’s use of a variety of pre-natal and delivery
services, as ell as postnatal care, and the effect is larger than the effect of lower levels of
schooling.

The progress girls make in pre-school and primary education is therefore only meaningful
if it helps them to continue to the next level. Equity is a pipeline issue and does not end
with achieving full participation in the lower levels of education. Table 12 gives a
summary of the participation indices in 2000 and 2005.
Table 12: Secondary GER, 2000 and 2005
 Data            Total GER, All programs   Female GER, All programs   GPI for GER, All programs
 Year            2000          2005        2000        2005           2000         2005
 Angola          14.7          -           13.2        -              0.8          -
 Botswana        72.9          -           74.8        -              1.1          -
 Burundi         -             -           -           -              -            -
 Comoros         24.0          -           21.5        -              0.8          -
 DRC             18.0          -           12.4        -              0.5          -
 Eritrea         27.3          31.4        22.3        23.4           0.7          0.6
 Ethiopia        17.5          30.9        13.3        24.3           0.6          0.6
 Kenya           39.2          -           38.2        -              1.0          -
 Lesotho         30.3          -           34.5        -              1.3          -
 Malawi          31.6          -           27.0        -              0.7          -
 Mauritius       77.6          88.4        76.1        88.0           1.0          1.0
 Mozambique      6.1           -           4.7         -              0.6          -
 Namibia         58.9          -           62.8        -              1.1          -
 Rwanda          11.0          -           10.6        -              0.9          -
 Seychelles      113.1         -           115.0       -              1.0          -
 Somalia         -             -           -           -              -            -
 South Africa    84.9          -           89.3        -              1.1          -
 Swaziland       43.0          -           43.1        -              1.0          -
 Uganda          15.9          16.0        13.8        14.1           0.8          0.8
 Tanzania        -             -           -           -              -            -
 Zambia          22.0          -           19.7        -              0.8          -
 Zimbabwe        42.3          -           39.6        -              0.9          -
 ESAR            39.5          41.7        38.5        37.5           0.9          0.8
 SSA             25.4          -           22.7        -              0.8          -
Source: UIS website (2007)

The problem of paucity of data is evident in Table 12. For the most current year, 2005,
data is only available for four countries. Just like in pre-primary and primary education,
ESAR performs better than the rest of the continent. The GPI in 2005 is worse than it
was in 2000, reducing from 0.9 to 0.8. Only a few countries have had a GER of over
50% (Botswana, Mauritius, Namibia, Seychelles and South Africa). In 2005, only
Mauritius has a GPI of 1.0. Some countries have also regressed, e.g. Eritrea, which has
reduced from 0.7 to 0.6. A few countries had higher female GERs than total GER in
2000, e.g. Botswana.

The trend of low NERs in the region is evident at the secondary level, where on average,
the NER is about 37.2% (total) and 34.2% (female) (Table 13).
Table 13: Secondary Net Enrolment Rates in ESAR, 2000 and 2005
 Data           Total secondary NER       Female secondary NER     GPI Secondary NER
 Year           2000          2005        2000         2005        2000         2005
 Angola         -             -           -            -           -            -
 Botswana       58.9          -           61.8         -           1.1          -
 Burundi        -             -           -            -           -            -
 Comoros        -             -           -            -           -            -
 DRC            -             -           -            -           -            -
 Eritrea        21.8          25.6        19.4         20.4        0.8          0.7
 Ethiopia       16.2          27.7        12.5         21.7        0.6          0.6
 Kenya          33.3          -           33.0         -           1.0          -
 Lesotho        19.0          -           23.5         -           1.6          -
 Malawi         31.0          -           26.4         -           0.7          -
 Mauritius      69.7          82.5        68.3         82.7        1.0          1.0
 Mozambique     3.2           -           2.7          -           0.7          -
 Namibia        36.0          -           41.9         -           1.4          -
 Rwanda         -             -           -            -           -            -
 Seychelles     98.3          -           100.0        -           1.0          -
 Somalia        -             -           -            -           -            -
 South Africa   61.7          -           65.1         -           1.1          -
 Swaziland      30.5          -           33.2         -           1.2          -
 Uganda         13.1          13.0        12.1         12.1        0.9          0.9
 Tanzania       -             -           -            -           -            -
 Zambia         18.3          -           16.6         -           0.8          -
 Zimbabwe       39.7          -           37.6         -           0.9          -
 ESAR           36.7          37.2        36.9         34.2        1.0          0.8
 SSA            20.4          -           18.5         -           0.8          -
Source: UIS website (2007)

Secondary schooling seems to be suffering from reduced enrolments and increased
inequity in the region. Overall, the region recorded a decline in secondary NER GPI
from 1.0 to 0.8, though this is still better than the overall African performance in 2000.
Whereas Mauritius, Uganda and Ethiopia retained GPIs of 1.0, 0.9 and 0.6 respectively,
Eritrea declined from 0.8 to 0.7 over the period. It is not clear how the other countries
performed over the period for lack of data, but there is reason to be concerned that there
has not been much improvement in NER in the region.

Repetition rates in secondary education in ESAR
The data on repetition in the ESAR countries is limited and not recent. The available
data is presented in Table 10. Because in some cases, we have 1999 and not 2000 data,
the former are included along the latter to obtain a comparative picture for those countries
where one set is missing.
Table 14: Percentage of Repeaters in Secondary, All Grades
 Data                 Total                       Female
  Year                1999      2000     2005     1999      2000     2005
 Angola               -         -        -        -         -        -
 Botswana             1         (**) 1   -        1         (**) 1   -
 Burundi              -         -        -        -         -        -
 Comoros              10        -        -        11        -        -
 DRC                  -         -        -        -         -        -
 Eritrea              16        17       -        22        22       -
 Ethiopia             12        -        -        16        -        -
 Kenya                -         .        -        -         .        -
 Lesotho              8         9        -        9         9        -
 Madagascar           18        16       -        18        16       -
 Malawi               6         -        -        6         -        -
 Mauritius            14        13       -        13        12       -
 Mozambique           23        20       -        24        22       -
 Namibia              8         8        -        8         (**) 9   -
 Seychelles           nil       nil      -        nil       nil      -
 Somalia              nil       nil      -        nil       nil      -
 South Africa         (**) 17   17       -        16        16       -
 Swaziland            12        12       -        12        12       -
 Uganda               -         2        -        -         2        -
 Tanzania             -         -        (**) 3   -         -        (**) 4
 Zambia               (**) 16   14       -        (**) 18   15       -
 Zimbabwe             .         .        -        .         .        -
 ESAR                 11.6      12.8              13        14
 Sub-Saharan Africa   -         -        -        -         -        -
Source: UIS (2007); ** estimates

The average repetition rate in the region in 1999 was 11.6%, which increased one year
later to 12.8. Table 14 does not allow for comparison of the progress to 2005 and beyond
for lack of data. It does however shows that female repetition is notably higher in most
countries, with the possible exception of a few countries where it is the same as the total
(Swaziland, Madagascar) or where overall repetition rate is higher than that of girls,
meaning that more boys repeat than girls (Mauritius, South Africa). Botswana stands out
as having one of the lowest repetition rates, while Mozambique, Zambia, South Africa,
Eritrea, and notably, Mauritius, Madagascar and Swaziland have some of the highest
rates in ESAR.

Intake Ratios
Low participation rates results from the low intake rates. Table 10 presents the intake
ratios and high wastage rates for the countries for 2000 and 2005.
Table 15: Gross Intake Rate and Net Intake Rate, ESAR Countries, 2000 and 2005
                Primary Gross Intake Rate                          Primary net intake rate
 Data           Total             Female            GPI for GIR    Total             Female          GPI for NIR
 Year           2000    2005      2000      2005    2000    2005   2000     2005 2000         2005   2000    2005
 Angola         -       -         -         -       -       -      -        -        -        -      -       -
 Botswana       111.5 -           110.1     -       1.0     -      22.7     -        24.2     -      1.1     -
 Burundi        70.8    -         63.8      -       0.8     -      28.3     -        28.0     -      1.0     -
 Comoros        76.7    -         69.3      -       0.8     -      -        -        -        -      -       -
 DRC            -       -         -         -       -       -      -        -        -        -      -       -
 Eritrea        67.9    55.4      60.4      50.9    0.8     0.9    20.4     23.7     18.8     22.5   0.9     0.9
 Ethiopia       78.9    141.3     67.6      135.0   0.7     0.9    -        -        -        -      -       -
 Kenya          -       -         -         -       -       -      -        -        -        -      -       -
 Lesotho        206.4 -           195.6     -       0.9     -      61.6     -        62.7     -      1.0     -
 Malawi         181.0 -           184.2     -       1.0     -      -        -        -        -      -       -
 Mauritius      95.4    101.9     95.7      101.8   1.0     1.0    71.0     -        71.4     -      1.0     -
 Mozambique     109.6 -           102.0     -       0.9     -      21.3     -        20.8     -      1.0     -
 Namibia        91.3    -         92.9      -       1.0     -      53.3     -        55.1     -      1.1     -
 Rwanda         141.7 -           140.5     -       1.0     -      -        -        -        -      -       -
 Seychelles     120.2 -           123.5     -       1.1     -      77.2     -        80.0     -      1.1     -
 Somalia        nil     -         nil       -       nil     -      -        -        -        -      -       -
 South Africa   113.9 -           112.0     -       1.0     -      -        -        -        -      -       -
 Swaziland      100.6 -           97.4      -       0.9     -      45.2     -        46.1     -      1.0     -
 Uganda         172.7 -           172.7     -       1.0     -      -        -        -        -      -       -
 Tanzania       86.5    124.7     84.3      124.2   1.0     1.0    -        89.6     -        90.5   -       1.0
 Zambia         83.7    -         84.0      -       1.0     -      35.6     -        36.0     -      1.0     -
 Zimbabwe       115.4 -           113.8     -       1.0     -      42.4     -        43.4     -      1.0     -
 ESAR           111.4 105.8       108.2     103.0   0.9     1.0    43.5     56.7     44.2     56.5   1.0     1.0
 SSA            92.0    -         86.7      -       -       -      -        -        -        -      -       -
Source: UIS (2007)

There are significant differences between ESAR countries in the intake rates, with
indications of gross inefficiency in some education systems. Whereas Ethiopia had a
GIR of 114.3% in 2005, it had a GER of 93.4%. In 2000, it had a GER of 63.45 against a
GIR of 78.8%. However, even though this could be the case, Ethiopia is also one of the
countries that have recorded remarkable improvements, as it has increased both its GPI
for GIR and GPI for GER from 0.7 to 0.9 between 2000 and 2005 respectively.
Mauritius on the other hand had an overall and female GIR of 101.9 and 101.8 in 2005
but with GER of 102.2 and 102.3% respectively.

The low intake rates are largely responsible for the high number of school age children
still out of school in the region, as shown in Table 16 below.
Table 16: Out of School Children in ESAR
                No. of primary school age children out of   Rate of primary school age children
                school                                      out of school
 Data           Total                Female                 Total             Female
 Year           2000       2005      2000        2005       2000       2005   2000       2005
 Angola         -          -         -           -          -          -      -          -
 Botswana       59,789     -         26,382      -          18.9       -      16.8       -
 Burundi        659,724    -         352,520     -          56.5       -      60.4       -
 Comoros        49,426     -         26,927      -          44.5       -      49.1       -
 DRC            -          -         -           -          -          -      -          -
 Eritrea        280,522    314,162 147,305       166,725    58.8       53.4   61.8       56.9
 Ethiopia       -          -         -           -          -          -      -          -
 Kenya          1,680,946 -          808,466     -          32.6       -      31.5       -
 Lesotho        62,509     -         25,601      -          18.2       -      15.0       -
 Malawi         -          -         -           -          -          -      -          -
 Mauritius      9,118      6,602     4,195       2,705      7.1        5.5    6.6        4.5
 Mozambique     1,523,767 -          85,8157     -          44.4       -      50.1       -
 Namibia        98,530     -         43,378      -          25.8       -      22.9       -
 Rwanda         -          -         -           -          -          -      -          -
 Seychelles     -          -         -           -          -          -      -          -
 Somalia        -          -         -           -          -          -      -          -
 South Africa   372,625    -         151,150     -          5.3        -      4.4        -
 Swaziland      50,461     -         24,668      -          23.7       -      23.2       -
 Uganda         -          -         -           -          -          -      -          -
 Tanzania       3,225,324 604,378 1,583,870 331,111         48.6       8.5    47.9       9.3
 Zambia         781,974    -         396,654     -          36.7       -      37.4       -
 Zimbabwe       428,752    -         212,383     -          17.1       -      17.0       -
 ESAR           9,283,467 925,142 4,661,656 500,541         31.3       22.5   31.7       23.6
 SSA            -          -         -           -          -          -      -          -
Source: UIS (2007)

The progress in enrolling children out of school between 2000 and 2005 in ESAR has
been good, with the number reducing from 9.2 million to 0.9 million, or 90%. This could
be attributed to change in policies by most countries in the region, including
implementation of free primary education. In 2005, females constituted 54% of the 0.9
million children out of school. The proportion of female children out of school in the
same period has reduced by a significant 89.3%. It is therefore evident that in the seven
years after Dakar, schools have been attracting out of school girls into the school system
at an average rate of 12.8% per year. Theoretically, this should mean that given one
more year, all the girls out of school should be enrolled, barring any other unforeseen
hindrance. However, this might not apply to some countries such as Eritrea and Burundi,
where the proportion of out of school girls still remain above 60%. UNICEF (2005)
estimates that for ESAR to realize UPE by 2015, countries in the region will have to
increase NER at an average of 2.75 per cent per year, notwithstanding the high AARI of
0.9 that the region has maintained between1980 to 2001, which is actually the second
highest in the world.
The success in attracting out of school children into the school system will to a great
extent depend on the ability of countries to put in place practical policies and relevant
incentives, including additional financial resources, to reach the excluded, marginalized
and minority groups within the country. Evidence seems to suggest that even where a lot
of progress is made, those that may not enroll are mostly from the excluded groups,
where girls constitute a majority. According to Lewis and Lockheed (2006), most of the
girls still out of school at the turn of the century were and remain from the excluded
groups, accounting for nearly 70%. Specifically in Africa, girls constitute 75% of all
excluded children, and are mostly from smaller, non-dominant ethnic communities.
Gender specific barriers explaining non attendance include language, lack of schools in
remote areas, selection examinations and tracking poor quality of schooling, less
knowledgeable teachers, less instructional time, fewer textbooks and instructional
materials, poor facilities and physical inputs, among others.

Summary of Participation: Percent of Female Students in Education
The preceding presentation of participation in education at various levels demonstrates
the progress made in achieving the EFA and MDG goals. Notably, there are individual
country differences, with some making progress much faster than others, while a few,
specifically, Seychelles, Mauritius, Botswana and Namibia, lead the rest of the countries
in the region in reducing the gender gap and overall participation. This section
summarizes the trends by presenting the overall picture of the proportion of female
students in various levels of education and types of programs between 2000 and 2005
(Table 17).
Table 17: Female Students by level of education in ESAR
                Percent of female students in various levels/types of education programs
                                      Secondary         (all Secondary Technical/       Post-secondary
 Data           Pre-primary           programs)               vocational programs       non-tertiary
 Year           2000        2005      2000        2005        2000       2005           2000     2005
 Angola         -           -         45.3        -           39.3       -              .        -
 Botswana       -           -         51.1        -           37.2       -              47.1     -
 Burundi        48.6        -         -           -           -          -              .        -
 Comoros        51.0        -         44.5        -           24.1       -              34.5     -
 DRC            49.5        -         34.3        -           31.2       -              .        -
 Eritrea        48.0        50.2      41.1        37.2        19.7       36.2           24.4     -
 Ethiopia       48.1        48.5      37.9        39.1        21.7       51.2           .        39.1
 Kenya          49.9        -         48.5        -           29.2       -              39.8     -
 Lesotho        50.2        -         56.8        -           55.0       -              -        -
 Malawi         nil         -         42.8        -           .          -              34.9     -
 Mauritius      49.8        49.3      48.5        49.1        21.1       31.3           21.4     22.2
 Mozambique     nil         -         38.4        -           27.8       -              .        -
 Namibia        53.6        -         52.8        -           .          -              31.5     -
 Rwanda         49.6        -         49.1        -           48.7       -              .        -
 Seychelles     48.3        -         50.6        -           .          -              58.3     -
 Somalia        nil         -         -           -           nil        -              nil      -
 South Africa   49.9        -         52.4        -           42.0       -              42.0     -
 Swaziland      nil         -         50.2        -           nil        -              nil      -
 Uganda         49.7        -         43.4        43.8        30.4       32.5           .        .
 Tanzania       -           50.1      -           -           -          -              nil      nil
 Zambia         -           -         44.5        -           6.5        -              .        -
 Zimbabwe       50.5        -         46.8        -           .          -              11.7     -
 ESAR           49.7        49.5      46.2        42.3        31.4       37.8           34.6     30.7
 SSA            49.1        -         44.4        -           36.4       -              -        -

There is reasonably complete data for 2000, unlike 2005. Out of all the entries in Table
17, only 12 (14.6) are above 50% (but below 60%, with the highest being 56.8% (but
still, in 2000)). This means that overall, the participation of females in all levels of
education in the region still lags behind that of boys. For ESAR as a whole, there is no
level where girls constitute 50% or more of students, with the highest being pre-school
with 49.1%.

Women are highly under-represented in post secondary, non-tertiary level, where they are
less than one third, and in the technical and vocational secondary education programs,
where they constitute 38% of all enrolments. An interesting feature of the above table is
the reversal of the leadership of the traditionally strong performers such as Mauritius,
which has only 22.1% of women in post secondary education, significantly behind
Ethiopia. Using 2000 figures, it is only Seychelles which had women constituting more
than half of enrolments in post secondary, non-tertiary level education.

Resource Inputs
The definitions of quality education presented in the Analytical Frame (see also Endnote
1) lays good emphasis on the inputs and processes that determine quality. This section
reviews the available information on teachers as a crucial input in the educational process,
and specifically, their numbers and impact on pupil teacher ratios. It also reviews the
education budgets of member countries.

Teachers
Teachers are an important dynamic in the education process, and probably the most
important input in the learning process. Quality of education often revolve around
important teacher issues, such as the numbers of teachers by training status and gender,
their academic qualifications and experience, policies on deployment and motivation, and
pupil teacher ratios. A review of data on teachers in ESAR is presented in Table 18.

Table 18: Percentage of Trained Teachers in ESAR, 2000 and 2005
                Primary                            Secondary
 Data           Total             Female           Total          Female
 Year           2000      2005    2000     2005    2000    2005   2000     2005
 Angola         -         -       -        -       -       -      -        -
 Botswana       89.2      -       90.6     -       87.5    -      86.6     -
 Burundi        -         -       -        -       -       -      -        -
 Comoros        -         -       -        -       -       -      -        -
 DRC            -         -       -        -       -       -      -        -
 Eritrea        72.0      83.5    62.1     71.0    60.6    48.3   65.7     72.2
 Ethiopia       -         97.1    -        97.8    -       -      -        -
 Kenya          -         -       -        -       -       -      -        -
 Lesotho        74.2      -       77.3     -       86.7    -      87.7     -
 Madagascar     -         -       -        -       -       -      -        -
 Malawi         -         -       -        -       -       -      -        -
 Mauritius      100.0     -       100.0    -       -       -      -        -
 Mozambique     -         -       -        -       -       -      -        -
 Namibia        36.0      -       36.7     -       70.2    -      74.8     -
 Seychelles     81.1      -       81.7     -       91.6    -      97.2     -
 Somalia        -         -       -        -       -       -      -        -
 South Africa   67.9      -       69.9     -       -       -      -        -
 Swaziland      90.4      -       91.2     -       -       -      -        -
 Uganda         -         -       -        -       44.6    -      36.1     -
 Tanzania       -         100.0   -        100.0   -       -      -        -
 Zambia         -         -       -        -       -       -      -        -
 Zimbabwe       -         -       -        -       -       -      -        -
 ESAR           76.4      93.5    76.2     89.6    73.5    48.3   74.7     72.2
 SSA            -         -       -        -       -       -      -        -
 Source: UIS website (2007)

Though 10 countries do not have any form of data, the available data seem to point to an
increase in the proportion of trained teachers in the region. Significantly, the proportion
of trained female primary teachers increased from 76.2% in 2000 to 89.6% in 2005, an
increase of 23.4 percentage points. At the secondary level, the proportion declined by 2.5
percentage points to 72.2%. The decline here may be attributed to either of two factors.
One is that while a good number of women qualify for training in primary teacher
training colleges, those that obtain the necessary qualification for entrance to secondary
teacher training colleges (normally a diploma which requires higher secondary
qualification) is low. Not many women therefore graduate with the necessary
qualification to join these colleges. The other alternative explanation is that the
opportunities for women are just limited, even where they qualify. This is highly
probable in systems where there are no gender sensitive or affirmative action policies to
empower women.

Pupil teacher ratios
Table 19 presents a summary of teacher numbers and PTRs in ESAR.

Table 19: PTRs and Percent of Female Teachers
                             Pupil teacher ratio                       Percent of female teachers
 Data            Pre-primary       Primary        Secondary    Pre-primary      Primary        Secondary
 YEAR           2000     2005 2000 2005 2000 2005             2000 2005 2000 2005 2000 2005
 Angola            -       -      -       -        -     -       -      -       -       -       -     -
 Botswana          -       -    26.7      -      17.3    -       -      -     80.6      -     45.8    -
 Burundi         27.5      -    56.8      -        -     -     98.9     -     57.0      -       -     -
 Comoros         25.9      -    36.8      -        -     -       -      -     25.7      -       -     -
 DRC             24.8      -      -       -      13.8    -     87.7     -       -       -     10.1    -
 Eritrea         36.7    37.7 47.5 47.5 54.1 51.3              97.8 102.2 37.4 39.9 11.6 11.3
 Ethiopia        35.3    33.4 63.6 72.3 39.9 54.3              93.2    91.3 36.9 44.6 12.7 16.6
 Kenya           26.3      -    34.4      -        -     -     55.2     -     41.8      -       -     -
 Lesotho         18.7      -    47.9      -      22.1    -     99.1     -     80.2      -     52.9    -
 Madagascar        -       -    48.0      -        -     -       -      -     60.7      -       -     -
 Malawi           nil      -    70.0      -        -     -      nil     -     44.4      -       -     -
 Mauritius       16.0    14.9 26.1 23.2 19.4 17.2             100.0 100.0 55.1 62.9 48.2 55.3
 Mozambique       nil      -    64.0      -        -     -      nil     -     25.7      -       -     -
 Namibia         29.5      -    31.6      -      24.1    -     87.6     -     66.8      -     46.3    -
 Rwanda          34.9      -    54.0      -        -     -     85.7     -     53.0      -       -     -
 Seychelles      14.9      -    14.7      -      14.5    -    100.0     -     86.1      -     52.5    -
 Somalia          nil      -      -       -        -     -      nil     -       -       -       -     -
 South Africa      -       -    33.5      -      28.1    -       -      -     75.2      -     49.8    -
 Swaziland        nil      -    31.3      -      17.3    -      nil     -     74.7      -       -     -
 Uganda          24.6      -    52.7 49.9 17.7 19.2            69.8     -     36.1 38.6 21.2 21.9
 Tanzania          -     57.3 41.4 55.9            -     -       -     58.4 45.3 47.9           -     -
 Zambia            -       -    45.0      -        -     -       -      -     50.4      -       -     -
 Zimbabwe          -       -    37.0      -      24.7    -       -      -     48.3      -     37.4    -
 ESAR            26.5    35.8 43.1 49.8 24.5 35.5              87.1    88.0 53.6 46.8 35.0 26.3
 SSA             29.4      -    41.7      -      25.5    -     70.1     -     43.8      -     31.1    -
Source: UIS website (2007)

Other than the wide variation between countries, PTRs in ESAR have deteriorated.
Fewer teachers are handling an increased number of pupils in 2005 compared to 2000. In
Ethiopia for instance, there was one teacher for every 64 primary school pupils in 2000
but the same teacher was handling 72 pupils in 2005. In ESAR, the ratio also reduced
increased from one teacher for every 43 pupils in 2000 to one teacher for every 50 pupils
in 2005. The increased load reflects increased enrolment and lack of or reduced teacher
recruitment. This is probably because of the pressure exerted by teacher costs in the
national education budgets, which in some cases such as Kenya constitutes a high of 88%
(Kenya, 2007c). Countries that have not registered any change like Eritrea may be
experiencing serious problems in increasing enrolment.

The proportion of female teachers are highest in Seychelles (at 86%) and lowest (below
50%) in Uganda, Mozambique, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania. In 2005,
Mauritius had the highest proportion of female teachers at 63%. Concerns may be raised
that very few female teachers in school like in Seychelles and Mauritius may not augur
well for education of boys as they may associate teaching with females and not aspire be
in the profession. However, data does not seem to support such fears because despite this
high proportion, Seychelles and Mauritius are some of the countries with gender equity in
participation and performance in national examinations (see SACMEQ results). It may
therefore be concluded that higher proportion of female teachers in an education system
is beneficial to both girls and boys.

Access to Educational Materials and Other Facilities
There is enough evidence that demonstrates the importance of educational inputs which
include physical facilities and instructional materials in influencing pupil learning and
achievement (Lockheed and Vespoor, 1991). Without doubt, even the best educational
programs can be frustrated by lack of instructional materials. Evidence also shows that
other physical facilities such as classroom and sanitary facilities are equally crucial.
Evidence suggests that lack of/or poor state of toilet facilities is likely to hinder the
enrolment and participation of girls in the school (Republic of Kenya, 1998; Lockheed
and Vespoor, 1991). A review of the SACMEQ data showed that access to facilities and
resources are not desegregated by gender, making it difficult to make decisions on the
gender dynamics of access to educational facilities and resources. Some of the resources
are so essential that even if desegregated data is not available, the current status should be
revealed. The proportion of students without access to textbooks in the region is
presented in Figure 2.

Fig. 2: Percent of Sixth Grade Students without Books in 14 ESAR Countries (2000)




Source: Kane (2004)
Kenya has successfully implemented an instructional materials investment program that
has improved pupil text book ratio from 15:1 to 3:1 in lower primary and 2:1 in upper
primary. A review of the program (DFID, 2006) revealed that teachers and pupils now
use textbooks more frequently than before. The scenario has therefore changed
dramatically for Kenya from what is depicted in Figure 2

Performance in examinations
The definitions of quality education presented earlier point to the centrality of pupil
performance as a proxy of quality. The assumption is that the outcomes of learning, as
evident in test scores reflects, the quality of instruction that pupils/students received.
There seems to be consensus that in addition to performance, literacy and greater
cognitive abilities are the other important manifestations of schooling quality (Deolalikar,
1999).

Results of tests administered by the Southern African Consortium for Monitoring
Educational Quality (SACMEQ) are presented in Table 20 below.

Table 20: Performance in Examinations, SACMEQ 1 and II Results4
                              SACMEQ I                                    SACMEQ II
                          Reading                      Reading                Mathematics
    Data          Total     Girls     Boys     Total     Girls     Boys     Total     Girls     Boys
 Kenya          543.3     542.1     544.5    546.5     564.6     546.5    563.3     552.4     574.2
 Lesotho        -         -         -        451.2     454.8     446.7    447.2     448.3     445.7
 Malawi         462.6     457.8     466.9    428.9     425.6     431.9    432.9     427.7     437.7
 Mauritius      550.2     556.3     544.3    536.4     550.7     523.1    584.6     590.2     579.3
 Mozambique     -         -         -        516.7     514.1     518.4    530.0     519.5     537.0
 Namibia        472.9     471.4     474.6    448.8     451.3     446.0    430.9     428.6     433.3
 Seychelles     -         -         -        582.0     614.2     549.7    554.3     573.1     535.5
 South Africa   -         -         -        493.3     504.8     478.3    486.3     489.8     482.1
 Swaziland      -         -         -        529.6     533.9     525.0    516.5     514.3     518.9
 Uganda         -         -         -        482.4     485.9     479.6    506.3     504.0     508.1
 Tanzania5      -         -         -        514.1     505.7     516.7    500.3     489.1     512.5
 Zambia         477.5     474.7     479.8    440.1     440.7     439.8    435.2     430.0     440.2
 Zimbabwe       504.7     485.9     500.6    -         -         -        -         -         -
 ESAR           501.9     498.0     501.8    497.5     503.9     491.8    499.0     497.3     501.9
Source: SACMEQ data (www.sacmeq.org)
(-) = Five ESAR countries: Angola, Burundi, Comoros, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Madagascar
and Rwanda are not members of SACMEQ and did not therefore participate in the tests

The differences between girls and boys in examination performance at all levels remain
evident, though there are notable differences between countries. SACMEQ I had only
reading, in which girls performed poorer than boys in all countries by an average of four
percentage pints. The only exception is Mauritius that consistently record better
performance by girls, even in participation. In SACMEQ II, girls in the region performed
better than boys in reading by a remarkable difference of 12 percentage points. The only
countries where boys performed better than girls in reading are Malawi, Mozambique,
and Zambia (only marginally). On the other hand, boys outperform girls in mathematics
by an average of five percentage points. There are a few exceptions where girls
performed better than boys. These are Mauritius, Lesotho, Seychelles and South Africa.
The available literature on performance shows a clear pattern of girls outperform boys at
lower levels, but the pattern reverses at upper levels; girls do better, usually, on literacy-
related tasks, but boys do better at mathematics and science, and urban children do better
than rural. This is a somewhat established pattern, having been observed in Uganda
(Uganda National Examinations Board, 2000); Zambia (Kelly 1991), and Kenya
(Appleton 1995; Mensch and Lloyd 1998).
.
The outcome of this pattern of performance is marginalization of girls in the longer term.
Good performance in the languages will only facilitate their domination of the arts,
literature, humanities and other ‘soft’ disciplines in post basic education such as
education, general arts and sciences, home economics, nutrition, among others. A study
of participation trends in university program by gender shows that at Sokoine University
in Tanzania, women comprise 73% of students in Home Economics and Nutrition, but
only 11% in Architecture, and less than 13% in Bachelor of Science (Agronomy)
(AHEAD, 2007). The result would be fewer female scientists, architects, engineers,
doctors, actuarial specialists, computer scientists, aeronautical engineers and pilots, etc.
The data on tertiary education presented in Tables 17 and 18 bear this out. It is clear that
in some cases, e.g. Seychelles and Mauritius, focus should be more on boys than girls,
both in participation and achievement/outcomes of schooling.

The Policy Front
Two distinct types of policies necessary in catalyzing the rights of girls and women and
increasing their participation in the development process can be identified. These are
overall national policy frameworks and approaches on which education development is
anchored, and specific sub-sectoral or thematic areas which governments legislate on in
order to protect rights and advance causes of girls and women. In this regard, this section
details policy developments in three areas: education SWAps; Children’s rights; and,
gender policies.

Education SWAps and Girls’ Education
Traditional approach to system improvement has for long centred on the project
approach, with players engaging in specific activites, and often, on their own. Even
governments funded specific projects and sought international donor support for the
specific projects or programs in education. There is an increasing adoption of the sector
wide approach (SWAp). SWAp is a process that leads to a sector development program
or, in some cases, a more limited primary education sub-sector program (Vespoor, 2005).
SWAps aim at aligning international support with government priorities and to improve
the coherence of international advice and financing. A key feature of SWAps is the
production of, and backing by, a sector development plan. In a SWAp process, a country
would lead the coordination of support to education with other partners (donors, NGOs,
FBOs) and would involve the entire sector. In ESAR, SWAps exist in at least seven
countries: Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Lesotho, Kenya, Mozambique and
Malawi.
SWAps are expected to improve education of girls by bringing the gender agenda in
dialogue between governments and development partners. It should also lead to a
process of engendering national budgets to ensure that gender specific programs are
adequately addressed in the budgets. Importantly, SWAps should help stakeholders look
together at inequities in the distribution of resources and to plan together strategies and
mechanisms for addressing those inequities, something that would be “much more
difficult in a project mode of assistance, in which each international agency is focused on
limited aims and usually within limited geographic areas of the country” (Vespoor,
2005:95). Analysis of data from countries should give an indication of whether, how and
by what magnitude SWAps have resulted in an improvement in the education of girls.

Rights of children including girls
The accession of counters to the Convention on the Right of the Child (CRC) placed a
natural responsibility of domesticating its provisions in country legislations to provide a
framework for its local implementation. Kenya enacted the Children’s Act in 2001. The
Act recognizes equality of sexes in accessing educational and other opportunities. The
overall goal of the act is “to give effect to the principles of the CRC and the African
Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child and related issues such as early marriages,
FGM, rights to survival, health and medial care, the provision of education, which shall
be the responsibility of the parents and the Government, protection from child labour,
sexual exploitation, prostitution, harmful drugs and legal assistance by the Government”
(Kenya, 2006). Analysis of county legislation should reveal the extent to which
legislation has advanced and protected the rights of children to education. This should be
seen in the numbers that have joined school system and an improvement in the conditions
of their learning by, among others, placing responsibility on government and parents to
provide the necessary facilities and funding to education.

Gender Policies
Africa seems to perform fairly well as far as EFA and MDG matters are addressed in
national policy documents. A review of the coverage of EFA-time bound goals in
planning documents of 32 countries globally showed that Africa has the highest number
of countries addressing at least five of the goals, but at the same time has the highest
number addressing the gender goal (8) (UNESCO, 2006)6. Another assessment revealed
that Africa has the highest proportion of countries where governments and legislature
often refer to MDGs in policies and debates on national development (UNDG, 2005).

Kenya has a national gender policy that was approved by the Cabinet in 2006 and passed
by Parliament the same year. The policy, Sessional Paper No. 6 of 2006 on Gender
Equality and Development recognizes the importance of regulatory and institutional
reforms in achieving equitable and sustainable
                                                    “Special schools for children with
development.
                                                    disabilities are few, and are poorly
                                                    equipped due to inadequate funding
Both the gender policy and the Children’s Act are
                                                    from government. …Girls in these
broad enough, recognizing the right to education,
                                                    schools are sexually abused”
and the underlying obstacles to the realization of
                                                    Kenya, 2006:21
these rights.   The soundness of the policy
nevertheless does not mean much if implementation is weak. Implementation of the free
primary education program in a number of ESAR countries has provided an enabling
environment for the realization of this right, even though education is still not
compulsorily provided.

Complementarity: UNGEI and National Education Programs
In supplementing the efforts of national policies and programs, UNICEF has partnered
with FAWE and respective governments to synergistically work for the elimination of
gender gaps and ensure successful completion of good quality education by girls and
boys. Though all the four countries have the United Nations’ Girls’ Education Initiative
(UNGEI) task forces 7 , Uganda has done better in ensuring that the task forces are
established to the grassroots level to root for the girl child. In Kenya, UNGEI is focusing
on children in ASAL (Arid and Semi-Arid) districts in northern parts of the country.
Other activities implemented within the UNGEI framework in the four countries include:
  Kenya: embedding gender in the education SWAp, using FTI funds to improve
   girls’ education, gender mainstreaming in education policies, conducting gender
   audits on national education policies, using GEM to empower girls
  Uganda: conducting gender audits on national education policies, using GEM to
   empower girls, documenting best practices in girls’ education
  Malawi: conducting an evaluation study on SWAps in education, developing a
   SWAp Pack and mounting capacity building program, conducting gender audits on
   national education policies
  Ethiopia: conducting gender audits on national education policies, developing
   gender sensitive education budgeting handbook, documenting best practices in
   girls’ education. (Source: UNGEI Newsletter, May, 2007).

The girls’ education movement (GEM) is one of the strategies adopted by UNICEF to
scale up the effective participation of girls in education. GEM is not about girls only; it
actively involves engaging with boys as strategic allies in the improvement of girls’
education. GEM addresses a broad range of issues. These include school safety and
security, especially of girls, equality of participation and achievement in disciplines
where girls have traditionally trailed boys, mostly in science, mathematics and
technology. It also includes gender equality in curriculum and teaching, special needs
education and resource needs and legislation. GEM clubs provide an important avenue
for pupils to articulate issues concerning their education and even engage with parents,
communities, school management, policy makers and advocacy groups on improving
girls’ education. It is therefore a powerful vehicle in mobilizing stakeholders in
education to address the issues around girls’ education. However, the effectiveness of
GEMs in various countries differs. The effectiveness of GEM clubs at the school level in
all the countries could not be ascertained since there were no school visits. Evidence
seems to suggest that in some countries like Uganda, the GEM is proving an effective
mobilization tool for girls’ education. The challenges that are evident in the countries –
better transition rate for boys as opposed to girls, lower achievement of girls in
examinations, etc, indicate that there is still room for GEM to engage more intensely to
equalize the differences between girls and boys.

EMIS
The presentation above reveals that generally, education data is a problem in most
countries. The problem is threefold: a). data is scarce, hardly available and not
comprehensive; b). where it is available, it is old, on average by two years at the least;
and, c). data is not always disaggregated. Most gender departments lack personnel and
skills based statistical analysis of existing data. The progress that has been made on this
front need to be documented, and is one of the tasks of the gender audit.

Education Budgets – Extent of Funding for Gender Specific Programs
The preceding section identifies some promising interventions in improving the education
of girls. In many cases, countries are not unaware of the right interventions but are
limited by resources. Resource allocation in education and other sectors is one method
for determining the progress being made in advancing the gender goals of international
covenants as well as national plans. The existence of national gender policies and
gender policy in education is one benchmark for determining the commitment of nations.
The success is determined from implementation and the outcomes directly attributed to
the impact of specific policies as implemented, which in turn depend on resource
availability.

To make a difference, countries require spending a certain amount of resources in
education for them to achieve the MDG and EFA targets. A review of progress in
achieving the EFA target of 15 by the World Bank (2002) revealed that because of
inability of governments to raise the requisite resources to achieve that goal, additional
donor support to the tune of US 2.1 billion will be required for at least the next 15 years
(from 2001). The Bank observes that this estimate is even lower than indicative figures
from other sources of between $7 and $15 billion.

A comparison of 2000 and current spending levels in should give an indication of the
progress made on this front. Table 21 compares overall spending and per pupil spending
by level in ESAR countries between 2000 and 2005.
Table 21: Public Education Spending: Overall and per pupil (%), 2000 and 2005*
                  Overall public ed   Public expenditure per pupil as a % of GDP per capita
 Data             exp as % of GDP     Primary             Secondary         Tertiary          All levels
 Year             2000     2005       2000 2005           2000 2005         2000     2005     2000 2005
 Angola           2.6      -          -       -           -       -         -        -        -       -
 Botswana         -        -          -       -           -       -         -        -        -       -
 Burundi          3.4      -          11.7    -           -       -         966.5    -        -       -
 Comoros          -        -          -       -           -       -         -        -        -       -
 DRC              -        -          -       -           -       -         -        -        -       -
 Eritrea          3.2      -          -       -           -       -         -        -        -       -
 Ethiopia         4.7      -          .       -           .       -         .        -        .       -
 Kenya            6.3      -          27.0    -           18.1 -            249.8    -        -       -
 Lesotho          10.1     -          23.9    -           67.4 -            670.7    -        37.7 -
 Madagascar       3.2      -          11.4    -           -       -         189.6    -        -       -
 Malawi           4.1      -          -       -           -       -         -        -        -       -
 Mauritius        4.0      -          -       -           -       -         -        -        -       -
 Mozambique       -        -          -       -           -       -         -        -        -       -
 Namibia          7.9      -          22.4    -           34.3 -            -        -        -       -
 Seychelles       -        -          -       -           -       -         -        -        -       -
 Somalia          -        -          -       -           -       -         -        -        -       -
 South Africa     5.6      -          14.6    -           18.6 -            57.8     -        18.0 -
 Swaziland        6.2      -          10.4    -           28.4 -            487.0    -        22.5 -
 Uganda           2.5      -          -       -           -       -         -        -        -       -
 Tanzania         -        -          -       -           -       -         -        -        -       -
 Zambia           2.0      -          7.3     -           19.9 -            168.2    -        11.3 -
 Zimbabwe         4.7      -          13.2    -           20.0 -            200.4    -        17.6 -
 SSA              -        -          -       -           -       -         -        -        -       -
 ESAR             4.7                 15.8                29.5              373.8             21.4
Source: UIS website (2007)

The data on educational spending in the region is not engendered or disaggregated by
gender. It is therefore difficult to determine how much is spent on the education of girls.
It may be argued that there is no need to disaggregate data specifically by gender because
per pupil spending gives a picture of equality in spending between girls and boys. While
this is mostly true, and given credence by the fact that most primary schools are co-
educational institutions, where the average spending per pupil is available, and if male
pupils dominate in enrolment as is common in the region, the reverse argument that boys
disproportionately benefit from public funding can be sustained. The picture however
remarkably changes at the secondary level, where most boarding schools are single sex,
but boarding schools are not the majority. In fact, secondary education in Africa tends to
be the most expensive and inequitably accessed by girls and boys. Fewer girls in
secondary schools points to the inequity in funding. However, the line of argumentation
here is hypothetical and it is safe to conclude that so far, we do not have enough
knowledge on the gender dimensions of public education spending.
Financing Gap in Meeting EFA
Achieving the targets spelt out in the introductory section of this report, and given the
AARI required to meet the EFA goals presented in Tables 11 and 22 below will need
significant increase in financial allocation to education by all countries.

Table 22: ESAR Countries by Financing Gap Required to Meet EFA by 2015
 Country        Gap       Country          Gap             Country         Gap
 Africa         2,152     Kenya            152             Seychelles      n/a
 Angola         46        Madagascar       33              Swaziland       n/a
 Botswana       n/a       Lesotho          12              Somalia         -
 Comoros        -         Malawi           39              South Africa    n/a
 DRC            180       Mauritius        n/a             Tanzania        123
 Burundi        26        Mozambique 54                    Uganda          110
 Eritrea        11        Namibia          n/a             Zambia          54
 Ethiopia       245       Rwanda           36              Zimbabwe        n/a
* Based on World Bank (2002) simulations ($millions)

Table 24 reflects the diversity of differences among ESAR countries. Three categories of
countries can be singled out from the above table. First, the countries with an ‘n/a’ in the
last column were not at risk when data were collected in 2001, and which remain on track
in achieving the EFA and MDG goals. These countries, which also have high enrolment
rates, are: Mauritius, Seychelles, South Africa and Botswana. Though Zimbabwe was in
this category in 2001, circumstances have changed dramatically, and, even though there
are no current statistics, public spending on education has suffered because of the
economic instability in that country. The second category countries had not made
significant investment in education, but have since adopted free primary education with a
consequent increase in education spending. Countries in this category are Ethiopia,
Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania. The third category comprises the so
called failed states, where there is no order and public spending on education is nil. The
only country in this category is Somalia. The good news from the above table though is
that some countries: Mauritius, Namibia, Seychelles and Swaziland are on target and do
not need to adjust their funding to education. The challenge for these countries is
sustaining the current participation levels.

A review of Kenya’s prospects and resource requirements for achieving EFA in 2006
demonstrates that for the goal to be realized, the country will require up to KES 93.2
billion for FY 2007/08, KES 96.5 billion for FY 2009/10 and KES 124.2 billion for FY
2014/2015. If investment programs not directly under EFA are included, then, the figures
jump sharply to KES 112.6 billion, 115.6 billion and KES 144.8 billion respectively8
(UNDG, 2006). These figures are substantially higher than the projected total allocation
to the entire education sector. This in essence means that the country may not achieve
the MDG.

Conclusion
ESAR can be divided into two groups of countries: the leaders - those that have made
tremendous progress and those that still have a long way to go. The former group
comprise Mauritius, Seychelles, South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Swaziland and, to
some extent, Lesotho. The rest of the countries fall in the second category.            The
challenge is how the latter group of countries can learn from the former. The proportion
of funding that the leaders dedicate to education is not significantly different from what
the others allocate to the sector. The answer is not in the different levels of economic
development. Swaziland and Lesotho economies can hardly be said to be better than
Kenya’s, or even Ethiopia’s. Rather, the policies and their implementation, and to some
degree, socio-cultural dynamics, seems to have a significant impact. The legacy of
colonialism seems to play a role. Most of the countries doing well in the region are
Anglophone. Britain in particular left strong capacities in the countries it colonized. This
explains, for instance, the poor performance of Eritrea and Mozambique, in sharp
contrast to the other leaders.

Yet, these countries serve as models to the rest of the region in advancing girls
participation and performance in examinations. The fact of girls being ahead of boys
does not imply paying attention to boys alone. Both are in danger: girls can easily regress.
Policies and financing instruments should then aim at consolidating the gains made in
girls’ education while at the same time improving the lot of boys.

In summary, much progress has been made by ESAR countries in facilitating the
achievement of the gender specific EFA and MDG goals. Success has varied between
countries. There are instances where some have regressed, and while others have made
tremendous leaps. A challenge that is common to all countries is the need to look at all
the MDGs holistically and not separately, because achieving one may facilitate the
realization of the other goals. Progress in achieving gender parity will be hardly realized
when participation of women in public affairs, headship of important institutions and
decision making process is limited.

A direct implication of the foregoing discussion is that a gender audit of the education
sector should not necessarily be done in isolation if the whole picture is to be visible.
Women in important decision making institutions make an impact in the design of
policies that addresses the needs of girls in schools, are role models to girls, serve as
advocates and lobbyists for the right policies for the promotion of girls education, and are
able to invest more in the education of girls in their households, families and
communities. To a great degree, the current study seemed to have fallen victim to this
trend, at least in as far as the TORs delimited the scope to exclude the other sectors.

An important gap revealed by the current review is the paucity of data, and the need to
strengthen EMIS in the countries and specifically, the training of the relevant
departments in statistical data management, retrieval and storage. Only a few countries
have made the data available online. Other online sources such as UNESCO, World
Bank, ADEA, etc, though useful, tend not to have current data. For this reason, there
should be a very strong emphasis on MDG 4 as much as on the first three9.
                    Part III: Qualitative Country Summaries

A: Ethiopia

I. Overall Comments
The Ethiopian government initiated an education reform program in 1997 that focuses on
decentralization and standardization of the education sector service delivery system at all
levels. The program is implemented under the Education Sector Development Program
(ESDP). ESDP was designed to implement the Education and Training Policy (ETP) of
1994. The overriding goal of ESDP III is the production of citizens with the requisite
skills and to meet the national development objectives at all of education (Ethiopia,
2006a). ESDP is anchored on improving five main pillars: quality, relevance, efficiency,
equity and access. Special emphasis is given to primary education in rural and
underserved areas, as well as the promotion of the education of girls (Ethiopia, 2005).
ESDP I and II have lapsed, and the current one (ESDP III) covers the period 2005/06 to
2009/10.

ESDP III is candid in its assessment of the current status of education in Ethiopia, and
objectively identifies the major challenges facing the sector. It also effectively articulates
the policies and strategies to address them to enable Ethiopia achieve the MDGs. The
strategies for its implementation include a strong emphasis on gender issues in a
decentralized framework. Most of the implementation of education programs is vested in
the Woredas. Being closer to the schools and the community, this approach should prove
more effective in monitoring the progress of ESDP implementation.

II. Participation in Education
a). Pre-Primary
Pre-primary education has for long been a neglected area. Data indicates that the number
of ECD centres was only 1,408 by 2004/05, and GER as low as 2.3%. Notably, the
ESDP (Ethiopia, 2005) observes that the provision of ECD is limited to major urban
areas. The rural areas therefore have a situation where virtually the entire grade one
pupils enroll without any form of pre-school education. It is not possible to determine the
differences in enrolment for girls and boys because the data is not disaggregated.

b). Primary
Expansion of primary education is a major goal of the ESDP. GER (formal schooling
only) in primary education by 2004 was 79.2%. Not only is the GER still low, but gender
differences are manifest, with girls having a GER of 70.9% compared to 87.3% for boys.
Even though the rate is still low, the primary girls’ GER of 70.9% (2004/2005) is a
significant improvement from 40% in 1999/2000. The gender gap has also been reduced
from 20% to 16.4%. Regional differences are also glaring, with the capital, Addis Ababa,
having a GER of 125% compared to the pastoralist areas of Afar and Somali that have a
GER of as low as 17.1% and 20% respectively. The regions that have lower rates register
even more glaring gender disparities.
Though repetition rate declined from 11.9% to 4% between 1997 and 2005, drop out rate
declined only marginally from 16% and 15.6% for boys and girls to 15.2% and 14.1%
respectively. Though marginal, this is one of the very few indicators in which boys lag
behind girls.

c). Secondary education
Secondary education has faced serious challenges in Ethiopia. Though there has been an
increase in overall number of secondary school children by 121% between 1997 and
2005, the GER for girls, boys and total remains low at 19.6%, 34.2% and 27%
respectively. Specifically, the gender gap in secondary education has increased over the
same period from 2.2% to 14.6%.

Efficiency indicators in secondary education follow the same pattern as primary.
Repetition rate declined from 23.2% to 10% between 1997 and 2005. Drop out rate on
the other hand drop out rate increased to 19.3% in 2003/04 from 9.2%. The rates for both
boys and girls increased from 9.5% to 21% and 8.9% to 16% respectively.

III. Access to Instructional Materials
Much progress has been made in increasing the access of learners to educational
materials. Currently, the secondary student/textbook ratio is 1:1, a significant
improvement from 5:1 in 1997. The primary level ratio has remained constant over the
same period at 2:1. However, there are significant variations between regions. Some
regions have ratios as high as 5:1. There are no differences between girls and boys on
access to textbooks. In areas where there are shortages of books and pupils have to share,
priority is given to girls. Girls are paired with the girls instead of with the boys. This
avoids a situation where boys dominate the use of books.

Following its policy of decentralization, textbooks are being produced in more than 22
local languages serving as a media of instruction in primary education. The bold step is
part of the measures under the decentralization policy to make education relevant to the
local community and culture. The drive to make education internationally competitive
has in most cases alienated young learners who have to cope with foreign concepts
immediately they enter grade one. For a country where pre-school education is virtually
absent except in the urban areas, this policy is a pragmatic solution to the challenge of
relevance. Communities would show little enthusiasms in supporting a system that does
not make sense to them. It is therefore a crucial step in winning community support for
education programs.

IV. Teachers
Teacher variables critical to quality teaching are the numbers (that affect the pupil teacher
ratio) and the qualification. At the pre-school level, it seems that the number of untrained
teachers is relatively high at 26%. At the primary level, data indicate that up to 96% of
teachers are trained. But differences exist between female and male teachers. Proportion
of lower primary female teachers trained stood at 97.8% compared to 96.5% of the males
(for upper primary, the proportions are 57.4 and 54.2 respectively). At the secondary
level, differences are also evident. Some regions like Afar and Gambella have no
certified female teachers at all. This is one area that needs to be addressed.

Additionally, primary PTR is deteriorating, with the current levels being as high as 65
instead of decreasing. At the secondary level, the PTR has also deteriorated, from a low
of 35 to the current 54.

The proportion of female teachers in the national education system reveals that it remains
modest. No progress can yet be observed in improving the share of female teachers in
secondary education (Ethiopia, 2006b).

V. Performance in examinations
An analysis of examination performance in Ethiopia reveals gender disparities. Table 23
presents results of Ethiopian Higher Education Entrance Certificate Examination for 1998
E.C. (2005 G.C.).

Table 23: Ethiopia Higher Education Entrance Examinations Results, 2005
                  Number of students in range by gender
 Mark range       Male           Female            Total
 < 50             9              4                 13
 50-100           1              3                 4
 101-150          152            237               389
 151-200          3,238          2,772             6,010
 201-250          12,392         5,431             17,823
 251-300          10,980         2,742             13,722
 301-350          2,994          691               3,685
 351-400          447            93                540
 401-425          11             1                 13
 426-450          3              0                 3
 Total            30227          11975             42,202
Source: Ethiopia, 2007

Female candidature is less than one third (28.7) of total. This reflects both a lower
enrolment for girls, high drop out and low completion rate. Boys also perform better than
girls. More than one quarter of girls score below the average pass mark (200 and
below), compared to only one tenth of boys. On the other hand, whereas only 6.3% of
girls fall in the top achievers category (301 marks and above), boys are likely to be twice
as much, at 11.4%. Implication is that more girls are filtered out and are less likely to
feature in tertiary education.

VI. The Education for All – Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) Window
The EFA-FTI provides a window for countries to bridge the financing gaps that is a
major hindrance to the achievement of EFA and MDG goals. It is one opening through
which gender specific programs could be funded where there is acute need as in Ethiopia.
However, despite real budgetary constraints evident in wide financing gaps 10, Ethiopia
has not benefited from FTI funding. Preparatory work is in progress but there is no
certainty that FTI funding will be available any time soon.

VII. The Policy Front
Gender Policies: The Ethiopian government’s approach to addressing gender issues is
premised on the fact that girls/women are the most disadvantaged in almost all aspects of
life: cultural, social, political and economic. The emphasis is therefore on improving
their participation in education at all levels. The current ESDP III recognizes gender as a
cross-cutting issue in the efforts to improve the performance of the sector. The strong
commitment to gender mainstreaming is evident in the following measures11.

The government introduced a Women’s National Policy that is now being changed to
Gender Policy. The policy is currently awaiting government approval.

Structures have been established to advance gender mainstreaming objectives. Each
ministry has a Gender and Equity Department 12 . There is also a national Women’s
Service Standing Committee. In addition, each region has Women’s Service Bureau.
The main objective of establishing these institutions is to mainstream gender in every
activity, and in every department of government. Female education forums have been
established where they did not exist, and strengthened where they existed to monitor and
evaluate the implementation of policies, strategies and guidelines on girls’ education

A National Action Plan for Gender Equality (2006 – 2010). In the plan, every activity is
budgeted complete with an implementation matrix. There are specific indicators for
health, education, roads, agriculture, mining, etc. Most of the budget goes to these
sectors.

There is a clear political will to support gender programs from the highest level. The
Prime Minister has set the bar of commitment quite high. It is reported that he received
an award totaling US$ 400,000 and gave half of it to the setting up of a girls’ scholarship
scheme run by women’s association.

A strategy for alternative basic/non formal education has been developed. ABE/NFE has
for a long time been provided by the private sector (private providers, NGOs and
religious institutions). A number of ABE centres have been established on a pilot basis in
selected Woredas (administrative regions equivalent to districts in most countries) in four
regions and two zones. Adult and non formal education programs have also been
introduced for out of school children within the 7-14 year age range and literacy
programs for those aged 15 and above. The government pays facilitators for the
programs, while the NGOs/FBOs are responsible for the construction and equipping of
the centres. A task force on pastoralist education was appointed in 2004, but has since
been integrated in the Women’s Affairs department. It is responsible for the education of
girls, pastoralists and special education. As a result of these policy measures, enrolment
in these programs has been increasing.
Capacity building in coordinating gender related work and also gender mainstreaming.
Capacity constraints have been identified as serious impediment to gender
mainstreaming. The government has been involved in capacity development at both the
regional and national level. Much however remains to be done.

Affirmative action to promote gender equity is implemented on two major fronts. First,
30% of places in the TTCs are reserved for girls only. The remaining 70% is open for
competition by both girls and boys. Second, there is a policy to encourage more female
enrolment in tertiary education. Female students are given special automatic credits –
determined on the basis of the overall admission marks and points - to those who fail to
qualify. For example, if the entry cut off GPA point is 3 points out of 4 and above, girls,
who get 2.8 will be given an automatic additional 0.2 points. In 2007 the minimum mark
for admission was 175 and above (out of 500). However, girls who get 150 and above
are admitted. The policy proceeds to ensure that girls gain admission to the competitive
programs as well. As a result, all females who sat for the entrance exams for tertiary
education in 2005/06 were admitted.

Girls’ education advisory committees have been set up in all primary schools. The
objectives are two fold: to assist needy girls in accessing necessary educational materials
like textbooks; and, to sensitize parents on the importance of education, fight against
early marriage, trace girls drop outs to come back to school, discourage and watch against
abduction, among others.

Other highlights of commitment to gender mainstreaming are evident in the following.
  Tutorial and guidance and counseling services to girls to help those unable to cope
     or whose pace of learning is slow. They are also given advice regarding field of
     study in TVET and HEI.
  A stock taking exercise to determine the number of children of different ages not
     yet in school is currently underway. There is recognition that unless all school age
     children are enrolled in 2007/2007, the issue of completing primary in 2015 will be
     out of question.
  The exercise will be completed in 2007
  Bringing schools closer to the community. Long distance to school has been a
     major impediment to enrolment especially in the sparsely populated areas. Bringing
     schools closer to the community is especially important in reducing drop out of girls
     in the lower and upper grades.
  Mainstreaming gender in the curriculum, particularly in the books. Findings of a
     study show that secondary education is bias free. At the primary level, there is a
     slight problem in regional textbooks; a sample in four regions has been done and
     preliminary findings reveal biases. The MoE is currently working on removing
     such biases so that content is gender neutral.
  Starting dormitories for girls in secondary education for girls to enable them to cope
     and not drop out. There remains a challenge of equipping the dormitories with
     libraries and computer rooms where they could learn and practice.
  Awareness creation on the importance of girls’ education among communities
  Making schools friendly to girls by constructing separate latrines for boys and girls
   and assigning female teachers and headteachers, etc to provide close support to girls.
   Some of the activities such as toilets in schools is implemented by donors such as
   UNICEF as opposed to the government. Girls clubs have also been started in most
   schools.
  Developing gender mainstreaming and guidelines and a five year female education
   strategy
  Introducing school feeding programs for the chronically food insecure and
   vulnerable areas.

Complementarity: UNGEI and Ethiopia Education Program
Ethiopia has taken a lead role in developing gender sensitive education budgeting
handbook that will inform the process of analyzing national education budget as well as
influencing resource allocation in the sector. It has also conducted gender audits on
national education policies and documented best practices in girls’ education.

VII. Other strategies
The national education gender forum – representatives of women associations, teachers
associations at the regional levels, women affairs office in the regional state, and
educational bureau head and gender focal point in the regional education bureau and
teacher training institution, university and selected women teachers in teacher training
and the universities, women affairs standing committee in Parliament – is currently
discussing the challenges and activities on gender matters. The forum will have a greater
role to push for the gender issues in the respective regions. The gender forum has an
advisory committee of which UNICEF is the secretary – is working to promote women’s
education. Committee will sensitize the forum and the forum will take the issue to the
regional government.

Scholarship: UNICEF started with seed money so that others can also contribute towards
a national scholarship fund. UNICEF contributed 100,000 USD and the PM contributed
200,000 USD. There seems to be very good political will to implement this intervention.
At the Woreda, there is a gender focal point posted by regional education office.
However, the scholarship program as is currently is not sustainable.

ECD policy is currently being developed and once completed, will form the basis for
engagement of the government and other stakeholders in providing the same.

IX. Education SWAps
The ESDP is a SWAp and has been in place since 1997. The active participation of
donors and community has been instrumental in improving the education sector.
Effective implementation of a SWAp is limited by the lack of knowledge on the precise
number of donors and what they do. The government is planning map the donors to
ascertain the number, what they do and where they operate in the country. The adoption
of SWAp has addressed the problem of fragmentation in the formulation and execution of
education programs, especially at the regional level. Before, regions used to develop
their own regional education plans, but currently, the regional ESDPs are aligned with the
national blue print. This has ensured that there is uniformity in implementation and
monitoring of education program. Among the donors, it UNICEF has been instrumental
in pushing for gender mainstreaming in program implementation.

X. Gender Sensitive Education Budgeting
General Overview: One of the main challenges confronting the realization of ESDP and
PASDEP objectives and targets is inadequate finance. According to PASDEP, the
education budget for the five year PASDEP period is Birr (millions) 8,236, 9,372,
11,612, 12,620 and 11,902 for the FYs 2005/06, 2006/07, 2007/08, 2008/09 and
2009/2010. This translates to 15.87%, 15.58%, 17.02%, 16.97% and 15.30% of the
national budget respectively. There is a near stagnation in the education budget for the
life of the PASDEP, yet, it is expected that net enrolment rate for the first cycle of
primary education will have increased over the same period by an average of 19
percentage points. Targets for the second cycle primary education will have almost
doubled from the baseline of 33.9 to 63.8%. The government also expects to have
reduced the pupil teacher ration from the baseline of 71, 55 and 78 for primary first cycle,
primary second cycle and secondary education to 54, 45 and 40 respectively. It is also
expected that completion rate to grade five will more than double from the baseline of
57.4% to 136.6%. These targets require additional financing and it is difficult to imagine
how they can be met without an adequate increase in education funding. The current and
projected level of funding for the education sector is one of the lowest in Africa (UIS,
2007). The total budget for the current financial year is Birr 11.5 billion. ESDP II was
under-funded by 17%. Official government records however indicate that this should not
be a problem at all because a significant portion of program costs were funded by the
community. It is not possible to: a). quantify community contribution because there are
not documented; and, b). establish the extent of funding for gender specific programs due
to lack of specific budget lines for gender programs and projects.

Engendered budget: Neither the process of budget making nor the actual budget
document is engendered. There seems to be an implicit assumption that in the course of
funding other education activities, gender will be a natural inclusion. The assumption
stems from the identification of gender as a cross-cutting issue. One cannot identify
specific budget gender budget lines in the national budget. The Gender and Equity
Department in the MoE is administratively funded by the government. However, most of
its programs are funded by donors. It is not possible to conclude that the absence of
funding for specific gender programs is dues to lack of commitment to gender
mainstreaming, mere ambivalence or lack of capacity to engender the budget. Most
certainly, it is all these.

Two strategies are being employed to ensure that the process of budget making and
allocation is engendered. First, UNICEF has been working jointly with the government
in developing gender sensitive budgeting guidelines. The guidelines will be used as a tool
to equip the budgeting officers with the relevant skills to help them mainstream gender in
the national budget. While this is happening at the national level, a lot more will need to
be done at the Woreda level where councils are responsible for allocating budgets and
implementing education programs. Second, UNICEF, the British Council and the MoE
have come together to use representatives in the Parliamentary budget committee and
women’s affairs in the Parliament to ensure that the national budget is engendered. The
department will also use the Women’s affairs minister to lobby for the right policies and
programs to address gender specific issues in education. The strategy has to go down to
the regional level

XI. Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)
Monitoring of education programs is done by MoE and UNICEF both jointly, and
independently. An educational management information system (EMIS) is in place. A
tool for regular collection of school based data was developed by a joint technical
working group of MoE, the regions and donors. The tool captures data for formal
primary to university. It does not include pre-school education (this is a major
weakness). The data obtained provides the basis for the annual statistical abstracts. Data
is collected from schools between October and December using this school level tool is
not used much. Only a few of the data from the tool is reported in the abstracts. There is
close working relationship between the education section and the monitoring and
evaluation unit of UNICEF, and UNICEF with MoE. Currently, UNICEF is planning to
work on integrating the MoE EMIS system and DevInfo to come up with EdInfo.

XII. Main challenges in M&E
The 2004 Joint Review Mission noted that gender related data need to be analyzed and
presented more prominently to highlight existing gender gaps (Ethiopia, 2006b).
Though there are specific indicators for monitoring in both ESDP and PASDEP, they are
weak, and require strengthening.

The EMIS captures education and does not include other indicators such as those in the
household income and consumption surveys (HICS) which are essential in determining
non schooling factors that nevertheless affect education directly.

While output monitoring is effectively captured in the indicators, there is no
differentiation of the budget into how much goes to what sector, level or gender. The
objectives are broadly defined, and mostly based on major pillars of MDG.

The quantitative monitoring indicators are well developed, but the qualitative ones very
weak. Gender mainstreaming cannot be effectively captures using quantitative indicators
only. The EMIS gives a crude analysis of the situation. No in-depth analysis of the data
is done and remains a major weakness.

Equally weak are the process indicators. Even in the EMIS, it is difficult to capture these
indicators mostly because of the focus on the MDGs which does not require reporting on
the process. Data on curriculum implementation, resource availability, etc, remains
problematic.

Other challenges in M&E include
 Preoccupation with tracking inputs (the CAGs), without giving much focus on
   results. There is more focus on input based management and not RBM.
   Low capacity of counterparts in M&E. Some work in progress in building the
    capacity, but even then, the reporting capacity at MoE is also low.
   Multiplicity of data sources and resulting disharmony. In some cases, data used for
    planning are based on the central statistical authority (CSA) sources, while in others
    are from the schools. There are also discrepancies between EMIS and household
    surveys, e.g. welfare monitoring survey (WMS). There are also HICS based data
    that may not tally with the school level data.
   Little focus on quality. There has been little attempt to determine whether the
    increases in major indices translate into quality. The focus on quantitative indicators
    may be compromising quality. For example, some of the schools are overburdened
    with high enrolments, but there has been no effort to gauge the impact of the high
    enrolment on quality of learning.
   Timeliness of reports. The annual generation of statistical abstracts may not come in
    August as usual. This delays decision making.

XIII. Challenges in Gender Mainstreaming
As much as there has been serious effort in creating awareness and sensitizing different
stakeholders on gender issues in education, there is no strong evidence on the ground that
the situation has not fully changes. This is reflected in very high drop out rates (that
averages 14.4%). Even though the national average rate of drop out for girls is
marginally lower than boys (13.6% compared to 15%), it is much higher for girls in some
areas, notably, Gambella and Somali (Ethiopia, 2005).

Technical capacity on gender mainstreaming is evidently weak. Most of the
implementation of education programs is done at the Woreda levels whose officials do
not fully understand and sometimes even appreciate gender equality concepts.
Consequently, gender mainstreaming still remain a major challenge for Ethiopia. There
are about 600 Woredas in Ethiopia and there is no indication so far that they have all
been sensitized or given basic training in gender mainstreaming.

Compounding the problem of weak technical capacity is limited funding for gender
specific programs. Having the Gender and Equity department is fine but in so long as
there is no budgetary provisions for programs, there will be little progress on the gender
front.

There is a wide gap between policy statements and financial commitments to support
implementation. As long as the budget is not engendered, mainstreaming will only
remain theoretical. Some programs like the girls’ scholarship scheme, are not
pronounced and cannot make a major impact in eliminating gender disparities.

Despite affirmative action to enroll more females in the competitive programs, statistics
on TVET enrolment trends shows that female students are still confined to the soft
sciences. For instance, all the 412 students in health sciences courses in Tigray in
2004/2005 were female. In Addis Ababa, there was no male student in hotel services,
and only 10 (1.7%) of the 585 secretarial students were male (Ethiopia, 2007). The
proportion of female students in all agricultural TVET programs is only 12%.
Only a few children, mostly in the urban areas, join grade one with the relevant pre-
school experience. Weak foundations lead to early drop out and even repetition among
boys and girls alike.

Even though one of the policy objectives of ESDP III is making schools friendlier to
girls, the detailed project description is silent on its implementation. There is no certainty
therefore that this objective will be realized in the lifespan of the current ESDP.

As conceptualized in the ESDP, the school improvement program is limited and not
inclusive enough. There is need to provide technical assistance to the ministry of
education to develop a comprehensive SIP program that has a strong gender foundation.
Currently, its basic features are limited to: school leadership and management, parent and
community partnership, student centred learning, professional development and
collaboration and quality instructional program.

Understanding quality and quality assurance mechanisms seems to be problematic. The
ESDP III indicates that the government will in the short term use proxy quality indicators
- PTR, percent of qualified teachers, etc - to determine quality. While these are good
enough, it is not exhaustive, as there are very many other variables that go into
determining quality learning.

XIV. Conclusions
The government has put in places policies and intentions to close the gender gap in
education. Some of the measures at the national level include: affirmative action;
adoption of the national gender policy, the establishment of gender units in ministries,
ministry of women’s affairs, and a host of school and community specific measures to
make learning more friendly, schools more accessible and communities more supportive
of the education programs.

The high political will notwithstanding, challenges remain at the regional level. This
needs to be augmented with strong technical capacity for gender mainstreaming
especially at the Woreda level. This is where actual implementation of education
programs takes place. The Woredas are mostly composed of men who may neither
understand nor appreciate the importance of gender mainstreaming and gender equity.

The government’s commitment to a democratic culture and participatory approach to
planning is beneficial to the cause of gender mainstreaming. This commitment is
emphasized in the national constitution that is strongly rights based. Pupils have become
aware of their rights and are able to demand their rights from the government. The
constitution thus provides a supportive framework for the implementation of gender
specific programs in education as indeed in other sectors.

A major constraint to effectively addressing the gender issues is lack of funding for
gender specific programs in the national and regional budgets. Even thought there are
gender specific targets in the current ESDP and PASDEP. This limitation should be
addressed. As it is now, there is a wide gap between policy intents and actual
commitments.

It appears that UNICEF remains at the forefront in gender mainstreaming programs of the
education sector. Other players need to be brought on board to augment the technical and
financial support that UNICEF is currently providing. There seems to be no mechanism
for collective implementation of the gender programs in education, the SWAp
notwithstanding.

There is a near absence of the private sector input in the education program as a whole
and gender related ones in particular. The SWAp process should provide a good
framework for involvement of the industry, faith based institutions as well as
philanthropy in supporting gender programs. The FBOs can be powerful partners in
breaking the male domination and other forms of cultural impediments to gender
mainstreaming especially at the community level.

Decentralization of service provision was implemented very fast and within a short
period of time when the current government came to power. There was not enough time
to capacity build the regional administrative units on several aspects of service provision,
including engendering development. Nevertheless, efforts are being made through the
gender and equity department to enhance the capacity of the Woredas.

Pre-school education is not accessible to the majority, mostly because it is privately
provided and the costs are beyond the ability of the average Ethiopian. The few public
ECD centres are run by communities. The government has come up to strongly support
pre-school education in the current sector plan.

The focus on MDGs is a major limitation in a sector wide improvement program. The
MDGs do not emphasize pre-school education. Using the MDGs as guidelines for
designing national plans and budgets can therefore be deleterious to the sub-sector. It is
possible that the absence of state funding for pre-school education is mainly because the
PASDEP and ESDP are anchored on MDGs.


B: Kenya

I). Overall Comments
The educational process in Kenya is about gaining lost ground. At the dawn of Jomtien
conference in 1990, Kenya had attained a GER of 95% in primary education. The gains
were to be wiped out by the implementation of cost sharing program in the late 1980s and
early 1990s. The GER declined to a low of 76% (Deolalikar, 1999). The Dakar meeting
was held against a backdrop of low enrolment at all levels, with more girls being out of
school than boys. Strides have been made to equalize access especially at the primary
level.
The current policy environment is clear on addressing four challenges: access and equity,
retention, relevance and quality. The policy framework is forthright on the challenges
facing the sector, and recognises gender inequality as a serious obstacle to the realisation
of the right to education and lost opportunities in human capital formation. As the
country strives to recoup the lost opportunities, new targets are formulated for all levels
of education. Sector objectives and strategies have clear statements that reflect
commitment to gender mainstreaming at all levels and in all spheres.

But challenges remain. Girls trail boys in examinations and there is clear evidence of
specialisation asymmetries in primary, secondary and university level. Affirmative
action to increase participation of women is gaining political support at the macro level.
Its implementation in education, particularly on headship of educational institutions
(schools and other important national institutions), though largely progressing well, still
confront the challenge of male domination.

III. Participation in Education
                                                          Participation Inhibitors at a Glance
a). Pre-Primary                                     Lack of positive role models – especially in the
Participation in pre-school education in             rural and remote areas with fewer women
Kenya remains low. One of the downsides of           teachers to act as positive role models for girls.
the free primary education is direct enrolment      Inappropriate infrastructural facilities and
of most children especially from poor families       equipment makes it difficult to mainstream
                                                     gender in primary education.
in grade one, meaning that many children are
                                                    Distance to school more so in arid and semi arid
entering formal primary schooling without            parts of the country affects girls more than boys
any pre-school experience. A trend analysis          due to security concerns
of enrolment patterns in the last seven years       HIV/AIDS and lack of life skills - girls are more
(2000 – 2006) for this level indicates a             affected by the HIV/ AIDS pandemic since they
consistent three percentage point higher GER         often become the caregivers for their sick
                                                     parents, relatives and siblings.
for boys than girls.       Overall GER has          Poverty - girls are also the first to drop out of
remained below 60%, despite the number of            school when the family economy is strained.
ECD institutions increasing to over 33,000 in       Religion - or its misinterpretation acts as a barrier
2006 (MoE EMIS data, 2007).                          to girls’ education, thus perpetuating their
                                                     marginalization in society.
b). Primary                                         Child labour is rampant among the poor where
                                                     children, and especially girls, are often
Though there was near parity in GPI in               withdrawn from school to engage in domestic
primary education (0.99) by 2000, the overall        work while boys drop out of school to work in
GER was low at 87.6, with girls’ ratio               commercial farms, fishing and petty businesses.
standing at 87.1%, one percentage point lower       Gender insensitive school environment - includes
than boys. By 2002, GER had improved                 the attitudes of the key stakeholders in the school
                                                     (administrators, teachers and students), gender
marginally to 88.2%. Implementation of FPE           insensitive school infrastructure and amenities
from 2003 has improved participation in              (water and sanitation, availability of sanitary
primary education tremendously. The GER              towels for girls, curriculum and teaching/learning
increased to 102.8% in 2003, rising further to       materials, such as textbooks, pedagogy, school
107.2% in 2005, with the girls’ ratio standing       management, and guidance and counseling).
at 104.4% compared to 109.9% in 2005
respectively. Total NER stood at 83.2% 2005 (boys = 83.8%; girls = 82.6%). Slightly
more boys (68.2%) complete primary school than girls (66.5%). The current rate from
primary to secondary is 61% but is not desegregated by gender.

Secondary education
Like in ECD, GER for secondary education remains low, at less than one third. In 2000,
GER was only 22.2% (23.3% boys and 20.9% girls) (MoEST EMIS, 2001). By 2005, it
improved by eight percentage points to 30.2% (31.3% for boys and 29.1% for girls). The
NER for secondary education recorded an increase of 4 percentage points from 19.4% in
2004 to 19.8% in 2005. The difference between girls (19.4%) and boys (20.1%) is
marginal. Notably, the completion rate for boys (91.5%) is four percentage points higher
than for girls (87.5).

IV. Access to educational materials/resources and facilities
Kenya launched the Free Primary Education Support Program (FPESP) to provide grants
for purchase of learning and teaching materials, funds for general purposes and resource
management in primary schools, in-servicing of teachers, inadequate physical facilities,
health and sanitation, gender insensitive environments, barriers to access for those with
special needs including the girls and inadequacies in quality assurance. The program
supported 7.6 million in formal public primary schools and a further 300,000 in the NFS
in 2006. The Textbook Pupil Ratio (TPR) has improved from around 15:1 to about 3:1 in
lower primary and 2:1 in upper primary.

Funds are disbursed directly to schools in two accounts: the School Instructional
Materials Bank Account (SIMBA) and the General Purpose Account (GPA). The monies
have enabled head teachers, School Management Committees (SMCs) and School
Instructional Materials Committees (SIMCs) to procure their requirements and improve
on infrastructure.

At the secondary level, the MoE is implementing a targeted program aimed at improving
the provision of teaching and learning materials as well as laboratory/science equipment.
The total allocation for science equipment/laboratory stood at KShs 170 million in
2005/06. The program targets at least ten schools per district. Secondary schools in
some 28 Arid and Semi Arid districts also receive grants to improve infrastructure and
school facilities (MoE, 2007).

V. Teachers
The government, through the Teachers’ Service Commission (TSC), employs primary
and secondary teachers, while ECD teachers are employed variously by the community,
local authorities, private providers/entrepreneurs and non governmental and faith based
organisations. The total number of ECDE teachers (trained and untrained) increased
from 63,650 in 2003 to 72,182 in 2005 out of which 70.6 percent are trained.

Teachers employed by TSC for primary and secondary schools constitute 96% percent of
all (235,000) teachers. The remaining 4% is distributed among special and technical
education institutions. In 2006, there were a total of 162,993 primary school teachers, out
of which females were 44.6% and males 55.4%. Kenya has achieved remarkable
progress in teacher training. Only 921 or 0.6% of teachers were untrained by 2006. The
difference between female and male teachers is negligible. The Pupil Teacher Ratio
(PTR) in primary schools is 43:1. In secondary schools, the PTR is still low at 19.1.

Gender disparities in enrolment in secondary teacher education remain high. Between
1999 and 2003, the average enrolment of females in primary teacher training colleges
was 49.6%, 44.3% in secondary teacher training colleges and 53.1% in special education
teacher training programs. At the university level, enrolment in teacher education degree
programs reveals wide gender disparities in favour of males. In the 2002/2003 to
2004/2005 academic years only 39.8% of those enrolled in teacher education degree
programs in public universities were female.

VI. Performance in examinations
The end of primary education in Kenya is marked by the writing of Kenya Certificate of
Primary Education (KCPE) examinations. In as much as progress is being made on
various fronts, performance in examinations reveals both obvious and subtle differences
between girls and boys (Table 24).

Table 24: KCPE Raw Mean Score by Gender and Subject, 2002 - 2005
                        2003              2004              2005
 Subject     Category
                        Male    Female    Male    Female    Male    Female
             Gender     49.27   49.74     49.17   49.93     49.06   49.96
 English
             Total      49.50             49.54             49.48
             Gender     48.91   50.14     49.16   49.86     48.89   50.17
 Kiswahili
             Total      49.50             49.50             49.50
             Gender     51.61   47.22     51.54   47.47     51.49   47.30
 Math
             Total      49.49             49.60             49.50
             Gender     52.83   45.86     52.23   46.48     52.63   45.99
 Science
             Total      49.47             49.48             49.48
             Gender     52.37   46.43     51.89   46.86     51.97   46.74
 GHC
             Total      49.50             49.49             49.49
Source: KNEC, 2005

The three years under comparison do not reveal any difference in examination scores. It
is also notable that overall performance is about 50%. It is important to note that the
subjects where pupils have attained more than the average pass mark are Science, GHC
and Math, even though boys seem to do better in these subjects than girls.

Girls register relatively better performance in the languages while boys outperform girls
in mathematics and science. But still, girls’ better performance on the languages is
negligible compared to boys’ better performance in the sciences. On the former, in 2004
for instance, girls scored better than boys by less than a percentage point, while boys
register 4.1 percentage points better than girls in Mathematics, 7 percentage points better
in Science and 5 percentage points better in GHC. This pattern is virtually replicated in
the other two years.
VII. The Education for All – Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) Window
Kenya received US$ 24.2 million from the EFA-FTI catalytic fund in December, 2005.
The grant supported the government’s plan to achieve EFA by 2015 as outlined in the
KESSP. The FTI funds were disbursed to the public primary schools for instruction
materials. The funds catalyzed a dramatic increase in the textbook/pupil ratios. The
Standard 1 ratio for Math went from a ratio of 1:5 - 1:40 to 1:4 in Lower and 1:3 in Upper
primary. A review of the education sector in early 2006, revealed that the national
student/book ratio ranged between 2:1 to 6:1 in lower primary and 2:1 to 4:1 in upper
primary (Kenya, 2006). The results of the FPESP Baseline Survey on learning
achievement indicated that among the five most important school related factors on test
scores was the adequacy of funds provided by MoE for textbooks/teaching materials.
The provision of textbooks is also having a positive impact on pupils’ attendance. A
review of the impact of textbooks on pupil attendance and learning revealed that: i)
reading time in classrooms has increased from 2 to 3 minutes per lesson to 16 minutes;
and, ii) poorer children and poorer schools are doing better under the FPE Policy and
Program than average schools.

Though the FTI funds are not earmarked for gender specific programs, there is evidence
of sustained increases in overall enrolment rates and retention as well as of reasonably
good financial management practices at the school level. It is positively contributing to
the fulfilment of the objectives of not only the FPE but also KESSP as the ministry
maintains it pro-poor orientation of budgeting and resource targeting. In 2007/08, Kenya
is to receive a second grant of US$ 48.4 million.

VIII. The Policy Front
It is not completely possible to look at sector policies independently of legislation. A
number of policies are first legislated before being implemented, while some legislation
requires specific policies to implement them.

a). The Statutory Realm: In the Kenya, as in most other countries, education is
recognised as a basic human right in the constitution. A draft constitutional bill rejected in
2005 (but which may still be implemented later) commits the Government to implement
affirmative action in policies and programs to benefit individual or disadvantaged groups in
accessing education and gainful employment; participation in governance; and guarantees
equal political rights and freedom from discrimination, exploitation or abuse.

The government did recognise the need to give force to international covenants like the
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the African Charter on the Rights and
Welfare of the Child. But it also needed to address related issues such as early marriages;
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM); right to survival; health and medical care; education;
protection from child labour, sexual exploitation, prostitution, harmful drugs, among
others. It therefore enacted of the Children’s Act in 2001. The law accorded boys and girls
equal education opportunities through the free primary education program.

b). Policy Environment: The current policy blueprint for education sector in Kenya is the
Sessional Paper No. 1 of 2005 on education, training and research. The policy is candid on the
challenges facing the sector. It recognizes the limitations to equalizing access, participation and
outcomes for girls and boys. It also spells out clear strategies to mainstream gender in all levels
of education. To operationalize the policy, the government drafted the Kenya Education Sector
Support Program (KESSP). KESSP is a comprehensive sector program focusing on identified
priorities developed through an extensive consultative process. The goal of the KESSP is to
provide quality education all by 2010. Its four program objectives are: (i) ensuring equity of
access to basic education; (ii) enhancing quality and learning achievement; (iii) providing
opportunities for further education and training; and, (iv) strengthening education sector
management. KESSP is articulated in 23 Investment Programs (IPs) designed in pursuit of these
goals.

The challenge of limited access to primary education led the government in declaring free
primary education in 2003. The objective was to accord every child, girl and boy, equal
basic educational opportunities to achieve gender parity in primary education. However,
more girls than boys still experience obstacles in school enrolment, participation and
transition, due to socio-cultural practices. In 2007, the government also adopted tuition
fee waiver for secondary education students beginning 2008. This is expected to lower
the cost burden of parents and encourage more enrolment of girls, who are invariably
barred by cost factors more than boys. The government is also allowing girls who drop
out of primary and secondary schools due to pregnancies to re-enter and complete their
education. At the university level, the Government is implementing some affirmative
actions as lowering entry mark for increased admission of female students to public
universities.

The draft National Policy on Gender and Development will facilitate the mainstreaming of
the needs and concerns of men and women in all areas in the development process. The
policy has made several important suggestions in respect of regulatory and institutional
reforms that can be undertaken to ensure that obstacles to equitable and sustainable
development are removed. It identifies key forms of discrimination in respect of customary
law, the law of succession, and citizenship as well as cultural biases against women
perpetuated by the patriarchal social structure of Kenyan communities. MoE has also
prepared a draft gender and education policy that is currently being discussed by
stakeholders.

A comprehensive Draft National Employment Policy that mainstreams women’s rights in
employment and bans child labour has been formulated. In addition, recommendations of a
Task Force appointed to review labour laws also address gender imbalances in employment
and labour practices. Additionally, a policy on ECD is in place, and a draft policy on
OVCs has also been drafted by the office of the Vice President.

The policy environment is therefore reasonably solid and should help mainstream gender in
education, to the extent that they recognise gender as a cross-cutting variable and lays
down clear strategies for addressing gender inequalities.

Complementarity: UNGEI and Kenya Education Program
In Kenya, UNGEI is focusing on children in ASAL (Arid and Semi-Arid) districts in
northern parts of the country. Other activities implemented within the UNGEI
framework include: embedding gender in the education SWAp, using FTI funds to
improve girls’ education, gender mainstreaming in education policies, conducting gender
audits on national education policies, using GEM to empower girls

IX. Education SWAp
Kenya has a strong SWAp in place (KESSP). There are two reviews of the SWAp
annually. The budget review is done in March, while the joint technical sector review is
done in September/October. The SWAp process is helpful to the extent of recognising
gender as one of the main investment programs. KESSP provides an intervention for the
girl child education through improvement of sanitation – including the provision of
sanitary materials. Other international organisations like GOAL Kenya in Nairobi
provide training for girls to make their own sanitary pads. The Forum for African Women
Educationalists Kenya Chapter (FAWE-K) provides also training for girls to make their
own sanitary pads from low-cost materials all over the country. The MoE has also put in
place a program to improve toilet facilities. In 2006, MoE made a one-time grant of
Kshs. 50,000 to schools, designed to ensure a minimum of one toilet per school.
However, the number of toilets in schools remains inadequate for the needs of girls
during their menses. A lack of running water and/or sanitary pads creates additional
challenges for girls.

X. Projects/programs to encourage education of girls
The government has put in place a number of initiatives to address gender concerns in
education. Among them are the following.
 Legal issues are being addressed through a harmonized framework and gender issues
   are addressed in all programs.
 The National Plan of Action on EFA 2003-2015, the Draft Gender Policy, the Report
   of the Education Sector Review 2003, draft Strategic Plan 2006-2011, the Sessional
   Paper No. 1 of 2005 and the KESSP (2005-2010), have all paid attention to gender
   and education. The Government has also ratified a number of protocols and
   conventions with a bearing on gender equality.
 The Government has also set up a Ministry of Gender, Sports, Culture and Social
   Services and the Gender Commission. The Ministry of Education set up a National
   Task force for Gender and Education, a Ministerial Task force on Girls’ Education,
   and a Gender Desk.
 Apart from initiating FPE the government has committed huge sums of money from
   its own sources. This has brought on board many girls who were formally locked out
   of education.
 Equity and quality in the achievement of education are also given priority in the
   Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation (2003-2007).
   Through the policy document the Government has undertaken to make primary
   education accessible and achievable, with special focus on girls and other
   marginalized groups through:
        - Expanded opportunities and funding education in the Arid and Semi Arid
           Lands (ASAL), including boarding facilities and establishment of feeder
           schools for lower grades 1 – 4 to encourage young children, and especially
           girls, at the tender age to access learning closer to home.
       -    Improved girls’ access, retention and participation through provision of water
            and sanitation facilities.
   Priority is given to men who apply for recruitment in Early Childhood Development
    teacher training. Almost all ECD teachers currently are female.
   Introduction of HIV/AIDs life skills in schools and colleges to create awareness and
    empower girls and boys to protect their lives from the pandemic.
   A gender responsive curriculum and relevant gender friendly instructional materials
    have been developed and produced for the learners.
   Bursary allocation to the needy for secondary school level and targeting an additional
    5% exclusively for girls.
   Supply of science equipment to girl’s schools in order to promote performance in
    Mathematics and other Science subjects.
   Adopting affirmative action to ensure gender balance in the teachers training colleges
   Re-entry is encouraged by re-admitting girls who would otherwise drop out of school
    due to unplanned pregnancies and other causes
   At the universities level an affirmative action is adopted and women are admitted at
    one point lower than men, a measure which has witnessed girls increase in enrolment
    at the university.

XI. Education Budget and Gender Sensitive Budgeting
Two issues are critical here. First is whether the budget is subjected to gender analysis.
The second is the level of funding for gender specific programs, or programs that have an
impact on gender mainstreaming. The education budget has not been subjected to gender
analysis so far. Stakeholders in education discuss the budget twice. The first is during
the annual medium term expenditure framework (MTEF) budget hearings that are held in
February. Second is during the budget workshop that brings together the government,
development patterns and other stakeholders in education. Discussions during this time
require presentation of budgets for each of the investment programs. The gender program
does not get as much prominence during these discussions.

The education budget for the last two years indicate that the gender investment program
was earmarked to get Ksh. 11 million in the 2005/06 FY, but was only allocated Ksh. 2
million, leaving a shortfall of Ksh. 9 million. In the following FY (2006/07), it was
expected to spend Ksh. 11.4 million, but had not received any funding by September of
that year (Kenya, 2007b). However, detailed component description shows that the
program was initially funded to the tune of Ksh. 20m in 2006/07 but this was upped to
Ksh. 45 million. In the initial plan, the entire sum of Ksh. 20 million was earmarked for
one activity (girls’ and women’s participation and performance in education). The
revised funding of Ksh 45 million is not distributed among the six components: i)
Gender Education Policy; ii) Improved Gender Based Enrolment and Retention; Iii) Girls
and Women Participation & Performance in Education; iv) Sanitary Materials and
Sanitation in Schools; v) Capacity Development on Gender; vi) Monitoring and
Evaluation.
The finer details of one of the components funded to the tune of Ksh 20 million (girls’
and women’s participation and performance in education) is not very clear. In fact, it is
not even clear whether these funds were eventually spent on the specific component.

XII. UNICEF Anchoring
UNICEF is supporting the Government in its efforts to:
 Improve the teaching learning processes in order to ensure that quality is not
   compromised as the government implements Free Primary Education.
 Promote linkages with other sectors, such as Water, Environment and Sanitation, and
   Health and Nutrition.
 Build capacity at local levels for planning, implementation and monitoring of girls
   education interventions.
 Increase opportunities for girls' access to education through social mobilization,
   advocacy and service delivery.
 Supporting a special girls’ education scholarship program in North Eastern Province
   to encourage girls to access quality secondary education.
 Work with AGEI District Education Officers to establish data bases for monitoring
   and reporting on project interventions.

UNICEF, together with the Government and its partners, has accomplished the following:
 A national girls’ education policy has been developed and is awaiting enactment by
  parliament.
 In collaboration with government, UNAIDS and the National AIDS council,
  HIV/AIDS curriculum and materials for teacher training and for primary and
  secondary HIV/AIDS education have been completed.
 In collaboration with government, WFP, the Embassy of Japan and local
  communities, non-operational Arid Zone boarding schools have been rehabilitated
  and/or revived as boarding wings for nomadic children, especially girls.
 Through integration of water, sanitation and environment (WES) and basic education
  sections, water and latrines have been provided in a significant number of primary
  schools.
 The government passed “Children Act Bill 2001” and UNICEF is facilitating its
  dissemination.
 UNICEF, UNESCO and government organized consultative meetings to develop an
  EFA National Plan of Action.
 In collaboration with government, DFID, GTZ and Oxfam Quebec, provided primary
  school textbooks and vocational training equipment and tools to non-formal
  Education centres. The Arid Land Management Project has provided transportation of
  school supplies and materials for school improvement.
 UNICEF in collaboration with other development partners, other ministries and the
  private sector has supported government in implementation of Free Primary
  Education by providing pupils' and teachers' education and recreational kits to formal
  schools and NFE centres.
 In collaboration with government, UNICEF provided in-service training to about
  5000 primary school, NFE and ECD teachers in 9 districts on child-centred,
  interactive and participatory methods and established 72 school clusters.
Future Plans
UNICEF will work with the Government and its partners at the national level, and with
nomadic/pastoralist communities to do the following:
 Disseminate the newly developed national policy on girls’ education.
 Train communities in education planning, gender and rights-based approaches,
   monitoring and evaluation, and other interventions that will increase girls’ enrolment,
   retention, and completion rates in the focus districts by at least 30% by the end of
   2003.
 Promote and provide access to alternative and complementary approaches, e.g., non-
   formal education (NFE) literacy, numeracy, vocational and life skills for out-of-
   school children and youth.
 Strengthen education on HIV/AIDS prevention and care of orphans.
 Improve the quality of schooling through teacher education and development,
   providing key equipment and learning materials for formal schools and NFE centres
   for girls, producing learning and teaching materials, provision of water and sanitation
   and introducing strategies for data collection and utilization.
 Promote an integrated approach in the implementation of ECD, HIV/AIDS and
   formal primary, and NFE sub-projects.

XIII. Girls’ Education in the Press
The Kenyan press has been active in reporting gender issues in education. In the 1990s,
focus was more on the enrolment levels, but attention is increasingly being given to the
differences in performance, subject specialisation and admission to university education.
An article on “Good Teachers Lay Firm Foundation” (Ojwang, 2004) focused on the
stereotypes that are espoused even by teachers and which discourage girls from taking
sciences (Plate 1).

 Plate 1: Press Depiction of Gender Bias
                                                       On the left, the teacher is cautioning
                                                       girls “Don’t dream of doing
                                                       science.       It is difficult for
                                                       you….er…home science, may be”.
                                                       On the right, he is telling the boy
                                                       “Good boy one day, you will be a
                                                       great scientist!”.      The teacher
                                                       immediately dispirits the girls while
                                                       at the same time fires up the boy’s
                                                       ego to dream and work hard to be a
                                                       scientist.

Source: East African Standard, January 29, 2004

Plate 1 demonstrates the degree of interest in and the clarity with which the press
understands and portrays gender stereotyping in the education system and the deleterious
impacts it is having on the education of the girl child.
Harmful traditional practices that inhibit girls’ education have received reasonable
coverage in the media. One of these is the scourge of female genital mutilation (FGM).
The degree to which FGM affects girls’ education in areas practicing it was the focus of
Nyasato’s article “FGM Still a Threat to Learning” in the standard of December 27, 2003.
But the campaigns against these practices are yielding fruit. In an article “Girl, 12, leaves
marriage for school”, Ringa (2003), reports the case of a brave 12-year-old girl who
walked out of marriage after three years and went back to school to take advantage of the
free primary education. This story highlights the reality of the confluence of economic
hardship and cultural practices in hindering participation of girls.

The differential performance of boys and girls, both in the candidature and examination
scores have received important attention every time examinations results are released.
Kinuthia (2004) reports on the wide disparities between girls and boys in KCSE. He
reports that girls only performed better than boys in English, Kiswahili, CRE, HRE, Art
and Design, Home Science, Woodwork, German and Music. Overall, performance in
mathematics and sciences was below average. In 2006, there were reports of improved
girls’ performance in the 2005 examinations, with girls’ candidature also increasing, even
if marginally (Hongo, 2006).

There is some good analytical reporting in the press. One example is Nyaga’s (2004)
article “Taboos That Frustrate Teens’ Right to Choose Choices”. Though this article
appreciates an UNFPA report for delving into debates on why discussions on sexual
behaviour is taboo in many countries, and why large numbers of young people do not
have the information or skills to refuse or negotiate safer sex practices. It refutes that
lack of information is so crucial an issue, pointing out that indeed, most of what is heard
on radio, TV, streets and in public service vehicles - in and outside Kenya - is one or
another form of sex talk. It notes that in Kenya, as in many other African countries, the
powerful HIV/Aids NGO lobby has ensured that HIV/Aids education (read sex
education) is sneaked into the syllabus and taught in primary school from Standard Four
onwards.

An interesting debate in Kenya is the kind of disciplinary measures that should be meted
out to students. Kenya banned corporal punishment in 2001 but some parents and
teachers have argued that this is a recipe for chaos in schools. Lacey (2006) in an article,
“Spare The Rod and Spoil the Country, a Kenyan Warns” in New York Times, reports of
a teacher in Mutongoni, Kenya who is disillusioned by ban on caning, and who has taken
the government to court to reinstate controlled corporal punishment. This support is
despite documented evidence of serious effects of corporal punishment, and cites one
case of a girl who lost an eye when she was caned in 2003. The message the article
passes across is that corporal punishment can be extremely detrimental to both boys and
girls.

It is also clear from the above presentation that in Kenya, press coverage of gender issues
is varied among the various media houses. One of the popular papers with a consistent,
regular coverage of education issues is the East African Standard. The rest of the papers
would give prominence to education when there is a major educational event. This
mainly tend to be during the writing of examinations, release or results or when there is
an event graced by an important official.


XIV. Conclusion
Kenya is making remarkable progress in achieving the EFA and MDG goals for
education. At the dawn of the Jomtien meeting, Kenya had achieved notable milestones.
The implementation of the structural adjustment programs almost wiped out all the gains
made earlier. The Dakar meeting was therefore held against a backdrop of lost ground
due to the impact of cost sharing that particularly affected girls. The reforms initiated in
2003 with the implementation of free primary education, followed by the declaration of
tuition fee waiver in secondary education, offers the best chance to reclaim lost ground
and chart a new course for the sector. Indeed, a number of new initiatives have been put
in place to improve overall access, retention, quality and relevance as well as specifically
focusing on improving girls’ education. Evidence already reveals success in bridging the
gender gap. Nevertheless, challenges remain, and there are specific areas that still require
immediate attention.

Despite progress and good policy intents, enrolment of females in teacher training
programs is skewed in favour of boys, especially at the secondary level. Part of the
reason is that fewer girls attain the necessary qualifying grades at the end of secondary
education to qualify for entry in these colleges. The same goes for specialization in
specific subject areas. Girls are still predominant in the arts and humanities, home
science programs. Performance in the hard sciences is low, while they perform better in
languages. This trend systematically marginalizes girls in the longer term.

A challenge for policy makers and implementation agents is that of what to do about girls’ and
women’s multiple gender roles. The government recognizes that girls and women have, by far,
more gender roles to play than boys and men, which leave them with little time for active
participation in education. The school system is therefore unfair to girls in the sense that
it expects them to perform as well as boys in the placement examinations when they have
little time for self study compared to boys.

The policy environment is generally conducive and recognizes that need to mainstream
gender in the education system. Both the Sessional Paper and the KESSP have clear
strategies for mainstreaming as well as reasonable targets to achieve gender equity.
Some are being realized, like equality of access in primary education, but challenges
remain in ECD, secondary as well as equality of outcomes at all levels, including
primary. The population of girls in subsequent levels of education declines notably, so
that at the university level, there are only about 34% girls (Kenya, 2007a).

The drive to achieve gender equality in education does not result from the
implementation of only gender specific programs. A number of programs implemented
benefit learners irrespective of gender. Examples of such programs are provision of
teaching and learning materials including textbooks. Improvement in the TPR as a result
is uniform for girls and boys. However, teacher preparation and training have specific
gender dimensions and the government must still address the imbalances in admission to
training institutions, deployment, balance between rural and urban, etc, which all impact
differentially on girls and boys. On the same breadth, there are a number of projects in
the SWAp process having an impact in improving access and participation. But a
number are also done by stakeholders independently outside the SWAp process. One
example is the project by GOAL Kenya that aims at providing sanitary towels to girls in
selected primary schools. These initiatives should be supported within the current SWAp
process.


C: Malawi

II. Overall Comments
Much of the progress in achieving gender equity is due to the interventions by
development partners, notably UNICEF. The UNICEF supported schools have been able
to enroll more girls than the public schools. The public system must therefore strive to
achieve greater efficiency even without external support. Second, strategies to reduce
drop out have been weak in both the public non UNICEF supported and the UNICEF
supported schools. This is evidenced by the high drop out rates in the two categories of
schools.

Funding for education also increased by a significant 26.9% in 2003/2004 FY to MK 6.8
million of the total budget. Like most other African and developing countries, the bulk
(80%) of this goes to salaries, leaving little for development.

The MPRSP has, as one of its main strategic components, human capital development
that emphasizes education and health. At the primary level, it focuses on improving
access and equity by emphasizing special needs and girls’ education. Equity is also
emphasized at secondary level, alongside improvement in quality, relevance and
management services in secondary education. 80% of women illiterate.

III. Participation in Education
Enrolment data is available for only primary and secondary levels. ECD is under a
different ministry. It was not possible to get data for this level.

b). Primary
Malawi has performed fairly well in bridging the gender gap in enrolment at both primary
and secondary levels, thanks to the abolition of primary school fees in 1994. Girls
constituted 50.5% of school enrolment in primary and 50.41% in secondary schools
respectively. This is a remarkable improvement compared to the immediate period that
followed the implementation of the free primary education when (Kadzamira, 2006).

Whereas strategies in enrolment have worked well, challenges remain on retaining
children in school. According to the UNDAF (2008 – 2011: 22-23), over 10% of eligible
primary children are not in school. Of those who enroll, only 40% reach grade 4. There
is high drop out rate averaging 15%, while primary completion rate is low at 26% and for
girls at only 16%. Repetition is also high at 25%. Additionally, not all schools have
access to clean water and separate sanitary facilities for boys and girls. This hinders
attendance for girls in the higher grades, consequently leading to drop out.

Table 25: Selected Primary Education Indicators, 2006
 Indicator               Female   Male       Total
 GER                     121      123        122
 NER                     104      103        104
 Repetition              17       17         17
 Survival to Std.        52.9     53.3       53
 Survival to Std. 8      27.2     31.9       29.6
 Drop out                16       14         16
 Completion              22       26         25
Source: Malawi (2006)

Girls may have equal chance of enrolling in primary school with boys, but their survival
in the system is lower as evident from the two percentage point more likelihood of
dropping out than boys. Fewer girls also complete primary education compared to boys.
c). Secondary education
The gender differences in primary education are also evident in secondary level. By
2000, girls accounted for less than 40% of all secondary school enrolments ((Kadzamira,
et.al., 2001). This has marginally increased to 43% by 2006, meaning that 57% of all
secondary school students are boys. The low proportion of girls is both due to low
transition from the primary level as well as high drop out rate (of the very few who
enroll) that stands at 16% for girls against 10% for boys (Malawi, 2006). Overall drop
out rate is 12%.

IV. Access to textbooks
The government of Malawi, with the support of the Canadian Development Agency
(CIDA), launched the Textbooks Government Support to Education Sector (GSES)
project out of a realization that FPE came up with a huge demand of textbooks. The
project reproduces books by tendering out internationally. Once produced and brought to
Malawi, project distributes by CIDA. Initially housed at CIDA but from 2006, based at
MoE. There are enough books for primary schools in Malawi. SEE ABSTRACT.

However, UNICEF (2007) notes that the teaching and learning materials are still largely
inadequate, resulting in limited use of child centered learning methodologies.

V. Teachers
Gender differences in the teaching force in Malawi is striking. By 1999, females
constituted 40% of the teaching force, while in secondary, they comprised only 20%
((Kadzamira, et.al., 2001). However, only 37% of female teachers were qualified,
compared to 63% of the males. It is not possible to get the proportion of trained teachers
as the EMIS data only gives raw numbers. Of Malawi’s 4,358 (10% of entire teaching
force) untrained teachers, females constitute 64%. By 2007, the teacher to pupil ratio is a
high of 1:107 (UNICEF, 2007)13. An important feature of teacher distribution is the low
number of female teachers in rural areas, a fact that directly affects the participation of
girls in school.

VI. Performance in examinations
Tables 26 and 27 summarises the performance in Malawi Primary School Leaving
Examinations (MPSLE) and Malawi Schools Certificate Examinations (MSCE) over a
four year period.

Table 26: Malawi Primary School Leaving Examinations, 2002 - 2005




Table 27: Malawi School Certificate Examinations (MSCE), 2002 – 2005




Consistent better performance by boys in all the years under comparison shows the
degree of gender disparity. In 2005, boys’ performance was better than girls’ by more
10 percentage points. The pattern is replicated in MSCE (Table 28). In fact, the
differences tend to be wider in SCE. In 2004 for instance, girls trailed boys by more than
11 percentage points, virtually stagnating the following year with a gap of more than 10
percentage points. In education systems where progression to the next level is
determined by a pupil’s performance in lower level examinations (as in most of ESAR),
the tendency is for boys who register better performance to dominate subsequent level of
schooling to the detriment of girls. The problem is aggravated in those countries with
limited secondary education opportunities. Indeed, analysis in Part III shows that
expansion of secondary education opportunities is one of the challenges facing most
ESAR countries, and the African continent.

VII. The Education for All – Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) Window: Malawi has
not so far benefited from the EFA-FTI program but is contemplating submitting a request
in 2008 after completion of NESP.

VIII. The Policy Front
The policy framework for the Malawi education is still evolving. Having developed the
Policy and Investment Framework in 2001, the government is currently finalizing the
National Education Sector Plan (NESP) that covers the period 2007 – 2016. Together
with the Malawi poverty reduction strategy paper (MPRSP), the broad national policy
framework aims at facilitating the achievement of MDG goals of universal primary
education and the elimination of gender disparity in primary and secondary education.
There is evidence of progress.

Two other policies are complementing the overall national education policy framework.
The Malawi National Policy on Orphans and Vulnerable Children is anchored on human
rights, community support and sensitization. The Malawi National HIV/AIDS prioritizes
prevention of HIV infection and ameliorating its impact on individuals, families,
communities and the Malawian nation. An effective pre-school program is a pre-requisite
to successful learning in the next basic cycle. The Malawi National Policy on Early
Childhood Development aims at promoting a good start to schooling. There is also a
National Gender Policy that informs programming in other sectors.

All the efforts of the Malawi government crystallizes in the National Education Sector
Plan. The NESP is supposed to prepare for the implementation of a SWAp. As stated in
the document, the NESP provides a strong basis for a SWAp by mapping issues across
the whole sector and presenting a complete picture of issues, needs and major strategies
and priorities until its finalization and implementation, there is effectively no SWAp is
place, even though there is a donor coordination forum with a code of ethics that define
their collaboration with the government. Cooperation between the government and
development partners is done on the basis of mutual understanding.
The NESP is woven around a complex labyrinth of policy documents. This should have
naturally posed a major problem in the designing of a SWAp. The overall framework for
Malawi’s development is the Vision 2020. Other policy blueprints include the PIF, the
MGDS, the MDGs, SADC Commitments, the EFA Natonal Action Plan. The advantage
for UNICEF is the harmony of the MTSP goals with both the MDGs and EFA, which the
Malawi government has prioritized.

Readmission policy: Previously, the policy was that pregnant girls would automatically
lose their place in school. This has changed from 1993 when a policy was enacted to
ensure that the girl and whoever is responsible would be readmitted. A breakthrough in
2007 is the government’s acceptance for revision and updating of admission procedures
that came up in 1993. It is a gender sensitive tool in the management of schools. It spells
out procedures for readmission and protection of those affected. After one year, both
responsible can come back to school. It has also empowered every level - the school,
district, divisional and headquarters level. Everyone is aware of what to do, unlike
before.

FAWE Malawi has done a lot of sensitization and community mobilization to support the
readmission policy in particular and girls’ education in general. Structures have been put
in place at the community level. For instance, there are mother groups supposed to
ensure that girls are enrolled. They talk to girls and parents as well as the community. In
Salima, for instance, a Moslem community, where there is a lot of resistance, there is
change. The Moslem leaders are coming and insisting that girls go to school. There are
punitive measures by the Traditional Authority14 Maganga in Salima has been ensuring
that every school going age pupil goes to school. Those who do not go to school are
penalized. Parents would not want to be penalized. The TA has been an excellent
example in ensuring compliance.

From 2006, a task force was set up by MoE to intensify the readmission policy. The
task force is supposed to ensure that people understand the policy. With the assistance of
GESP, the policy has been popularized.

Between January and June 300, over 326 pupils came back as a result of the policy. The
girls were 285, 41 boys, over a four period – February to June 2007. This is quite an
achievement. So many want to come back but because it is towards end term, most will
come back in 2008.

The success of this policy has an inherent danger of swaying policy makers and
implementers from focusing on prevention, which should be the priority action. In fact,
success of the policy may actually increase the incidences of pregnancy among school
girls, since they are assured of continuing with studies. Policy makers did not seem to
appreciate this possibility.

Girls’ Hostels: The coming in of new government has come up with a new policy of
constructing girls’ hostels in community day secondary schools. Not yet implemented
but there are plans to implement the same. The only problem is the delay in passing the
education budget. This is reversing the policy of zero hostels for girls and three or so for
boys. Government has a plan to construct additional hostels for girls at the secondary
level. This policy is being implemented at the tertiary as well. Up to 71, district
secondary schools, up to 1997, were mostly single sex. Mixed sex has been introduced in
district secondary schools. Hostels were mostly for boys. A conducive environment for
girls has been created through the construction of secondary hostels.

One to One Policy
Previously, selection to form one was based on merit. Policy emphasizes that for every
one boy, there must be one girl. As long as they meet minimum requirements, they stand
a chance to join form one. Girls would want to know if they have a chance of proceeding
beyond primary. As a result, there are more girls joining the community day secondary
schools. Problem is that after a short while, girls would drop out at a rate higher than
boys. Even selection to the best school, Kamuzu academy is based on two places for
each district. Selection is done on the basis of one boy, one girl.

In the government day secondary schools, there is a 50-50 selection practiced. Some
were build in remote places but it means that the pupils have to travel long distances.
Those who suffer most were girls. Students are selected on a minimum of 10kms radius
of the primary school where they were. Some students opt for self boarding. A number
of girls have fallen prey and some got pregnant. Those that could not manage self
boarding simply withdrew. In these schools, the enrolment of girls dwindled. In one of
the day secondary schools, the girls were being given a ride, - one school where 106 girls
got pregnant in the last academic year. This is an example of the pitfalls of day
schooling.
Bursary program
Bursary – communities especially the rural is poor. Secondary education is not free. The
government has a bursary scheme – though it has no ratio. It is given out as per need.
There is no policy to apportion specific portion for girls. Because there are more boys
overall, most recipients are boys. The bursary covers full tuition, boarding, GPT,
Textbook revolving fund, examination, and development fund fees.

Information about the bursary does not go to the bursary school pupils. Not much is
known about it and will therefore drop out. There are other stakeholders like Ministry of
Women and Child Development also have bursary schemes. In 2007, NAC has given
MK 200M+. there are also FAWEMA that offers bursary, PRESS TRUST also gives two
bursaries per district to the best boy and the best girl; Lions Club.

Education SWAp
SWAp is not yet in place in Malawi. UNICEF has played an important part in the
preparation for a SWAp in education. It has been an important member of the
development partners that have supported the finalization of the NESP that is paving the
way for implementation of a SWAp in education. It also signed the Education Sector
Code of Conduct and has been gradually shifting from the traditional project mode to
sector programming. A number of partners have indicated support for the country
program15.

Complementarity: UNGEI and Malawi Education Program
Some of the activities implemented or supported under the auspices of UNGEI have
realized unique interventions. These include conducting an evaluation study on SWAps
in education, developing a SWAp Pack and mounting capacity building program,
conducting gender audits on national education policies

Gender in the Curriculum
The curriculum has been analyzed from a gender perspective and all the gender
stereotyping have been revised – from 1997 up to 1999. A Gender Curriculum Unit was
established at the MIE to ensure that all learning materials are gender neutral. Teachers
have also been sensitized on gender equality.

Gender is taken as a cross cutting issue. All learning areas in primary have gender
related topics. The content is treated, methodologies and assessment to make sure that
boys and girls are treated equally. The directorate of Educational Methods and Advisory
Services makes sure that all learning materials give a fair treatment to the boys and girls
equally. It also ensures that materials are girls’ friendly and that the content that gives
the girl child confidence such as mathematics, science. There is evidence that girls tend to
some subjects such as mathematics and sciences, especially in the co-educational schools.
generally, they register poor performance in these subjects, and even poorer in the mixed
or co-educational schools. Visits to schools confirm that girls do better when they are
alone.
To ensure that policies governing the girl child education in the system are also complied
with, such as the re-entry policy; all instructional materials in the school treat girls and
boys equally. All books have illustrations that are gender neutral.

Differential performance is attributed to the socialization – it is difficult for girls to do
well in examinations because of specific practices. Unless affirmative action is taken, it is
not easy to change the trend.

Non educational work having an impact on education
Positive: DPs have joined together and looking at girls’ education in a more holistic
manner. Some programs having a positive impact may not necessarily be educational,
e.g. the social protection programs. DFID’s work with the police, child welfare,
disciplinary measures against teachers, etc, have made their school children, particularly
girls, are more aware of their rights as children. Girls are therefore able to report cases
of rights violations. Negative: Malawi has no birth registration system. Parents
sometimes lie when they want to enroll their children in so long as they get placed.
Sometimes, even underage children are included. This affects accuracy of school level
data. It makes the calculation of net enrolment rates particularly difficult

Education Budget and Gender sensitive budgeting
The national budget is not engendered. There has been no effort to carry out a gendered
analysis of the current or even previous education budgets. Nevertheless, MoE report
that there are specific components targeting girls that are directly funded by the budget,
like girls boarding facilities. Discussions with MoE pointed out that the NESP has
gender specific components with clear budget lines. In August, a workshop to sensitize
the government officers on gender based budgeting was conducted. However, a number
of important personnel, including those in charge of budget at the ministry of education,
were not invited.

Main Challenges in Gender Mainstreaming
There is still a long way to go to change the attitudes and culture of the people.
Overcoming the traditional resistance to mainstreaming takes time, mainly because of
entrenched beliefs and traditions. People have grown up with the understanding that
women do some things and men do others. Changing the mindset is not easy. This
problem is recognized in the CPAP 2008 – 2011.

Magnitude of the sector: The education sector has many players – pupils, teachers,
parents, NGOs. Effectively targeting and winning over all these players to support gender
mainstreaming is not an easy task. As it is currently, there is a lot that needs to be done
on sensitizing all parents in rural and urban areas on gender issues in education. even
when they are reached, changing the parents especially in the rural areas is a big problem.
Recent studies indicate that even though the ratio of girls to boys is fairly okay at the
primary level but there is a serious problem at the upper level.

The right policies seem to be in place to encourage enrolment of girls, the problem is
enforcement and design.     The readmission policy cannot be fully successful until
grassroots structures are sensitized and fully brought on board. This is happening in only
a few parts of the country through FAWEMA, the mother groups and traditional
authorities.

Some schools do not have sanitation facilities which is a major hindrance to the
participation of girls, especially for the older girls. If they miss one week every month,
their academic performance will go down while some may opt to stay out of school
altogether. Stakeholders are assisting where toilets are not available. Local communities
are also asked to assist where there are no donors. Water services such as boreholes are
also being put up.

How the challenges are being addressed: A gender equality steering committee in
MoE, Gender and HIV Committee at Domasi College of Education – can actually seek
for funds independently to implement programs. They are able to drive the gender
agenda in the education sector. There is a gender equality working group headed by a
desk officer at from DCE. Second, a strong desk officer is currently stationed at the MoE
to specifically deal with gender issues. Third, UNICEF proposes a strong communication
strategy that intensifies community mobilization especially in breaking through the
persistent barriers to girls’ education.        it proposes a ‘multi strand’ strategic
communication plan to raise awareness on the importance of girl’ education stimulate
demand for girls’ education. The strategy aims to: reach out of school girls, intensify
partnerships with communities, local support groups, and teacher - parents association,
and, intensify advocacy efforts for achieving improved access and quality education.

UNICEF Anchoring
The 2008-2011 GOM – UNICEF country program action plan (CPAP) has clear focus on
improving quality primary education with specific focus on girls’ education, policy sector
reform and adolescent participation and HIV/AIDS program. Past engagement with the
government has been productive, and the existing good working relationship with the
MoE as well as other partners should provide an avenue for UNICEF to continue
engaging in the education sector positively. The weakness of the current intervention as
already pointed out is the low retention in schools. The focus on school, sanitation,
hygiene education and life skills development (Project 2 of proposed program – even
though not implemented by the education section) should provide an opportunity to
address the issues that contribute to low survival and completion rates for girls.

An important aspect of UNICEF’s programming in education is the implementation of
the CFS model in primary schools. The CFS model endeavors to make schools friendlier
and accommodating to learners. The main innovation in this regard is the “Joyful
Learning” approach. The objective of joyful learning is to increase access, quality and
equity in primary education. Key features include: rehabilitation of schools and
provision of teaching/learning materials; school furniture, safe water and separate
sanitary facilities for boys and girls. The project has so far covered about 21% (1,020)
schools in Malawi. Teachers have been in-serviced on child centered, gender sensitive
methodologies and the teaching of life skills for HIV prevention. Community
mobilization has also been undertaken, addressing barriers for girls’ education and
enhancing participation by community members in school management. Additionally,
school feeding program has been implemented in collaboration with the World Food
Program (WFP) in selected districts and schools.

Four projects being implemented
  Project 1: Quality of Primary Education and HIV/AIDS Prevention – addresses the
   three pillars: equitable access, relevance and quality, governance and management.
   These easily find an implementation framework in the CFS model.
  Project 2: Participation and Retention of Girls and Disadvantaged Children in
   Primary Education
  Project 3: Adolescent Development and Participation and Rights of the Girl Child (in
   CPAP Adolescent Development Participation and HIV/AIDS) – addresses: NYP,
   UNDAF, MGDS, & MDGs. Also contributes to containing the spread of
   HIV/AIDS, ensure continuation of young people’s participation and protection in
   emergency situations. Edzi Toto clubs designed to help teenagers avoid HIV/AIDS
   infection.
  Project 4: Support to Sector Reform - collaboration with other DPs to move the
   education SWAp. Entails developing capacity to lead reform process, institutionalize
   changes as part of developing a robust and enduring processes to education
   development.
  Project 5: Emergency Education
  There is also the joyful school

Review of Research work on education of girls in Malawi
The implementation of FPE in Malawi from 1994 resulted in better participation by both
boys and girls, though, initially, girls trailed boys. There is also evidence that
achievement – used as a proxy of quality – declined due to unfavorable pupil teacher
ratios, unmatched increase in expenditure despite increasing enrolment, and overstretched
facilities (Kadzamira, 2006). The gains of FPE notwithstanding, other studies e.g.
Chimombo, et.al. (2000) revealed that other non financial barriers still affected girls’
education. Chimombo, et.al (2000) characterized factors affecting girls’ education into:
school, home, classroom and socio-economic factors. Home based factors were identified
as socialization, late entry to grade one; early marriage, inclination to boys’ than girls’
education among parents, discrimination; domestic household work. As mothers attend
to the income needs of the family, ‘it is the girls who are more prone to working in the
homes, and this greatly affects their performance in school”. On the other hand, school
related factors included: distance; poor school buildings not taking into account bad
weather conditions; lack of facilities and school equipment, poor housing conditions for
teachers, fewer classrooms, lack of water and sanitation facilities, etc. Among the
classroom specific factors were lack of pupil participation in learning, segregated sitting
arrangements, limited pupil-teacher interaction, and, lack of sensitivity in targeting girls
during learning. The impact of HIV/AIDS is also a major contributor to non-schooling.
Orphans and vulnerable children without parental care and support are often vulnerable to
greater risk of malnutrition and other forms of abuse, including denial of rights to
education. Even though this was not a prominent problem in Malawi a decade ago
(Kadzamira, et.al., 2001), it has evolved into a major impediment to schooling

Southern and CERT (2004) note the following problems in Malawi’s education system:
lack of trained teachers nationally, and specifically, female in rural areas; unfavorable
PTRs as high as 114 and 133, high teacher attrition rates, widespread shortage of teachers
and learning materials, shortage of classroom space and lack of furniture for pupils and
teachers, lack of latrines and safe water sources, theoretical curriculum, among others.

Conclusions
The progress in mainstreaming gender in education in Malawi is almost at tandem with
the challenges that are yet to be surmounted. The education sector is doing well in
addressing gender concerns in the sector, but it is operating in a broader macro
environment that is not moving as fast in embracing gender mainstreaming. The MGDS
that provides the overall national development goals is not adequately gendered to the
extent that a separate document is being produced with the assistance of UNFPA and
CIDA to make the blueprint gender sensitive.

The sector also faces challenges of effective coordination. There are three ministries in
charge of education and training: MOEVT, (mainstream formal education) MOWCD
(ECD), MOYS&C (NFE and other forms of education for out of school youth). The
move to SWAp, when fully implemented, will have to counter the prospects of disjointed
implementation, unless there is put in place a system of effective coordination at the
ministerial and program level. But even within the MoE itself, the coordination is still
wanting. There are cases where meetings and workshops are organized but not all the
relevant staff gets invited.

The policy in place encompasses all levels of education. Nevertheless, the interventions
and programs in place are overly concentrated on primary level, with little attention to
secondary schooling. Much of the world is moving towards integrating secondary
education in the basic schooling cycle. It is important that policies that encourage
transition to secondary school be given priority. The policies must have a clear gender
focus. Evidence shows that the number of girls in the school system continues to thin as
they move higher the education ladder.

Even the NESP itself does not mention anything on transition to secondary schooling,
yet, it aptly recognizes secondary schooling as “the only turnkey in the quest for qualified
human personnel who can make a difference at the basic education level” (Malawi,
2007:18). Unless girls are able to proceed to secondary schooling and be role models for
those in the primary level, there are fears that the high number of those not able to
proceed to secondary may disillusion those in primary. This would in turn dissuade girls
from enrolling and completing primary education.

Despite its formulation of policies and strategies for each sector, the NESP is weak on
gender specific strategies to increase the participation of girls at all levels. Often, it
contains some broad statements that are not quite clear on the specific interventions to
improve girls’ education.

The absence of clearly formulated policies on gender is a contradiction of sorts because
there are some very practical measures in place and which are certainly making a
difference in the education of girls. For instance, the novel concept of girls’ hostels in
day schools that is being proposed in government cycles is largely absent from the
strategies enunciated in NESP.

Yet, there is another problem. Policies and measures that are absent in the NESP may not
get funding in a SWAp process. The NESP is clear that it will form the basis of funding
the entire education sector. SWAp processes normally have a characteristic feature in
that participating stakeholders enter into a partnership principles/code of conduct and a
joint financing agreement that spells components to be funded in specific stages upon
meeting specified conditions. It is difficult to understand how financing some of the
measures and strategies not spelt out in the NESP will be done. There is a strong reason
to revise the NESP and ensure it is comprehensive enough.

The design of NESP apparently looks at education levels as completely independent of
one another. It does not seem to recognize the pipeline nature of schooling. There is no
clear linkage between the different levels. Education is one whole system with
components and units that function to achieve a common goal or objective.

A major weakness of the current national policy on orphans and vulnerable children is the
absence of gender related data. In fact, the whole policy is not gender resistive. We do
not know the gender dimensions of the (scale) of the OVC problem. Even the NPA
outcome and impact indicators are not in any way disaggregated by gender. There is
need to have a fresh look at the policy and engender the OVC program. This is doable.
An earlier study of a sample of 312 orphans and non orphans (Kadzamira, et.al., 2001)
was able to establish gender dimensions of orphans by level of schooling (primary,
secondary and out of school). The NPA should be able to provide better insights into the
OVC problem.

Lack of coordination is evident in the multiplicity of data sources. Whereas the UNICEF
CPAP reports a teacher to pupil ratio of 1:117, Kadzamira (2006?) reports 1:117 while
the EMIS Officer at MoE gives a figure of 1:76. Disharmony in education indicators
makes tracking of progress difficult. It is therefore obvious that this is one of the areas
that will need to be attended to urgently.


D: Uganda

II). Introduction
Uganda has made major strides in the education sector. Primary education is free (and
soon to be compulsory). The expected enactment of the Education Bill, 2007 that is
currently before Parliament will be a major breakthrough in as it is expected to provide a
legal basis for enforcing compulsory schooling. At the secondary level, a phased
implementation of universal secondary education begun in January 2007. Evident
political will has adequately supplemented the efforts of implementing agencies in the
sector (ministry, development partners) resulting into a fairly vibrant implementation of
education programs.

III). Overall Comments
Gender remains an important area of focus. All policy documents and major stakeholder
meetings give prominence to discussions of gender issues in education. However, there
seems to be an implicit assumption that the current challenge centres on sustaining the
gender parity in primary education at the PPET and tertiary education levels. Data does
not show that there is equity in all aspects in these levels, though. Even at the primary
level, equally important issues like improving girls’ and boys’ completion, reducing drop
out, repetition and bridging the gap in achievement remains key challenges that do not
come out very strongly in the policy reviews.

A National Gender Policy developed in 1997 has since been revised in 2007. The policy
provides an important framework for redressing gender imbalances, is a guide to other
development practitioners, and provides the framework for the development of sector
specific gender policies. The draft education sector gender policy, while capturing the
main gender issues in the sector, is not adequately aligned with the national gender
policy. Being a draft nevertheless provides opportunities for further revision to provide a
strong framework for the implementation of a gender sensitive and responsive education
system.

III. Participation in Education
a). Pre-Primary
Enrolment at this level is very low. Total GER for pre-school education is just 6.17%,
with female and male GERs being 6.10% 6.23% respectively. The NERs are equally low
at 1.63% for both females and males. The figures show that more than 93% of all P1
entrants do not have any form of pre-school experience. The figures are even lower for
pre-schools affiliated to government primary schools. In these schools, total GER is only
0.42% (girls = 0.41) while NERs are a paltry 0.27% for all groups. Pre-school education
is not widespread. There are only 386 pre-school institutions in Uganda, with about 44%
being privately provided by individual entrepreneurs. The centres charge fees that most
parents cannot afford.

Uganda has 3,248 pre-school institutions, of which: 2,335 (72%) nursery institutions, 768
(24%) community based centres, 73 (2%) home based centres and 72 (2%) day care
centres. With 76 teacher training institutions, there is one training institution for roughly
43 teacher trainees. The implication is that the intake rate into TTCs is low, and training
institutions have huge idle capacity. The low intake may be due to both lack of interest
in pre-school teacher training programs, fewer ECD centres (hence, low demand for ECD
teachers). But the concentration of pre-school centres in Uganda is very uneven, with
two regions (central and western) having more than three quarters of institutions.
At only 69,000 children in nursery institutions (which alone account for 72% of
institutions), the low GER is most likely to be true. On the other hand, teacher data from
a regional survey indicate that female ECD teachers constitute 41% of ECD teachers.
Girls comprise 63.4% of children enrolled in this level in the region.

b). Primary
Uganda has been implementing universal free primary education since 1997. From just
about 2.5 million children in school then, enrolment has risen to over 7.3 million by
2006. Differences between boys and girls still persist (Table 28).

Table 28: Selected Primary Education Indicators
 Indicator           Female      Male     Total                         Fact!
 GER                 106.76      108.77   107.77        More than 25,000 children have
 NER                 92.41       93.62    93.01          been abducted by the LRA since
 GIR                 149.74      155.95   152.84         1996, forcibly recruited as
 NIR                 66.46       67.17    66.82          combatants and sex slaves
 Repetition                                             An estimated 7,000-12,000 Ugandan
 Survival to P5      48.3        47.5     47.9           children are involved in commercial
 Drop out                                                sex, 90% of them girls and 47%
 Completion16        42          55       48             orphans
 Transition                                              Source: Uganda/UNICEF (2006)
Source: Uganda (2006c, 2005) and UNICEF (2005)

There are no significant differences between girls and boys in enrolment. Survival to P5
is also not significantly different, with the marginal gains favouring girls. Boys however
have significantly higher completion rates than girls of about 13 percentage points.
Indications are that most girls drop out in P6, at an average of about 35%. Schools screen
students at this grade and the weak students are forced to repeat to ensure that the district
ranking in the Primary leaving Examinations (PLE) for the particular districts remain
high. Unfortunately, most of the victims seem to be girls. Screening is therefore a major
contributor to drop out, especially of girls.

c). Secondary
The government introduced universal secondary education with four objectives: increase
equitable access to secondary education, achieve MDG on gender parity by 2015,
enhance sustainability of UPE, and, reduce the high cost of secondary education.
Enrolment in this level shows some stark differences between girls and boys (Table 29)

Table 29: SEC school GER and NER, 2005
 Indicator           Female      Male     Total
 GER                 16.64       20.46    18.55
 NER                 14.55       16.33    15.43
 GIR                 21.9        25.7     23.8
 NIR                 4.91        4.25     4.58
Source: Uganda (2006c, 2005) and UNICEF (2005)

Unlike primary, there are more boys enrolled in secondary education. The difference in
GER is four percentage points higher for boys than girls. The notably higher enrolment
of boys (despite a marginally higher NIR for girls), attests to immediate drop out for girls
once enrolled.

d). Business, technical vocational education and training (BTVET)
Though BTVET is not an area of focus in UNICEF programs, statistics demonstrates the
extent of gender disparity in post primary education, and points to the absence of
opportunities for girls beyond primary and secondary schooling. Girls constitute only
27.4% of 25,514 students in sector by 2006, a reduction from the 30% of 2004
enrolments.

IV. Access to educational materials/resources and facilities
Teaching and learning materials remain a priority area for the government. In 2006/07
alone, the instructional materials unit (IMU) procured and distributed 99,000 copies of
the thematic curriculum for schools17. Another 10% of the annual UPE capitation grant
was spent on supplementary reading materials.

Uganda has made tremendous effort in improving pupils’ access to textbooks. The
overall pupil textbook ratio stands at 1:1.8. The lower grades (P1-P4) have achieved a
ratio of almost one to one (1.0.9) while the upper classes (p5-p7) have a ratio of 1:0.4).
There are however serious differences, with the northern districts having ratios as high as
1:15 (Uganda/UNICEF, 200).

Though evidence shows that up to 80% of schools have gender segregated sanitary
facilities, the demand for toilet facilities is still very high following UPE and almost all
schools do not meet the minimum school standards on sanitation and hygiene (Uganda,
2005). Regions that have a relatively better provision of sanitation facilities are
Kampala, Central and Western Uganda. Other regions, Northern and Eastern, are worse
off. Absence of proper sanitation and hygiene facilities is more detrimental to girls’ than
boys’ schooling. It makes the school environment less friendly, and enhances chances
of absenteeism and drop out.

V. Teachers
Uganda had a teaching establishment of 144,919 teachers by 2005. Roughly 41% of
teachers are female. For primary teachers (both male and female), the modal educational
qualification is ‘O’ Level and Certificate/Diploma. In contrast, female teachers constitute
only 21.1% of the total number of teachers at the secondary level. Of this figure, only one
quarter (25.4%) are graduates. Fewer female teachers at this level deprives girls of role
models and confidants in whom they can share issues affecting their schooling which
they would not do with male teachers. Fewer female teachers also mean that there are
low chances of having female headteachers.

It was not possible to determine the distribution of teachers by location, though there is
certainly a problem with distribution that has led the government to introduce allowances
for teachers in the hard to reach areas. Female teachers are reported to be averse to
teaching in the rural and insecure areas, yet, these are the areas where girls’ participation
is lowest.
VI. Performance in examinations
Gender gap in performance is glaring. An analysis of performance in the national
Primary Leaving Examination (PLE) reveals a consistent pattern of better performance
by boys than girls (Uganda/UNICEF, 2005). In the 2004 examinations, only 39% of girls
managed to score Division I compared to 69% of boys, while 59% of boys attained
Division II compared to 41% of girls.

The trend continues with pre-service teacher education. More female teacher trainees fail
to proceed to second year of study after failing the examinations. However, female
teacher trainees perform better in in-service primary teacher training examinations.
Analysis of results over a four year period (2001/02 – 2004/05) show that male students
only performed better than females in 2001/02 but female students have performed
consistently better since then. In 2004/05, the failure rate was 10.8% compared with
8.2% of females. Nevertheless, the education sector performance report which details
these statistics does not analyze the gender differences. What is clear is that the higher
failure rate of female teacher trainees is compounded by the low enrolment in these
institutions. The result is a low overall proportion of female teachers in the education
system.

VII. The Education for All – Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) Window
Uganda has not benefited from an EFA-FTI grant so far. It is currently preparing to
submit a request.

VIII. The Policy Front
The Uganda Gender Policy provides the framework for redressing gender imbalances, is
a guide to other development practitioners, and provides the framework for the
development of sector specific gender policies. The policy sets priority areas of action at
the national, sectoral, district and community levels. Its ultimate objective is to “evolve a
society that is both informed and conscious of gender and development issues and
concerns” (Uganda, 2007a:v). A major weakness of the current gender policy is its
failure to come out strongly on the mobilization of, access to, and distributive impact of
resources in development. This is despite the acknowledgement that unequal access to
and control of resources is one of the main causes of gender inequality in Uganda
(Uganda, 2006).

The MoES’s “Basic Education Policy for Educationally Disadvantaged Children”
considers educationally disadvantaged children as those children “who are experiencing
barriers to learning, and are directly or indirectly excluded from or denied the chance to
optimally participate in the learning activities which take place in a formal or non-formal
setting.” Girls are identified as one of the educationally disadvantaged groups.

A handbook for teachers on gender responsive teaching environment has been developed
with the facilitation of UNICEF. Though a very noble and timely idea, it has left out
other important target groups, not least the quality assurance officers and other education
supervisors who superintend curriculum implementation. UNICEF is supporting ESA in
engendering the tools used for school inspection and monitoring (by SMCs etc.).
The development of Basic Requirements and Minimum Standards Indicators for
Educational Institutions was a right move, but the document is too general and does not
include basic consideration of the differences between girls and boys, and fails to specify
what should be, for instance, types of toilets, distance from classrooms, boys’ toilets, etc.

IX. Education SWAp
The current Education Sector Strategic Plan (2004-2015) and its predecessor (1998-2003)
provide the framework for sector wide approach in education in Uganda. Platforms for
joint planning, implementation and reviews are the Education Sector Consultative
Committee (ESCC) and the Education Funding Agencies Group (EFAG). Each year,
there are annual planning and budgeting and joint review exercises.

Even though a SWAp is in place, there are concerns that a number of partners still engage
in the project mode, and sometimes, there are multiple studies and projects being
implemented by partners independently. Though there has been progress, e.g. agreeing
on targets, indicators, joint monitoring and evaluation together, etc, capacity is still a
problem. Still, only four of the agencies active in the education sector are have specific
programs in gender (AFDB, WB, UNICEF, UNHCR). Additionally, the SWAp process
does not seem to have ensured effective targeting of resources.

X. Projects/programs to encourage education of girls
These are many but the following can be identified.
a) Ensuring that structures are friendly for girls, school hygiene and equipping teachers
   with skills to enable girls to learn.
b) The Presidential Initiative on AIDS Strategy for Communication to Youth (PIASCY).
   This program encourages positive behaviour at school, stresses coping mechanisms
   and trains teachers on how to handle girls and other children. It also emphasises
   deliberate interventions on sexual maturation and reproductive health education.
c) Deliberate intervention to help girls access sciences - labs targeted in needy girls
   schools. In the girls’ schools, to ensure that they are well resources. The African
   Development Bank (AfDB) grants are used to build labs in girls’ only schools and
   predominantly girls’ mixed schools.
d) Role model female head teachers and role model teachers in sciences are used to
   encourage girls to come on board.
e) Deliberate affirmative action. Girls are given an additional 1.5 points to encourage
   higher enrolment in the national universities. As a result, enrolment has gone to over
   40%. The 1.5% gives girls confidence and has implications at the lower levels.
   Additionally, at selection to the institutions, some affirmative action being applied.
   With joint admissions board (JAB), the normal practice is to sponsor those with 2
   principal passes. However, girls are admitted with one principal pass for the diploma
   institutions.
f) Many institutions where courses were male dominated have tried to introduce courses
   that attract girls, e.g. ICT.
g) Sciences have been optional but are now compulsory. Teachers have been trained on
   how to motivate girls to take sciences, e.g. teaching sciences in gender sensitive
     environment. Low girls’ enrolment was due to the insensitive pedagogy. With the
     technical assistance from Japan, there is an increasing focus on in-service training for
     teachers to get skills to handle girls’ dominated classes.
h)   MoES has recommended that for the mixed primary and secondary schools, where
     the head teacher is male there should be a female deputy head teacher and vice versa.
i)   These work as role models. There has been a deliberate effort to promote female
     headship in schools.
j)   In the dailies, there are female achievers who write about their experience. At the end
     of the year, printed in one booklet and sold to schools. This is meant to motivate girls
     and teachers to be role models
k)   Re-entry for drop outs due to early pregnancy is encouraged. There is a circular from
     MoES to schools to enforce the policy.
l)   Government bursary for PLE best performing pupils per sub-county: one girl, one
     boy. However, these bursaries end up being taken mostly by boys because they
     perform better than girls.
m)   In BTVET, Uganda has embraced competency based education and learning
     approach, including modularizing curriculum in the institutions to encourage girls
     who drop out to come back18. At the policy level, the ministry has developed the
     Uganda Vocational Qualifications Framework – which should harmonize assessment,
     certification and accreditation across the board. This will enable girls to cross over
     e.g. to the university. An outcome of all these interventions, there are notable
     changes in the enrolment of girls in these institutions. There is a change in the
     curriculum menu, i.e. what is being offered in these institutions.

Complementarity: UNGEI and Uganda Education Program
With the support of UNICEF, under the UNGEI framework and in collaboration with
FAWE-U, Uganda has implemented the following activities: conducting gender audits on
national education policies, using GEM to empower girls, documenting best practices in
girls’ education. Evidence seems to suggest that in some countries like Uganda, the
GEM is proving an effective mobilization tool for girls’ education.

XI. Education Budget and Gender sensitive budgeting
Uganda commits a high proportion of the education budget to basic education. In FY
2005/06, primary and secondary were apportioned 67.1% and 16.1% of the total budget
respectively. This cumulatively accounts for 83.2% of total education budget.

In terms of specific amounts of funds being earmarked for gender specific programming,
the 2007/08 budget has a budget line for ‘gender mainstreaming’ of Ush. 50 million (US$
28,735.6). It is not clear what this money is for. MoES opine that it may be used to fund
the gender focal point at MoE. Currently, ESIP is in the process of being recosted mainly
due to the introduction of UPPET and thematic curriculum for primary schools. The
recosting should result into meaningful adjustment of the budget from a gender
perspective.
Not much has been done on gender based budgeting. It is not a key element of the
planning and budgeting processes. There is however a girls’ education budgeting project
by USAID and the Dutch, but these are very limited in scope.

There are clear statements on the promotion of sanitation and hygiene in schools
especially targeting girls, but this is not matched with appropriate expenditure details in
the Ministerial Policy Statement.

The MoFPED organized workshops for all sectors to translate the gender based budgeting
to the sectors. This is being done at the national level but the MoES is yet to embrace it.
There has therefore not been any deliberate analysis of gender budget so far, despite the
establishment of gender desks in all departments.

XII. UNICEF Anchoring
UNICEF is implementing the “TRACE” (the right of all children to education) program
through rights based approach. The TRACE program aims to promote access and
retention in school and to improve the quality of primary education and consequently of
learning achievement. There are two main projects in TRACE.               The first, ‘Early
Learning and Stimulation’, aims to progressively enable children aged 3-5 to exercise
their right to quality early learning, stimulation and preparation for timely enrolment in
primary school. The second, ‘Primary Education: Quality and Completion’, aims to
enable children aged 6-12, especially girls, to access school at the correct age, to
complete quality primary education and to achieve the required proficiency levels.

By the end of the program cycle, the following two key results are expected in the
selected (mostly northern) districts:
 a) The percentage of girls and boys aged 0-5 years who realise their right to early
    learning and stimulation will increase from 2% to 12%;
 b) The percentage of girls and boys aged 6-12 realising their right to access education
    will increase from 53% to 68% (in the conflict-affected districts and in Karamoja),
    while the percentage of children who complete quality primary education and
    achieve required proficiency levels for their class will increase from 23% to 40%.

Two other non educational projects nevertheless have a direct impact on education. The
Social Policy, Advocacy and Alliances for Children has two components: a). the
Evidence-based Social Policy Advocacy for Children contributes to the monitoring
process for the Millennium Declaration, the MDGs and the PEAP by supporting the
analysis and dissemination of up-to-date data on children and young people; b). the
Advocacy and Alliances for Children contributes to the progressive realization of
children’s rights and gender equity, especially the right of age-appropriate participation.

UNICEF programs are effectively helping bridge the gender gap especially among the
conflict prone areas. At the same time, a number of other partners and NGOs are
implementing various programs especially in the Northern Region which is the most
disadvantaged, and where gender differences are also the most glaring. The programs in
place should facilitate the narrowing of gender differences in basic education.
XIII. Review of literature on gender and girls’ education in Uganda
Available literature on gender issues and girls’ education in Uganda can be categorized
into four. The most prominent are research reports and other briefs from the university,
specifically Makerere. Second are MoES reports and policy documents, sometime jointly
prepared with development partners. Third are reports by NGOs active in the sector.
Fourth are newspaper articles, handbooks, handbills and brochures by different
individuals, media houses, NGOs and other institutions.

a). Government Reports/Policy Blue Prints: Girls’ education has been a priority area
of focus for the government of Uganda for the past two decades. In 2000, MoES
produced ‘The National Strategy for the Girls’ Education in Uganda’ (NSGE) (MoES,
2000). The strategy highlighted key barriers to girls’ education in Uganda, strategies for
enhancing girls’ education and proposals on the way forward. The implementation of the
free primary education program, together with a clear focus on the girl child, has
dramatically increased the enrolment of girls in
Uganda (Uganda, 2006a).           However, the             Some participation inhibitors
challenge of increasing completion, reducing           More girls are inhibited by
drop out and repetition as well as enhancing               accessibility challenges – 50%
completion and transition remain. Drop out                 compared to 21% boys -
rates in the higher primary grades (between P6             Uganda/UNICEF, 2006
and P7) being as high as 35% for girls and 26%         Late age of entry, especially for girls
for boys (Uganda/UNICEF, 2005). The result             Water and sanitation facilities, a
of these trends is the presence of more boys in            major factor for girls’ attendance,
upper primary grades and secondary than girls              are not available in all schools
(Uganda, 2006b). In the remote rural areas,            Economic differentials have greater
long distances between school and insecurity               impact on girls’ than boys’ chances
invariably affect the education of girls than              of schooling
                                                       Learners, especially, girls, miss
boys (Uganda/UNICEF, 2005). A macro level
                                                           school on some days to care for the
study identifies unequal access to and control of          sick members of the household
resources is one of the main causes of gender              (Uganda/UNICE, 2005)
inequality in Uganda (Uganda, 2006a).
The education sector gender policy (2006c) provides guidelines for gender
mainstreaming in the sector. The policy is intended to cover the period of the ESSP,
which should not be the case. It instead ought to have provided a framework for
mainstreaming gender and monitoring implementation of policies, programs and projects
beyond the life of the ESSP. This is a major limitation of the policy. However, though it
effectively engenders the objectives of the ESSP, it fails to specify the policies, measures,
interventions/strategies and approaches that are essential in successful gender
mainstreaming in the sector, in sharp contrast to the national gender policy which has
very clear objectives and which should have formed the basis for formulating education
sector gender policy. There is no relationship between the national gender policy and the
draft Gender and Education Policy. From this title, there is no clarity whether it is an
education sector gender policy, or gender and education sector policy. Report on the
situation of women and children in Uganda (Uganda/UNICEF, 2006) reveals that one of
the reasons for the non-realization of children’s rights to education is the school
environment (See Box on summary of inhibitors).

b). University Reports/Studies: Publications and reports from the university are notable
for their focus on higher education, and mostly on the implementation of affirmative
action and gender mainstreaming at Makerere University. The university seems to have
made significant progress in mainstreaming gender in higher, specifically university
education (Bwire, 2006; Makerere University, 2002). However, there are other reports by
university specialist on basic education. For instance, Makerere Institute of Social
Research (MISR) (2003) conducted a study on growing up and sexual maturation. The
study found that information gaps on growing up and sexual maturation have a wide
spectrum of negative and varied consequences for boys and girls while getting such
information contributes to children’s enjoyment of school, good academic performance
and confidence building, especially among girls.

c). Studies by NGOs/Reports: On basic education, a study at the dawn of the Dakar
meeting by FAWE Uganda (2000) documented the high enrolment rates for boys at the
expense of girls, even though the drop out rate for boys was higher. It proposed the
enactment of a policy on re-entering into the formal school system by school dropouts
due to pregnancy. There has been no policy per se but girls who get pregnant are
encouraged to re-enter. One year later, FHRI (2001) observed that while corporal
punishment elicited some public attention, pregnant schoolgirls still had to leave school
and were unable to register at the same school after delivery. FAWE (U) and ActionAid
Uganda (2002) document some good practices in gender mainstreaming in Uganda which
they recommend other CSOs may replicate in promoting girls’ education in Uganda.

A study by Uganda by ActionAid Uganda (2004) observed that all forms of gender-based
violence impact on the concentration, retention, performance and achievement of both
girls and boys in school. Another study (Naker, 2005) found rampant violence in
schools, with 98 percent of boys and girls reporting experiencing physical or emotional
violence. Another 75.8 per cent, majority being girls, reported experiencing sexual
violence and 74.4 per cent reported experiencing economic violence. These findings
more or less corroborate the previous findings by FIDA Uganda (2004) that
discrimination against girl children is rampant especially in rural areas.

An analysis on the implementation of gender sensitive education policy and practices
noted the positive impact of reforms to increase the right of access to education by girls
and boys, though it noted some differential policy impacts, such as the inability to
achieve parity in the proportion of female and male teachers at the pre-school level. A
review of education in the Karamoja, one of the most disadvantaged regions (Kariuki,
2006), revealed that enrolments decline as children progressed to higher classes, with
girls being affected most, to the extent that in some schools, there are no girls in P6 and
P7.
d). Girls’ Education in the Press: Although it was not possible to access much literature
on what the Ugandan press has been reporting on the education of the girl child, a few
obtained from UNICEF office indicate that this has been given attention for a long time.
Ocowun (2006) noted the heavy involvement by NGOs in funding education in Uganda,
and singled out the partnership between MoES and Save the Children UK in launching
the “Rewrite the future” project in Pader District. This is an important project in
increasing the participation of
excluded children. Okello (2006)                    WOMEN BEST TEACHERS
also reported on UNICEF’s
campaigns to sensitize the               BY
Karimojong about the importance          ANNE MUGISA & MOSES MULONDO
of educating girls. The article
expresses voices of girl children        “PUPILS taught by female teachers perform better
                                         than those taught by male teachers, according to a
and their vulnerability to their
                                         report released by UNEB on Friday. The report
native Karimojong culture of early       based 0.11a national survey says schools headed by
marriages that denies them the           female teachers performed better than those headed
right to complete education. An          by their male counterparts………. Though they
article by Ongoza (1999) focused         performed better, female teachers are only a
on the exclusion of disadvantaged        minority, according to the survey. Of the 405
children in Uganda, and gives a          schools randomly selected in different districts in
graphic description of the plight of     Uganda, only 15% were female headed while the
one deaf girl child in Uganda.           overall number of female teachers was very low.
While this was just one case, it         The researchers recommend to the policy makers to
nevertheless epitomizes the misery       appoint more female teachers to head primary
                                         schools and recruit more female teachers as well”.
that especially disadvantaged
                                         Saturday Vision, August 25, 2007
children generally go through,
including denial of the right to schooling.

XIV. Conclusion
Despite the tremendous progress, a number of challenges remain. Enrolment of girls
especially in the conflict areas has to be given attention. In discussions with project staff
on the current situation of girls’ education in Uganda, it was reported that in one school
in Kitgum, out of a class of form one, 19, only one was a girl. In another school, there
were 5 girls out of a class of 22. In yet another school, the team asked where girls were,
and the response was that they (the girls) had dropped out.

As much as effort have been made to ensure that there are no gender biases in the
curriculum, the BTVET curriculum still retains remnants of gender stereotyping and will
need to be examined to make them gender neutral.

Even though the national gender policy emphasizes the institutionalizing gender and
budget initiatives in central and local government budget cycles, there is a notable gap
between policy intents and implementation. There is no evidence that the budget has
been subjected to gender analysis, while there are no plans so far to institute gender
sensitive budgeting within the MoES.
Compared to 2000, Uganda has made tremendous effort in mainstreaming gender in its
education program. It is certainly ahead of a number of countries in the ESAR in terms
of capacity to mainstream, commitment of the UNICEF office to support gender
mainstreaming and education of the girl child, realistic policies and pragmatic
interventions to reduce gender inequity and political commitment to gender equity in
education and other spheres. Much remains to be done however in improving the
education SWAp and ensuring effective coordination of interventions, pooling of
resources and ensuring targeting of resources for maximum impact. Uganda therefore
needs to consider a number of proposals to realize these goals.


Recommendations

I: Overall Recommendations

a).Improving the education of girls: Three areas of focus
The scenario scripted in the preceding section point to progress in improving the
education of girls and boys, but at the same time demonstrates the magnitude of
challenge that ESAR faces in equalizing access and participation as well as steadying the
focus on quality improvement. Three measures seem to be standing out as needing
specific and intense focus: a). strengthening education SWAps by entrenching the gender
agenda; b). special attention to the excluded groups; and, c). improving the EMIS
(including personnel training and retraining).

b). Strengthening Education SWAps and Entrenchment of Gender Mainstreaming
The shift to sector wide approaches in education holds much promise in harmonizing
support to education sector in the region, as indeed in other parts of the world. SWAps
provide an excellent opportunity for input in policy making and program implementation
that addresses themes and issues in the entire education sector in a coordinated manner.
Where local knowledge and expertise on gender aspects of educational planning and
implementation is weak, countries are likely to benefit from the input of other partners.
Donors and other stakeholders have an opportunity to provide budgetary support to
gender programs which may not have been adequately funded. Fundamentally,
weaknesses in policy front are also likely to be strengthened with the input of other
stakeholders. The challenge for ESAR is three fold: i). introduce the approach where
none has been existing; ii). strengthen SWAps where they are weak; and, iii). Take
advantage of the SWAp process to ensure that the entire education program is gendered

c). Focus on the excluded
Strategies will need to focus on the excluded girls, who constitute the majority of out of
school children. Lewis and Lockheed (2006) identify two categories of strategies for
addressing exclusion: (i) what governments can and should do on the policy front; and,
(ii) what multilateral and bilateral donor agencies/development partners can do. The first
category should target: altering education policies and addressing discrimination by
changing laws and administrative rules; expanding options for educating out of school
children, especially girls; improving quality and relevance of schools and classrooms by
ensuring that excluded girls receive basic educational inputs and providing professional
development to help teachers become agents of change; supporting compensatory
preschool and in-school programs that engage and retain excluded children, particularly
girls; creating incentives for households help overcome both the reluctance to send girls
to school and the cost of doing so.

Development agencies or donors could, on the other hand, facilitate increased school
attendance by the excluded groups through:
    Establishing trust funds for multilateral programs targeted at excluded girls that
     supports experimentation, innovative programs, alternative schooling options and
     the basic inputs for effective schools
    Expanding knowledge base about what works to improve the school participation
     and achievement of excluded girls through a girls’ education evaluation fund.
    Creating demand by financing compensatory costs associated with reaching
     excluded children, promoting outreach programs for parents, building
     partnerships for conditional cash transfers – CCTs; and providing school meals,
     scholarships for girls, and school stipends to finance school uniforms, school
     supplies, books for girls.

UNICEF (2007) identify three broad polices that are key in improving the participation of
girls. These are: abolishing school fees, encouraging parents and communities to invest
in girls’ education, and, safe, girl friendly schools.

d). FTI Window and Girls’ Education
The challenge of meeting the EFA and MDG goals in education should clearly focus on
the excluded, majority of whom are girls. The review shows that a number of countries
are yet to apply for FTI support. These countries should put in place robust proposals for
accelerating girls’ education when preparing FTI proposals. Those that have gotten the
support like Kenya should accelerate programs that support girls’ education. This may
entail new innovations or expanding existing programs, like the UNICEF supported girls’
scholarship program in the remote northern part of the country. Since UNGEI is part of
the FTI partnership, girls’ education lays a legitimate claim on the catalytic fund.

e). Improving EMIS
It is virtually impossible to program for gender equity policies and programs without
knowing the magnitude of the gender differences in participation and the weight of
factors that impact on gender equity. The review has revealed that getting up to date,
comprehensive and desegregated data is a problem in the region. Countries need support
to strengthen their EMIS departments (or establish one where there is none), train
personnel in data management (statistics), dissemination of data including posting online
for easy access, etc. Getting national data may be easy in some countries but even in
such cases, data on intra-country/regional differences may not be readily available.
In particular, countries must make efforts, and be supported to, maintain and up date a
comprehensive data base for the entire education sector. Much of the data available from
the mainstream ministries of education is confined to basic education. Data on post
basic, technical and higher/university education is scant. Another problem is the
unavailability of data on performance in examinations. Many countries have examination
councils or boards that keep this data independent of the ministries of education. There
should be concerted efforts to make the data available from one complete source. The
linkage and coordination between ministries of education and other departments need to
be strengthened. A well functioning EMIS system will provide adequate information for
planning and implementation of programs for the improvement of education and
involvement of other stakeholders.


II: Country Specific Recommendations

a). Ethiopia

i). Improving the SIP Model: The UNICEF model of SIP is more wholesome and can
be an effective instrument to improve the current government model. Space for doing so
exists as the guidelines have not yet been developed.

ii). A more inclusive definition of quality: The MoE may need to revisit this and adopt
a more inclusive definition of quality, such as the UNICEF definition that includes,
among others the entry behaviour of grade one entrants. It is not possible to expect
children who have not had any pre-schooling experience to learn meaningfully in the first
few years of primary education. This partly explains the high proportion of grade one
entrants who drop out before grade two.

iii). Engendering the Budget: The best approach is to advocate for engendering the
current budget, even with the ceilings in place. The guidelines for gender sensitive
budgeting that is being developed should be concluded and the process of sensitizing the
MOFED and other staff should begin. Only when the budget is fully engendered,
supportive with relevant technical capacity and political will, can Ethiopia effectively
implement the policy proposals espoused in the ESDP and PASDEP.

iv). Facilitating dissemination of gender specific research: The review did not come
across findings of research work done in the recent past in Ethiopia. It is unlikely that
there has been no research taking place in the universities, research institutes as well as
research by NGOs. What is most likely is that the findings of the research already done
have not been widely disseminated. It may be necessary for the government, through the
Gender and Equity Department, to encourage and directly support the dissemination and
sharing of findings gender based research. If possible, a data bank of researches done
should also be established by the department. This will facilitate accessing findings of
relevant research documents.

v). Capacity Development
The evident political will in Ethiopia is not matched with technical capacity in gender
mainstreaming both at the MoE level and UNICEF office. The challenge here must be
addressed by the regional office, UNICEF country office and the MoE. The department
of gender and equity in the various ministries are well meaning but they are not able to
carry out regular gender analyses of policies and interventions. The MoE also need to
have a clear program for building the capacity at the headquarters and Woreda levels.


b). Kenya
i). Equalizing Opportunity of Access in Teacher Education Programs
Kenya must do something to equalize opportunity of access to females especially in
secondary education teacher training programs. The problem of lack of female teachers
is more acute at the secondary school level. The problem is principally due to fewer
female candidates achieving the necessary cut off mark to join these colleges. The
government should adopt an affirmative action and allow admission of more females
even if at lower points. This will result in the production of enough female teachers who
could be better role models to girls still in school.

ii). Enhance Participation and Performance Science Subjects.
The current performance patterns show that girls dominate the languages and other
‘softer’ disciplines in primary, secondary and even university education. Initiatives that
aim to improve the teaching of and performance in the sciences such as the strengthening
mathematics and science education (SMASSE) project should be strengthened and given
a strong gender focus. The current project that supplies science equipment to girl’s
schools in order to promote performance in Mathematics and other Science subjects
should be intensified.

iii). Engendering the budget
A deeper analysis of the education budget from a gender perspective, and specifically, the
gender component of the SWAp (KESSP) is required. Such analysis should zero in on
the levels of funding, the main activities and program components, the program’s
capacity to absorb earmarked funds, the variance in finding and its implications on
mainstreaming in education.

iv). Focus on learning outcomes
The current inequalities in achievement between girls and boys can be adequately tackled
by intensifying the focus on learning outcomes. Consistent poor performance in science
subjects not only limits the probability of having women professionals in these
disciplines, but by lowering the overall grade in examinations, inhibits the progression of
female students beyond basic education. But focusing on learning outcomes should also
be driven by an overall push to improve the quality of education, and enhance realisation
of rights.

v). Increasing the prominence of girls’ education in the SWAp
A successful SWAp is in place. However, it does not seem to have given much
prominence to the discussions on gender specific issues in the education system. The
gender program does not appear to excite as much debate as other components, say,
instructional materials, during the annual reviews. This may explain why discrepancies
between allocation and actual expenditure, including large deficits in financing, pass
unnoticed.

vi). Accelerate finalization of the gender and education policy and implement it
The finalization of the policy once approved by the cabinet is likely to give added
impetus for the implementation of gender program and projects. The ministry should
ensure that the draft policy is finalised, disseminated amongst stakeholders and finalised
as soon as possible.

vii). A review of progress in implementing presidential directive on affirmative
action
Political commitment to gender equality has recently been taken a notch higher with a
presidential directive that all appointments to public institutions should have a minimum
of 30% women. UNICEF, working with the government, may consider two issues here.
One is to carry out a rapid assessment of how far the directive has been implemented in
education sector, or at least the progress in the implementation of the directive. The other
is to closely monitor its implementation with a focus to carrying out a major assessment
in the near future.

The presidential directive should motivate the ministry and its partners to speed up the
implementation of the gender policy in education, as well as implementing affirmative
action in the recruitment of teacher trainees as advocated in (XVa) above.

viii).Scaling up and supporting initiatives by individual agencies not part of the
SWAp
A number of partners are having unique projects aimed at improving participation of girls
in schools. Some of these agencies are not part of the SWAp and their initiatives may be
easily forgotten. One of these includes the sanitary towels initiative by GOAL Kenya.
The ministry should provide, if possible, provide matched funding for such initiatives,
encourage other partners to take cue and implement the same in other regions not so far
covered, and negotiate with the Treasury for waivers of tax on sanitary facilities and
other initiatives that have clear objectives of improving the situation of girls.

ix). Gender Desegregated Data
Kenya has done well in establishing an EMIS that is working very well relative to other
countries in the region. It would nevertheless do well by ensuring that all data available
is gender desegregated. The current transition rate is given as an overall 61%. It is not
possible to determine how girls compare with boys in transiting to secondary education.
This would be helpful in tracking progress being made in improving education of girls.

c). Malawi
i). Education Sector Gender Policy: Malawi is preparing the ground for an education
SWAp that will form the basis of supporting education programs in the country. It is
important that as the SWAp takes shape, stakeholders, led by the Ministry of Education,
should take cue from the National Gender Policy to prepare an education sector gender
policy. This should draw from the lessons learnt in the past, current challenges and the
broader objectives of the national policy. The policy should comprehensively include
components of HIV/AIDS and OVCs that directly affect the provision of education.

ii). Engendering the National Budget: The national budget should be gendered. The
first step should be to carry out a gender based analysis of the current budget.
Additionally, the NESP costing should also be subjected to gender based analysis (before
finalization) to determine the extent to which the costing is gender sensitive.

iii). EFA-FTI Grant and Priority Areas of Action: The education sector faces
considerable financial constraints. There are a number of activities proposed for funding
to entrench gender equity. Other than tapping funds from development partners, the
finalization of the NESP should allow Malawi to apply for EFA-FTI support. Priority
areas of funding should target improving the participation of girls.

iv).Focus on retention and completion: Strategies in attracting children to school seem
to be working especially in the UNICEF supported schools. A two-pronged strategy is
needed here. For the regions that have managed to attract children, the strategy must shift
to retaining children in school and improving the transition rate. Linking school
communities to learn from one another should be encouraged. UNICEF should not aim at
covering all the schools in Malawi in its programming, but should endeavor to capacity
build the government and communities to replicate the strategies it has employed in its
focus schools.

At the same time, special attention needs to be given to completion. Even though girls
are more than boys in the lower levels, the situation changes dramatically as they
progress the higher levels. For instance, a review of interventions in girls’ education in
2004 revealed that by standard 8, girls constituted only 34% of pupils. These figures
reveal an education system that is grossly inefficient in retaining girls in school.

v). Institutionalizing the CFS: The three main pillars of NESP: equitable access,
relevance and quality, governance and management easily find relevance in the CFS
framework and makes for easy institutionalization. UNICEF can provide the necessary
technical support to MoE to implement the CFS framework in all schools in the country.
In fact, it should be about making the CFS a core component of the education sector
planning and implementation.

vi). An incentive scheme to better performing girls: To address the problem of high
drop out among girls especially in the upper grades, it may be necessary, as a short term
measure, to introduce awards that will encourage girls who do well in school. This will
motivate other girls to stay on and complete the primary cycle.

vii). Strategies on retention of teachers: The imbalance in the distribution of female
teachers can be addressed by strengthening the localization of teacher recruitment and
introducing a system of bonding. Not only should the condition for recruitment be that
one must come from the locality, but once employed, the teacher must undertake to stay
in the locality for a minimum period of time, such as five years before seeking a transfer.
Currently, the absence from rural areas denies rural pupils the role models. A system of
differentiated salary structures should also be considered, where teachers in rural areas
earn better than those in the urban. Third, teachers in the rural areas should also benefit
from accelerated promotions after a certain period of service, such as immediately upon
completing the five year mandatory period of service. These policies may be pursued
alongside those that restrict free movement of teachers especially those that follow their
husbands to the urban centres.

viii). Regular monitoring of education: The free primary education program has
constrained the provision of education in a major way. It is not clear that the MoEVT
carries our regular monitoring schools. This should be emphasized. The relevant quality
assurance officers should be capacitated technically, logistically and financially to be able
to make regular school visits, establish a system of report back and follow up of schools
that need supervisory support.

ix). Girls’ hostels and security issues: The construction of girls’ hostels in the day
schools is a noble idea. Focus should be as much on construction of more hostels,
strategic distribution and location, and, more importantly, security and safety issues.

x). Readmission policy and focus on prevention: Successful implementation of the
readmission policy should go in tandem with instituting preventive measures. In
particular, life skills among school going age children need to be emphasized. Skills for
negotiating safe sex, abstention (which does not seem to be working) and knowledge of
dangers of early pregnancy should be prioritized.

xi). Capacity building for gender mainstreaming: The department of planning to take
charge of coordinating the capacity building program within the ministry, and ensure that
the entire ministry is given training on gender mainstreaming. There are sections that
have not been exposed at all to basic gender mainstreaming skills and practice.

xii). Focus on impact of non education interventions on schooling: It may be
necessary to carry out an investigation on the impact of other non educational work on
educational participation of children. Specifically, establish how the social justice and
protection programs with the police, the child welfare department, etc have empowered
children to be able to demand their rights from the state, parents and the community.

d). Uganda
i). Revising the draft Gender and Education Policy: Depending on the MoES’s
determination of feasibility and its own perceptions on the current ‘gender and education
policy’, it may need to be revise the policy to align it with the national gender policy
rather than peg its lifespan on the ESSP. This means that the recommendation of the
planning and budgeting workshop to finalize the policy and provide funds to implement it
should be put on hold until there is reasonable consensus on the adequacy of the policy.

ii). Revising the Handbook on child friendly pedagogy: The handbook on gender
responsive classroom environment is one of the most important documents on gender
mainstreaming in Uganda. The handbook should be made part and parcel of instructional
materials at the pre-teacher education training institutions for both primary and secondary
education. Second, it should have been developed as part and parcel of a comprehensive
CFS framework, necessitating the need to develop other handbooks for parents, head
teachers, SMC members, etc. The student handbook could focus on rights and
expectations of children from teachers, the school, administration and the pupils
themselves, among others. Indeed, relevant substance for the different stakeholders is
currently in the handbook, so that its current chapters may just need to be revamped
appropriately. Alternatively, change the title so that it is not limited to teachers. Chapter
Three for instance is relevant to parents and SMC members, while chapter 4 is relevant to
other education officers.

iii). Revisiting restrictions on the current national budget: Uganda may need to revisit
the sector ceilings that do not allow for additional funding (even if partners were willing
to infuse additional funding) for gender specific programs. Another obstacle that may
need to be reviewed is the requirement for corresponding counterpart funding that the
government can ill afford now. This is a contradiction because the Ministerial Policy
Statement for FY 2007/08 (Uganda, 2007d) acknowledges insufficiency of resources as
one of the major challenges facing the sector.

iv). Intensifying focus on retention and survival of pupils, especially girls: Data
shows that there is not much difference between girls and boys in the lower primary
grades, and even in the NIR at secondary. However, more girls are lost much faster once
enrolled than boys. This means that interventions focusing on keeping girls in secondary
school, just like those that encourage their survival in primary system, require urgent
attention.

v). Examinations: A number of measures are required here. First, the government
should investigate the reasons behind the consistently poor performance by female pre-
service teacher trainees, yet they perform very well in the in-service examinations.
Second, the ESAPR should also be sensitive and carry out an analysis of the gender
dimensions in examination performance at all levels. Third, Education Statistics
Abstracts should include comprehensive analysis of examination results at all levels. The
current one is not detailed and inclusive enough.

vi). Curriculum length and breadth: In secondary education, students are required to
sit for eight compulsory subjects. This puts too much pressure on students who have to
read widely and for extended duration. Female students may not have enough reading
time unless they are in boarding schools (currently few - 96). They have to attend to
domestic chores at home, including preparing meals, cleaning the home, etc for their
male siblings as they (the male siblings) study (prepare for examinations). They are
therefore not able to compete equally with boys in national examinations that determine
entry to tertiary education.

vii). Enforcing automatic progression at all levels, especially P6: Interventions on
improving girls’ education should target the upper primary segment and specifically the
P6 level. The MoE should enforce the policy of automatic progression and to obligate all
schools and district education officers to stamp out the practice. If possible, the Chief
Administrative Officer (CAO) in every district should be involved in sensitization and
enforcement.

viii). Incentive schemes to attract female teachers to the hard to reach, rural areas:
Allowances given to teachers in the hard to reach areas is a reasonable incentive
compared to the practice in other countries such as Kenya. Good as it is, there should be
greater focus on the security of teachers, particularly females, posted to these areas. There
should also be greater attention given to staff housing. Embracing a safe schools policy
focusing on both teachers and pupils would effectively complement the other efforts in
improving the presence of female teachers in the rural areas.

ix). Pooling Partners and support to gender specific programs: The pooling partners
may want to consider a review of the education sector support to ascertain the degree to
which it has aided gender equity and mainstreaming. Budget support cuts across issues,
programs and projects, but it is possible that some programs may receive generous
funding at the expense of others. This becomes critical when some budget lines are not
clear, like the ‘gender mainstreaming’ item in the 2007/08 budget. Still, it is only Ush.
50 million.

x). Enhancing competitiveness of the thematic curriculum: The thematic curriculum
handbills produced by MoES and USAID should include messages on the importance of
girls’ education. They are currently too general and lack any gender focus.

xi). Engendering the USE: Government should consider engendering the
implementation of the USE beyond the current statements. An investigation on access to
secondary schooling especially in the north may help in designing appropriate policies to
differentially fund the boys and girls’ schools in the region, or schools generally
compared to other parts of the country.

xii). Mainstreaming ECD: ECD should be made an integral part of primary education.
Every primary school should be required to have an ECD section that should be funded
by the government. Low achievement levels contribute to the high drop out rate in P6
especially among girls. Early stimulation should help bridge the gender differences in
achievement which is currently responsible for the high number of girls being filtered out
at P6. In this regard, MoE and UNICEF should work jointly in ensuring the success of
the component 1 of TRACE.
References
A: General Literature Review
Abagi, O. 1997.Efficiency of Primary Education in Kenya: Situational Analysis and
   Implications for Educational Reforms. Nairobi: Institute of Policy Analysis and
   Research (IPAR)
Appleton, Simon, 1995. Exam Performance in Kenyan Primary Schools: Determinants
   and Gender Differences. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.
Association for the Advancement of Higher Education and Development (AHEAD).
   2007. Educational Pathways in East Africa: Scaling a Difficult Terrain. Kampala:
   AHEAD
Bruns, B; A. Mingat and R. Rakotomalala (2003). Achieving Universal Primary
   Education by 2015: A Chance for Every Child. Washington, D.C: The World Bank
Bwonda, E.N. and E.H.N. Njeru. 2005. Primary Education in Kenya: Access and Policy
   Implications, 1989 – 2002. IPAR Discussion Paper Series No. 064/2005. Nairobi:
   IPAR
Kane, E. 2004. Girls’ Education in Africa: What Do we Know about strategies that work?
   Africa Region Human Development Series, the World Bank, Washington, DC.
Kelly, M.J. 1991. Education in a Declining Economy: The Case of Zambia, 1975-1985
   Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Kenya, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MoE). Free Primary Education:
   Every Child in School. 2003.
Kenya, Government of; UNDP and Finland, Republic of. 2006. Millennium
   Development Goals: Needs Assessment Report. Requirement for Goal No.3:
   Promoting Gender Equality and Women Empowerment. Nairobi: Ministry of
   Gender, Sports, Culture and Social Services/Ministry of Planning and National
   Development
Kenya, Government of; UNDP and Republic of Finland. 2006. Millennium
   Development Goals: Needs Assessment Report. Requirement for Goal No.2:
   Achieving Universal Primary Education. Nairobi: Ministry of Gender, Sports,
   Culture and Social Services/Ministry of Planning and National Development
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. 2007. Kenya National Adult Literacy Survey
   Report. Nairobi: KNBS
Lewis, M. A and M. E. Lockheed. 2006. Inexcusable Absence – Why 60 Million Girls
   Still Aren’t in School and What to Do About it. Washington, D.C.: Centre for Global
   Development
Mensch, B.S. and C.B. Lloyd. 1998. "Gender Differences in the Schooling Experiences
   of Adolescents in Low-Income Countries: The Case of Kenya," Studies in Family
   Planning, Vol. 29 (2):167-184.
Otieno, W. 2003. Gender and Education; The Challenge of Educating Girls in Kenya.
   Report prepared for ActionAid Kenya/Elimu Yetu Coalition. Nairobi.
Uganda National Examinations Board. 2000. The Achievements of Primary School
   Pupils in Uganda in English and Mathematics; The Achievements of Primary School
   Pupils in Uganda in Science and Social Studies. Kampala.
United Nations’ Development Group (UNDG). 2005. Making the MDGs Matter: A
   Country Perspective. Report of the UNDG Survey. NY: UNDG
United Nations’ Girls’ Education Initiative (UNGEI) Newsletter, May, 2007
United Nations’ Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 2003.
   EFA Global Monitoring Report 2003/4. Paris: UNESCO
UNESCO. 2006. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2005/06. Paris: UNESCO
United Nations’ Children’s Fund (UNICEF). 2003. Africa’s orphaned generation. NY:
   UNICEF
UNICEF. 2000. Defining Education in Quality: A working paper, 2000
UNICEF. 2005a. The State of the World’s Children 2006: Excluded and Invisible. NY:
   UNICEF
UNICEF. 2005b. Progress for Children: A Report Card on Gender Parity and Primary
   Education, Number 2, April 2005. NY: UNICEF
UNICEF. 2006. Unleashing the Power for Change: Review and Annotated Bibliography
   of Life Skills Materials Used in Eastern Africa. Nairobi: UNICEF ESAR
UNICEF. 2006. The State of the World’s Children 2007: Women and Children – The
   Double Dividend. NY: UNICEF
UNICEF. Gender Achievements and Prospects in Education: The Gap Report. Part One.
   NY: UNICEF
UNICEF. 2005. Progress for Children: A Report Card on Gender Parity and Primary
   Education. Number 2, April.
Vespoor, A. 2005. The Challenge of Learning: Improving the Quality of Basic Education
   in Sub-Saharan Africa. Paris: Association for the Development of Education in
   Africa.
World Bank. 2007. Africa at the Cross Roads: Choices for Secondary Education and
   Training in Sub-Saharan Africa. Conference edition. Africa Human Development
   Washington, D.C: The World Bank.
World Bank. 2007. Africa at the Cross Roads: Choices for Secondary Education and
   Training in Sub-Saharan Africa. Conference edition. Africa Human Development
   Washington, D.C: The World Bank.
World Bank. 2005. Expanding Opportunities and Building Competencies for Young
   People: A New Agenda for Secondary Education. Washington, D.C: The World Bank
World Bank, 2007. Africa at the Crossroads: Choices for Secondary Education and
   Training in Sub-Saharan Africa. Conference Edition. Washington, DC: The World
   Bank (worldbank.org/afr/seia/).



B: Country Specific Summaries

I. Ethiopia
Ethiopia, F.D.R.of. (2007). Education Statistics Annual Abstract, 1998 E.C./2005-06.
   Addis Ababa. Ministry of Education
Ethiopia, F.D.R.of. (2005). Education Sector Development Program (ESDP) III.
   2005/06-2010/11. Program Action Plan. Addis Ababa. Ministry of Education
Ethiopia, F.D.R.of. (2006a). Ethiopia: Building on Progress – A Plan for Accelerated
   and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP) (2005/06 – 2009/10). Addis
   Ababa: Ministry of Finance and Economic Development. September
Ethiopia, F.D.R.of. (2006b). Education Sector Development Program (ESDP) II. Joint
   Review Mission Final Report. February.
UNICEF. (2007). Gender Sensitive Budgeting Guidelines. Unpublished Report.
Education for All (EFA) – First Track Initiative (FTI) Framework Draft Annex, May,
   2007.

II. Kenya
Deolalikar, A.B. 1999. Primary and Secondary Education In Kenya. A Sector Review in
    Kenya. Unpublished Research Report. Nairobi.
Hongo, B. 2006 KCPE Results announced, The Daily Nation, December, 28th
Kenya, Republic of. Education Sector Report, 2007a. Nairobi: Ministry of Education.
Kenya, 2007b. KESSP Eligible Expenditure List as at January 1007
Kenya, 2007c. Ministerial Public Expenditure Review. Nairobi: MoE
Kenya, Republic of. 2006. Report on FTI Catalytic Fund Progress Report. Unpublished.
Kinuthi, N. 2004. Gender gap still wide, East African Standard, Tuesday, March 2, 2004
Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) (2006). Baseline Survey – Social Campaign
    Program Description: Primary Education in Poor Urban Areas of Nairobi.
    Unpublished
Lacey, M. (2006). “Spare The Rod and Spoil The Country, a Kenyan Warns”. New
    York Times, June, 2004(www.nytimes.com)
Nyaga, C. 2004. Taboos that frustrate teens’ right to choose choices
    By Thursday, January 29
Nyasato, R. 2003. FGM Still a Threat to Learning, East African Standard, Saturday,
    December 27, 2003
Ojwang, A. 2004. Good Teachers Lay Firm Foundation. School and Career, The East
    African Standard, Thursday, January 29, 2004
Otieno, W. 2003. Gender and Education: The Challenge of Educating Girls in Kenya.
    Report for Elimu Yetu Coalition. Nairobi.
Promin Consultants. 2005. Free Primary Education Support Project (FPESP) Mid-Term
    Evaluation Report. Niarobi. Unpublished Report
Ringa,      M.      2003.    Girl,      12,     Leaves      Marriage     for     School
    East African Standard, Thursday, November 27


III. Malawi
Burton, P. (2005). Suffering at School. Results of the Malawi Gender Based Violence
    in Schools Survey. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.2005.
Chimombo, J, Chibwanna, M, Dzimadzi, C, Kadzamira, E; Kunkwenzu, E and Namposa,
    D. (2000). Classroom School and Home Factors that Negatively Affect Girls
    Education in Malawi. Report to UNICEF. Centre for Educational Research and
    Training. December.
Kadzamira, E.C. (2006). Review of the Planning and Implementation of Free Primary
    Education in Malawi. Report to UNICEF.
Kadzamira, S.C., D.M.Banda, A. Kamlongera and N.Swianson. (2001). The Impact of
    HIC/AIDS on Primary and Secondary Schooling in Malawi: Developing a
    Comprehensive Strategic Response. Lilongwe: Centre for Educational Research and
    Training (CERT).
Malawi, Republic of. (2005). National Action Plan of Action for Orphans and
    Vulnerable Children, 2005 – 2009. Lilongwe: Government of Malawi.
Malawi, Republic of. 2006. Education Statistics. Lilongwe: Department of Planning,
    MoEVT
Pelser, E; L. Gondwe, C. Mayamba, W. Phiri and P. (2005). Burton Intimate Partner
    Violence: Results from a National Gender Based Violence in Malawi. Pretoria:
    Institute for Security Studies.
United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF). (2007). UNDAF in
    Malawi. 2008 – 2001. Unpublished
UNICEF. (2007). Government of Malawi – UNICEF Country Program of Cooperation
    2008 – 2011. Lilongwe: GoM/UNICEF.


IV. Uganda
Action Aid Uganda. 2004. Scoping Study on Gender based violence in educational
    Institutions. The communication Unit, Action Aid Uganda.
Bwire, R. (2006). “More females set to join Makerere University in August 2006”.
    “Good Gender Practices for Development”. Makerere University. The Focus
    Magazine Vol. 3 No. 2
FAWE-U. (2000). A Baseline Survey for the Project Advocating for an Educational
    Policy on School Pregnancy and School Dropout in Uganda.” Un-published report,
    FAWE-U, Kampala.
Forum for African Women Educatonalists (FAWE) Uganda Chapter (FAWE-U) and
    ActionAid Uganda. 2002. Gains and Challenges in the Education Sector. Best
    practices in girls’ education: A Case of selected NGOs in Uganda. Unpublished
    Report.
Foundation for Human Rights Initiatives (FHRI). 2001. The Right to Education in
    Uganda; A myth or Reality? Special reference to the Universal Primary Education
    Program (UPE). A research report presented at the Public Debate on Economic,
    Social and Cultural Rights in Uganda.
International Federation of Women Lawyers (FIDA) Uganda Chapter (FIDA-U).
    2004. Child Sexual Abuse in Kampala, Mpigi and Wakiso Districts and
    Implementation of the Children Act. Kampala Uganda.
International Labour Organisation (ILO). (2006). Emerging Good Practices on Action to
    Combat Child Domestic Labour in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.
    International Labour Organisation. ILO/IPEC Office, Kampala,
Kariuki, W. 2006. Improving Education Opportunities for Karamoja. UNICEF,
    Unpublished report.
Makerere Institute of Social Research (MISR) (2003). The Project of Growing up and
   Sexual Maturation in Secondary Schools – Uganda. Unpublished report.
Makerere University’s Department of Women and Gender Studies. (2002). Annual
   Report. Kampala: Makerere University
Muhwezi, K.D. 2003. Gender Sensitive Education Policy and Practices, Uganda Case
   Study.
Naker, D. 2005. Violence against children: The Voices of Ugandan Children and
   Adults. Raising Voices and Save the Children in Uganda Kampala Uganda.
Ocowun, C. 2006. Uganda Shillings 35 billion education campaign launched 2006. The
   New Vision, Monday September 18, 2006.
Okello, R. 2006. “UNICEF has launched a campaign to sensitize the Karimojong about
   the importance of educating girls”. The New Vision, Monday, September 11, 2006.
Ongoza, B. 1999. Gender Issues Among the Deaf: UNAD Newsletter No. 6 1999.
   Uganda National Association of the Deaf (UNAD)
Uganda, Republic of./USAID.          Undated.     Thematic Curriculum.       Kampala:
   MoES/USAID
Uganda, Republic of. 2007a. Uganda Gender Policy. Kampala: MoES
Uganda, Republic of. 2007b. Aide Memoire for the 4th Annual Education Sector
   Planning and Budgeting Workshop (10th – 11th May 2007). June. Kampala: MoES
Uganda, Republic of. 2007c. Policy and Operational Arrangements for Implementation
   of Universal Secondary Education (USE). January. Kampala: MoES
Uganda, Republic of. 2007d. Ministerial Policy Statement for Financial Year 2007/2008.
   January. Kampala: MoES
Uganda, Republic of. 2006a. Final Aide Memoire for the 13th Education and Sports
   Sector Review. Kampala: MoES
Uganda, Republic of. 2006b. Gender Inequality in Uganda: The Status, Causes and
   Effects. Kampala: Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development
Uganda, Republic of. 2006c. Ministry of Education Sector Annual Performance Report
   ESAPR). Kampala: MoES
Uganda, Republic of. 2006d. Gender and Education Policy. Revised and Shortened
   Version. November. Kampala: MoES
Uganda, Republic of./UNICEF. 2005. Report on the Situation of Children and Women
   in the Republic of Uganda. Kampala: UNICEF
Uganda, Republic of./UNICEF. 2005. Government of Uganda – UNICEF Country
   Program 2006 – 2010. Kampala: UNICEF
Uganda, Republic of. 2005b. Sanitation and Hygiene in Primary Schools: School
   Sanitation Survey. Unpublished Report. Child Health and Development Centre,
   Mulago, Kampala. Kampala: MoES
Uganda, Republic of. 2001a. Basic Requirements and Minimum Standards Indicators for
   Educational Institutions. Kampala: MoES
Uganda, Republic of. 2001b. Basic Education Policy for Educationally Disadvantaged
   Children. Kampala: MoES
Uganda, Republic of. 2000. The National Strategy for the Girls’ Education in Uganda
   (NSGE). Article 1, EFA conference, Jomtien, 1990. Kampala: MoES
UNICEF. 2006. Government of Uganda
                                 List of Interviewees

I. Ethiopia
1. Wzo. Asmaru Berhiun, Head, Gender and Equity Department, Ministry of Education
2. Wzo. Tiruwork Tizazu, Head, Gender Department, Ministry of Finance and
   Economic Development
3. Wzo. Eleni Mamo, Program Officer, Education
4. Wzo. Maekelech Gidey, Program Officer and OIC
5. Consultant, Gender Sensitive Budgeting Handbook
6. Principal Officer, Planning, Ministry of Education
7. UNICEF Monitoring and Evaluation Officer

II. Malawi
1. Mr. Enock Matale, Deputy Head of EMIS Unit, MoE
2. Mr. Wictor Sajeni, Gender Specialist, Canadian International Development Agency
    (CIDA)
3. Mr. Ralph Agabu, Deputy Director, Ed Methods Advisory Services, MoE
4. Ms. Amelia J. Muyco, Deputy Program Manager, Education, DFID Malawi
5. Ms. Margaret Khombe, Gender Focal Point, Ministry of Education and Vocational
    Training
6. Dr. Augustine Kamlongera, Director of Planning, MoE

III. Uganda
1. Jane Egau Okou, Principal Education Officer, Coordinator Human Resources for
    Health Program, Ministry of Education and Sports
2. Fiona Musana, EFAG Liaison Officer, GTZ
3. Maureen Bakunzi, PPA
4. Cuthbert Mulyalya, Ag C, PME
5. Ainebyona Wilber, PE Budget, Ag. Asst AC, PB
6. Yusuf Nsubuga, Ag. Director of Education
7. John Agaba, Ag. Commissioner, Secondary
8. Mary Goretti, University Secretary, Kyambogo University

IV. Kenya
                            Aminata Maiga, Chief, Education

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Amina Ibrahim, Program Officer, NFE
1
  These include (UNESCO, 2003; UNICEF, 2000; European Union; Plan International, 2005), among
others. a). UNESCO defines two sets of proxies in defining quality, that is teachers and expenditure on
education; b). European Commission – has identified selected 16 indicators grouped into four main area –
attainment, success and transition, monitoring of school education, and, resources and structures; c). the US
Department of Education - has used 31 indicators to compare education in the US and other G8 Countries,
using the following indicators for pre-primary and primary education - Early Childhood Enrolment (also
used in EFA monitoring), Student/Teacher ratios in primary education (also used in EFA monitoring),
Public school teachers’ salaries in primary education, Instructional strategy (methodology) in primary
education, Primary students’ attitudes towards mathematics and science, and, Mathematics and Science
Achievement in primary education; d). Plan International – developed a School Quality Index (SQI) in
1996 that attempts to quantify the quality on the basis of scores assigned to 39 input, process, output and
outcome indicators.
2
 The countries are Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Uganda, Rwanda, Sierra-Leone,
Togo and Zambia.
3
  The data source for this Table is UIS, which is normally two years behind. It is therefore possible that
there are current data from other sources. However, in most cases, even from national statistical sources,
delay in collecting and processing data is common.
4
  SACMEQ I tests were administered in 1998 and SACMEQ II in 2000. The third test is planned for 2007
in the participating countries.
5
 Throughout this document, ‘Tanzania’ refers to the United Republic of Tanzania that includes Zanzibar.
Where source document(s) contains separate data for Tanzania Mainland and Zanzibar, the data is
combined and the resulting average index is presented for ‘Tanzania’
6
 Of the 10 African countries in the sample, the pattern of addressing all the six goals was as follows: five
addresses Goal 1 (ECCE); all 10 addresses Goal 2 (UPE) while 3 addresses Goal 3 (youth/adult learning).
Goal 4 (literacy) is addressed by six countries, Goal 5 (Gender) is addressed by 8 countries, while nine
countries address Goal 6 (quality).
7
  The UNGEI task forces in the countries are chaired by either the Ministry of Education (Ethiopia) or the
local chapters of the Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE) (Malawi, Kenya and Uganda).
FAWE also chairs the regional UNGEI task force.
8
  Investment program not directly under EFA but within education include investments in TTCs, TIVET,
university, construction, ICT, and TIVET Teachers’ Salary
9
  The MDGs are presented in first section of this report under ‘Background’. It deals focuses on
strengthening “national and regional information, and statistical and analytical services relevant to
sustainable development policies and programs, including data disaggregated by sex, age and other factors,
and encourage donors to provide financial and technical support to developing countries to enhance their
capacity to formulate policies and implement programs for sustainable development”. The focus on this
MDG will make it easier to track progress on all aspects of educational participation, and facilitate sharing
and discussion among policy makers, scholars, practitioners and other stakeholders.
10
 In the FY 2006/07 alone, the gap is estimated to be US$ 384.2m (EFA-FTI Framework Draft Annex,
May, 2007)
11
  This section only provides a summary of the measures. They are described in more detail in ESDP III,
pp.57-58
12
   In the MoE, the department is charged with designing and implementing strategies to address equity
issues in education, of which girls’ education is given prominence. It plans and coordinates the different
departments to support the implementation of programs in the regions from an equity perspective.
13
  However, 2006 EMIS data gives the trained pupil teacher ratio of 1: 82. The ratio has been deteriorating
from 82 in 2004 and 83 in 2005. The overall PTR for 2006 is given as 1:76.
14
   Traditional Authority (TA) in Malawi are local traditional leaders, equivalent to locational chiefs or
village elders in a number of African countries. They are recognized in the government structure and are
an important moral and administrative authority in their areas of jurisdiction.
15
 Some of these partners include the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, UNICEF, UNDP, WFP,
FAO, UNHCR, UNFPA, UNAIDS, DFID, NORAD, USAID, DANIDA, CIDA, AUSAID, Government of
Netherlands, and other National UNICEF Committees.
16
  These figures are based on the ESAPR (Uganda, 2006c). Cohort analysis shows that only 21% of girls
and 24 of boys complete primary schooling (Uganda/UNICEF, 2005).
17
  The materials include Wall Charts, Picture Cards, Math Work Cards, Mathematics Practice Books,
English Work Cards and Pupils’ Reading Books in various local languages and bilingual dictionaries
(Uganda, 2007d).
18
   Another advantage of modular approach is short learning periods using specific modules. One can go for
a specific program, e.g. for three months.

								
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