UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by o9S16v4

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									                            UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
                                        FNH 355
                             WORLD PROBLEMS IN NUTRITION
                                           Winter 2010


INSTRUCTOR:                   Judy A. McLean PhD
                              International Nutrition, Food, Nutrition and Health
                              #215-2205 East Mall (FNH Building)
                              604.822.6195
                              www.internationalnutrition.landfood.ubc.ca

CLASS TIME:                   Mon Wed Fri Sec 001 4:00 – 4:50
                              Mon Wed Fri Sec 002 5:00 – 5:50


LOCATION:                     Woodward 2
OFFICE HOURS:                 Mon Wed Fri 2:00 – 3:30
COURSE NOTES:                 www.vista.ubc.ca
EVALUATION:                   Midterm exam (date TBA)                       40%
                              Final exam                                    60%


COURSE OBJECTIVES:

1. To understand the basic principles of nutrition and the role of nutrients in the maintenance of
   health and the prevention of disease in developing and developed countries.
2. To gain an understanding of the current issues in international nutrition, including the causes
   and consequences of malnutrition.
3. To stimulate critical thinking and develop an ability to analyze the complex factors that
   impact on the nutritional status of individuals and populations.
4. To integrate what has been learned and evaluate possible solutions for ending hunger and
   malnutrition.
                                              TOPICS
1.   INTRODUCTION TO NUTRITION

        Energy and Nutrients – carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and water
            Definitions, types, functions, dietary sources
2.   ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS

        Individual- level: anthropometry, dietary assessment, biochemical assessment, physical
         or clinical assessment
        Population-level: drawing inferences from samples, growth references, mortality or
         disease rates, food availability measures
3. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS IN NUTRITION
        History of Diet
        Food Habits and their Origin
        Nutritional Advantages and Disadvantages of Traditional Diets
            Case study – The Pima Indians
4.   MALNUTRITION

        Overview of Malnutrition – where? who? when? why?
        Types of Malnutrition
        Protein/Energy Malnutrition – kwashiorkor and marasmus
        Micronutrient Deficiencies – e.g. iron, iodine, Vitamin A, zinc
        Effects of Chronic Undernutrition
        Poverty and Undernutrition
        Famine – causes and consequences
5.   POPULATION AND THE FOOD SUPPLY

        Food Security – definitions, equations, measurement
        A Paradox of Plenty – can the food supply meet the population’s needs?
        Population Growth – statistics and projections
        Food Distribution
        How is HIV/AIDS impacting on food security issues?
6.   WOMEN AND FOOD

        Reproduction and Nutritional Status – maternal mortality, infant mortality
        Nutrition During Pregnancy
        Fertility Rates in Developed vs. Developing countries
        Breastfeeding – nutritive and nonnutritive benefits
            Breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS
            Problems related to bottle feeding in the developing world
        Women and Food Production
        Women and Poverty
7.   POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS – NONTECHNOLOGICAL

        Education
            Education of girls
            Behaviour Change Strategies – breastfeeding promotion, appropriate complementary
             feeding, hygiene
        Land Reform
            Case study – Zimbabwe
        The Role of International Aid Organizations
            UN Agencies (e.g. WFP, UNICEF, WHO, FAO)
            Governmental (e.g. CIDA, USAID)
            Non-Governmental Organizations (e.g. the Micronutrient Initiative, Helen Keller
             International, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation)
        Food aid – pros and cons
        International Initiatives Against Malnutrition and other types of aid
8.   POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS – TECHNOLOGICAL

        Micronutrient Interventions
            Supplementation – vitamin A, iron-folic acid, zinc
            Food fortification – fortification of staple foods, salt iodization, home fortification
        Agricultural Interventions - the Green Revolution, Genetically Modified Organisms
    Complementary and Therapeutic Feeding – Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF),
     Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition
9.   NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS IN THE DEVELOPED WORLD

        The Nutrition Transition – the ‘Westernization of the World’s Diet’
        The Role of Diet in ‘Western’ Diseases
        Overweight and Obesity – causes, consequences, solutions?
          FNH 355 CLASS INFORMATION/FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS


          NO LAPTOPS, CELL PHONE USE OR PICTURE TAKING IN CLASS


Course questions/email
With over 500 students in the two classes, answering questions by email is not feasible. I will be
available for your questions during office hours Mon, Wed and Fri or by appointment as needed.


What do I do if I miss a class or an exam?
Missed class: Attendance at lectures is mandatory. If you do have to miss a class due to illness
or an emergency it is your responsibility to get the lecture material from a classmate. Please
arrange this early in the semester.
Missed video: If you miss a video you may be able to find it online or in one of UBC’s libraries.
I have included the links to the video websites wherever possible. Several of the videos that will
be shown are part of a personal collection and not available for loan. Please ask a classmate for a
summary if you are unable to attend. Videos are examinable.
Missed exam: Please check UBC student services for university policy regarding missed exams
http://www.students.ubc.ca/calendar/index.cfm?tree=3,48,0,0 .
H1N1 UBC Policy: If you think you might have the flu and will miss an exam or classes please
check the university policy.
http://www.hse.ubc.ca/healthpromotion/communityhealth/h1n1/students.html


What is the format of the exams?
The type of exam questions may include multiple choice, true/false, matching, fill in the blanks
and definitions. Students will also be expected to integrate course material and apply it to real or
hypothetical situations. There will not be any essay questions.


Is the final exam cumulative?
Yes, as the course builds on material presented in the first half.
How do I see my final exam?
Final exam viewing and final grade reviews are covered under UBC’s policy outlined in the
calendar http://www.students.ubc.ca/calendar/index.cfm?tree=3,41,93,0 . Please follow the
guidelines.


Where can I find out information about overseas opportunities?
http://www.students.ubc.ca/global/
http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/CIDAWEB/acdicida.nsf/En/JUD-121483217-HVQ
http://www.ires.ubc.ca/students/global/index.html
http://www.unv.org/
http://www.volunteer.ca/
http://www.worldvolunteerweb.org/
www.idealist.org
www.reliefweb.int/ Under contact directory you can find all the governmental and non-
governmental organizations. Many of these post employment and volunteer opportunities. This
is also a great site for up to date news on current problems in developing countries.
Other news sites:
http://www.irinnews.org/ UN Office for the co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs
http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/index.htm
                                            VIDEOS
A selection of videos will be shown to demonstrate the complex interaction among politics,
culture, gender, climate, economics and physiology that contributes to the current problem of
malnutrition in the world. From other years:


“A Fistful of Rice” (Nepal)
“Deadly Catch: Lake Victoria’s AIDS Crisis” (Kenya)
“For A Few Pennies More” (Indonesia)
“Surviving Hunger” (Ethiopia)
“Hungry for Help – Niger’s Food Crisis” (Niger)
“The Eighth Plague- West Africa’s Locust Invasions” (West Africa)
“Malaria – Killer number one” (Ethiopia)
“Somalia – A State of Need”
“Waiting” (Sudan)
“Women’s Bank of Bangladesh” (Bangladesh)
“Women Alone: After the genocide” (Rwanda)
“Lessons from Kerala” (India)
“The Desired Number” (Nigeria)
“Malnutrition: MSF Campaign for Effective Treatment”
       http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-XMu1YzLsU
“The Pima Indians”
       http://www.dnatube.com/video/581/Pima-Indians
“Closing the gap in maternal and neonatal health” (UNICEF Video)
       http://www.unicef.org/sowc09/index.php
“‘Miracle’ Food that Saves Lives”. CBS News Video. Originally aired June 24, 2008.
       http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=4201082n&tag=related;photovideo
“Hidden Hunger”. NY Times Video. Originally aired May 23, 2009:
       http://video.nytimes.com/video/playlist/opinion/nicholas-d-
       kristof/1194811622305/index.html#1194840444658
“MGRS: A Growth Reference for the 21st Century. (WHO Video)
       http://hqswvilib.who.int:85/streaming/who11621.wmv
          BACKGROUND READING AND RESOURCES (FOR INTEREST ONLY!)
Bhutta, Z. A., Ahmed T. A., Black R. E., Cousens, S., Dewey, K., Giugliani, E., Haider, B.A.,
    Kirkwood, B., Morris, S. S., Sachdev, S. H. P., and Shekar, S., for the Maternal and Child
    Undernutrition Study Group. 2008. “What Works? Interventions for Maternal and Child
    Undernutrition and Survival.” Lancet 371: 417–40.
    http://www.who.int/entity/nutrition/topics/Lancetseries_Undernutrition3.pdf

Black, R. E., Allen, L. H., Bhutta, Z. A., Caulfield, L. E., de Onis, M., Ezzati, M., Mathers, C.,
    and Rivera, J., for the Maternal and Child Undernutrition Study Group. 2008. “Maternal and
    Child Undernutrition: Global and Regional Exposures and Health Consequences.” Lancet
    371: 243–60.
    http://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/Lancetseries_Undernutrition1.pdf

Coates, J., Swindale, A., Bilinsky, P. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) for
    Measurement of Household Food Access: Indicator Guide (v.3.). Washington, D.C.: Food
    and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, Academy for Educational Development.
    August 2007.
    http://www.fantaproject.org/downloads/pdfs/HFIAS_v3_Aug07.pdf

de Onis, M., Garza, C. Onyango, A.W., Borghi, E. 2007. “Comparison of the WHO Child
    Growth Standards and the CDC 2000 Growth Charts. Journal of Nutrition 137:144-148.
    http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/reprint/137/1/144.pdf
Note: the WHO Growth Standards are available at:
    http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/en/

Flour Fortification Initiative, Global Alliance for Improve Nutrition, Micronutrient Initiative,
    UNICEF, USAID, the World Bank. Investing in the Future: A United Call to Action on
    Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies, Global Report 2009.
    http://www.unitedcalltoaction.org/documents/Investing_in_the_future.pdf

Food and Agriculture Organization. 2008. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2008.
    Rome.
    ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0291e/i0291e00.pdf

Kristoff, N. “The Hidden Hunger”. New York Times. May 23, 2009.
     http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/24/opinion/24kristof.html

Kristoff, N. “Raising the World’s IQ”. New York Times. December 4, 2008.
     http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/04/opinion/04kristof.html?scp=2&sq=micronutrients&st=
     cse

Pinstrup-Andersen, P., Cheng, F. 2007. “Still Hungry.” Scientific American. September 2007;
     96-103.
     http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=106&sid=f5c801db-f47f-4138-b176-
     e921e9c89528%40sessionmgr108&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h
     &AN=26351973
Results of the Copenhagen Consensus 2008.
http://www.copenhagenconsensus.com/Admin/Public/DWSDownload.aspx?File=%2fFiles%2fFi
     ler%2fCC08%2fPresse++result%2fCopenhagen_Consensus_2008_Results_Press_Release.p
     df

World Bank. 2006. Repositioning Nutrition as Central to Development: A Strategy for Large-
   Scale Action. Washington, D.C.
   http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NUTRITION/Resources/281846-
   1131636806329/NutritionStrategy.pdf

WHO/WFP/UN SCN/UNICEF. 2007. Community-Based Management of Severe Acute
  Malnutrition. New York, NY.
  http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Community_Based__Management_of_Severe_Acu
  te_Malnutrition.pdf

UNICEF. 2009. State of the World’s Children. New York, NY: UNICEF.
   http://www.unicef.org/sowc09/report/report.php

United Nations. 2008. The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008. New York, NY.
   http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2008highlevel/pdf/newsroom/mdg%20reports/MDG_Re
   port_2008_ENGLISH.pdf
   Note: A Fact Sheet on Millennium Development Goal 1 can be found at:
   http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2008highlevel/pdf/newsroom/Goal%201%20FINAL.pdf

von Grebmer, F. Fritschel, H., Nestorova, B., Olofinbiyi, T., Pandya-Lorch, R., Yohannes, Y.
   October 2008. Global Hunger Index: The Challenge of Hunger 2008. Bonn, Washington,
   D.C., Dublin.
   http://ifpri.org/pubs/cp/ghi08.pdf
            ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN INTERNATIONAL NUTRITION
United Nations System                    Canadian International Development Agency
Standing Committee On Nutrition          www.acdi-cida.gc.ca
www.unsystem.org/scn

UNICEF                                   U.S. Centers for Diseases Control
www.unicef.org                           www.cdc.gov

World Health Organization                International Life Sciences Institute
www.who.int                              www.ilsi.org

World Food Program                       VALID International
www.wfp.org                              www.validinternational.org

Food and Agriculture Organization        Concern Worldwide
www.fao.org                              www.concern.net

The World Bank                           Medecins Sans Frontieres
www.worldbank.org                        www.msf.org

The Micronutrient Initiative             International Nutrition Foundation
www.micronutrient.org                    www.inffoundation.org

Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition   World Vision Canada
www.gainhealth.org                       www.worldvision.ca

Helen Keller International               Save the Children
www.hki.org                              www.savethechildren.org

SUSTAIN                                  International Food Policy Research Institute
www.sustaintech.org                      www.ifpri.org

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation        Program for Appropriate Technology in Health
www.gatesfoundation.org                  www.path.org

Food and Nutritional Technical Assistance Project
www.fantaproject.org

								
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