Vocabulary Building book 2012 by o9S16v4

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									             Vocabulary Building
         English 9 Honors      List 1
Section 1: There are words in English that can
be understood only by those who have lived and
become mature. No explanation, no definitions
could make them clear to a child. Guess what?
You’re no longer a child, so you will be learning
higher-level words to increase your vocabulary.
Your first list is made up of 10 words. In your
head, pronounce each one aloud several times,
following carefully the phonetic respelling.
Make your first list by labeling your page
Vocabulary List 1. Write each word AND the
phonetic pronunciation. Leave about 2 – 3
inches of space between each word. You will
be adding definitions, sentences and alternate
endings to each word.
   1.   vicarious     (vy-KAIR’-ee-ess)
   2.   rationalize   (RASH’-ehn-el-ize)
   3.   gregarious    (gre-GAIR’-ee-ess)
   4.   obsequious    (ohb-SEE’-kwee-ess)
                                                    1
   5.  maudlin (MAWD’-lin)
   6.  ascetic   (a-SET’-ik)
   7.  pander (PAN’-der)
   8.  sublimate (SUB’-le-mate)
   9.  wanton (WAHN’-tehn) – not wonton –
                    like the Chinese appetizer…
   10. effete    (eh-FEET’)
Section 2: Now, we’ll discuss each word one-by-
one. As you read, add a solid definition for each
word to your list. For some words, we’ll also
discuss the etymology (ett-im-OL’-ogy) or history
of the word.
    1. vicarious (adjective) This is an abstract
word, but it is one that is easy for you to grasp.
For example, there are two ways to travel: one by
buying a ticket and actually flying to a
destination. The second way is by reading about
a location or looking at pictures on the internet.
In the first instance, you travel directly. In the
second instance you have enjoyed the destination
vicariously or indirectly.
                                                    2
    You, as a young adult, will recognize that at
times you are escaping from the real world and
are living for the moment a vicarious existence
and are having vicarious joys and sorrows when
you are reading a book. You are living, not your
own life, but the lives of the characters of the
story.
    There are two forms of the word vicarious
with which we will work. First is the adjective
form – vicarious. You experience vicarious joy
when your best friend wins an award or makes an
awesome play. You feel happy even though you
have not won the award yourself or made the play
yourself. The second form is the adverb form –
vicariously. The –ly ending screams adverb! It
also tells HOW something happened. For
instance, you might say, “The dance mom lived
vicariously through her daughter because, as a
child, she was unable to take the dance lessons
she longed to take.” Notice how the word
vicariously answers the question – How?

                                                3
Now, after reading the examples for the word
vicarious, write a definition in your own
words and also write two sentences – one for
the adjective form and one for the adverb
form of the word.
    2. Rationalize. (verb) As a human being, we
tend to rationalize. There are selfish people who
never give anything to charity. They don’t like
to think of themselves as selfish, so they
rationalize that charity is simply harmful to the
poor and causes those who receive it to never try
to earn their own living. In this way, the selfish
person is rationalizing (verb form) their
unwillingness to help, and this rationalization
(noun form) makes the person feel better.
In similar fashion, a father who is angry may
spank his boy merely to relieve his own personal
feelings. But in self-defense he will rationalize his
actions by making himself believe that the
spanking has been done for the good of the child.


                                                        4
The term rationalize most commonly refers to the
unconscious process of though by which one
justifies a discreditable act, and by which one
offers to oneself and the world a better motive for
one’s actions than the true motive.
Now, after reading the examples for the word
rationalize, write a definition in your own
words and also write sentences using the word
in the three ways listed above.
    3. Gregarious. (adjective) This term comes
from the Latin word grex, “a flock,” as of sheep,
and you know sheep like to stay together. If you
are a gregarious type, you are a friendly person, a
good mixer; you like to be with other people.
That is, you are extremely sociable kind. Because
you are gregarious you enjoy parties, crowded
theaters and dance floors; you like to be where
folds flock in small or large numbers. It is a herd
instinct in humans that makes people, to a greater
or lesser degree, gregarious.


                                                  5
The adverb form of the word is gregariously. It
shows how a person who is outgoing and
extroverted might behave.
Now, after reading the examples for the word
gregarious, write a definition in your own
words and also write sentences using the word
as listed above.
    4. Obsequious. (adjective) The beggar, the
underline, the lackey, and the flunkey all tend to
be obsequious. Those who wait on others in an
inferior capacity and whose lives and jobs depend
on the whims of their masters or customers may
act in an obsequious manner. They are often
excessively, sickeningly, and insincerely polite.
They fawn insincerely over those who are above
them. For example, if your waiter in a restaurant
believes that you are the type who will tip him
well, watch how obsequious he will be, how he will
bow to you and attend to your slightest wish. If
you don’t leave the expected tip, however, his
obsequiousness will quickly vanish, and he will not
                                                      6
(In Latin = ob, “upon,” sequor, “follow”) follow
submissively upon your wishes.
Now, after reading the examples for the word
obsequious, write a definition in your own
words and also write a sentence using the
word.
    5. Maudlin. (adjective) A maudlin person is
one who is super-sentimental and gushing, who
cries easily and without much cause. People who
are maudlin in their affections usually overdo the
act, and their love becomes tiresome and
offensive. They might be referred to as “high
maintenance” in a relationship. The word
maudlin can also be applied to those who have
been made foolish and silly by too much drinking.
Someone who is drunk might act in a maudlin
fashion by hugging people and repeating the line,
“I Love You, Man!” 
Here, incidentally, is an odd word history. Mary
Magdalene, who washed the feet of Christ, has
often been pictured with her eyes fed from
                                                   7
weeping. In time, the name Magdalene was
contracted into the adjective maudlin.
    6. Ascetic. (noun) The ascetic is one who is
given to severe self-denial and austerity
(thriftiness) and one who practices rigid
abstinence, often for religious reasons. When you
say that a man is an ascetic, you mean that he is
one who shuns all the luxuries and physical
pleasures of life. For example, an Amish person
might be considered an ascetic because they
abstain from using modern conveniences. As a
counterexample, anyone who overdoes it with
food and drink, choosing not to control or deny
themselves these pleasures would be considered
the opposite of an ascetic. This person does not
believe in the notion of asceticism. Note: I’m
using the word ascetic as a noun (person) and not
using it like an adjective (the ascetic man…). I
also just introduced the suffix (word ending) –ism.
Roughly, -ism translates to “the belief in or that”.


                                                   8
Now, after reading the examples for the word
ascetic, write a definition in your own words
and also write sentences using the words
ascetic and asceticism as listed above.
    7. Pander. (verb) This verb literally means
to minister to the gratification of the passions and
prejudices of others, usually to one’s own profit.
In English, this is like the director of a movie
including all of the gory violence, sex, and special
effects as a way of pandering to what he or she
knows will appeal to the base instincts and sick
curiosity of their audience. Ruthless dictators of
the past are said to have pandered to the lowest
instincts of the mobs, to selfishness, cruelty and
greed, in order to gain power. Pander, therefore,
has a negative connotation (undertone or
association). It is an unpleasant word with an
unpleasant meaning.
As a parent, it’s easy to pander to your child’s
demands – as a means for sanity and quietness –
and to stop the whining , however, the word
                                                   9
also has a secondary meaning. Historically, a
panderer (a person who panders) was a man who
procured women for others, just as Pandarus, the
leader of the Lucians in the Trojan War, is said to
have procured the lovely lady Cressida for
Troilus. In other words, historically, a panderer
was like a pimp.
Now, after reading the examples for the word
pander, write a definition in your own words
and also write sentences using just the verb
pander and its present and past participles,
pandering and pandered. You don’t need to
write a sentence about the historical meaning
of panderer.
    8. Sublimate. (verb) This word originally
came from the latin sublimates, “raised on high,”
and is closely related to “sublime.” When the
activities of a potential gangster or hoodlum are
channeled into athletic games, into a business
career, or into some other useful activity, his
former destructive activities are said to have been
                                                  10
sublimated. To sublimate, then, s to express
primitive and socially unacceptable drives in
constructive ways, usually without ever realizing
it. For example, a female whose unconscious
desire it is to have power and dominance over all
men becomes the energetic and successful
business executive or the president of a college
with a largely male faculty, and only her
psychiatrist knows that she is sublimating. In
English, to sublimate means to replace an
unacceptable behavior with one that is more
socially acceptable such as a person with a need to
do graffiti becoming an accomplished artist.
Now, after reading the examples for the word
sublimate, write a definition in your own
words and also write sentences using
sublimate and sublimating.
   9. Wanton. (adjective) This is NOT the
Chinese appetizer Cream Cheese Wonton.
Although that sounds yummy, these two words
should not be confused. Notice the slight
                                                 11
difference in spelling. The adjective wanton
describes a person who indulges every passion.
He or she is lewd (vulgar/bawdy) and lascivious
(lustful) and never passes up the opportunity to
live it up. Unfortunately, a wanton person gives
no thought to consequences or of tomorrow’s
hangover. They never expect to be sorry in the
morning, and they never are. All this is swell, but
the word wanton also has a negative connotation.
A wanton person is reckless with themselves and
with others.
Now, after reading the examples for the word
wanton, write a definition in your own words
and also write a sentence using the word.
    10. Effete. (adjective) When animals, plants,
or soil are worn out and incapable of producing,
they are called effete from the Latin ex meaning
“out” and fetus meaning “having produced”. More
commonly, though, this adjective is applied to
humans or their institutions. When you refer to
ancient Rome at the time of its fall as an effete
                                                 12
civilization, you mean that it was degenerate,
worn out, sterile, devoid of vigor, weakened by
luxury, self-indulgence, and soft living.
Now, after reading the examples for the word
effete, write a definition in your own words
and also write a sentence using the word.
Section 3: Now, to help make these ten words
your own, below is a list of definitions and a word
bank. Find the correct definition for each word
and add it to your notes.
1. M______tearfully or excessively sentimental
2. P_______ to cater to base desires
3. G______ preferring the company of others
to solitude
4. E ______ spent; exhausted; barren of energy;
worn out by rich or effortless existence.
5. A ______ a person who practices extreme
self-denial
6. V _____ enjoyed by one person through his
indirect participation in the experience of another
(real or fictional) person; substitutional
                                                  13
7. R _____to attribute one’s actions to rational
and creditable motives, without an adequate
analysis of the true and usually unconscious
motive
8. O _____ overly attentive; fawning
9. S ______ to direct energy from a destructive
aim to one that is more socially and culturally
acceptable
10.W _____ unchaste; lewd; licentious; marked
by arrogant recklessness without thought given
to the feelings of others or the like; having no just
provocation; willfully malicious
Section 4: Your notebook is to be used as a
workbook for your vocabulary words. Once you
have the definitions and sentences written, you
will be working with the words in Sections 4-8.
The expectation is that you don’t merely write
the answer for the questions, but you recopy or
incorporate the ideas into your notes. The more
thorough your notes, the more there is to study
from, the better you’ll do on the test. It’s as
simple as that.
                                                    14
Take the following eight words and change them
into other parts of speech according to the
instructions. Be sure in each case that the
resulting sentence or phrase makes sense. You
will need to use endings such as –ion, -ly, -ing, -
ness, -er.
1. Change vicarious to an adverb, as, He traveled
__________________.
2. Change rationalize to a noun, as, You are
guilty of _______________________.
3. Change gregarious to a noun, as No one doubts
the ____________ of human beings.
4. Change obsequious to an adverb, as, He obeyed
____________________.
5. Change ascetic to a noun referring to the
philosophy or practice, as,
       He is a believer in __________________.
6. Change pander to a noun, as, He is a
________________ to the greed of others.
7. Change sublimate to an adjective, as,
His_______ passion gives power to his poetry.

                                                    15
8. Change wanton to a noun, as, Hers was a life
characterized by ________________.
Section 5:     From your work so far with these
ten words, you should now have a fairly good idea
of how they may be used in sentences, even if
some of the words are new. Test yourself.
Without referring to the list in your notes or
from previous exercises, try to choose the correct
word for each sentence. Note that any one of the
several forms of each word may be needed.
Please recopy each sentence into your notes.
1. Marie is too ___________________ to be
happy without friends.
2. The waiter bowed ______________ to every
wealthy customer who came in the restaurant.
3. His dissipated life has sapped his ambition and
health, making him _________.
4. The motion picture was so sickeningly
_____________.
5. Mothers feel a _____________ pleasure in
their children’s accomplishments.
                                                  16
6. Be honest with yourself. Don’t try to
____________ what you are doing.
7. He lived the life of an _________________,
for he abhorred self-indulgence and luxury.
8. The dishonest politician _______ to the greed
and thoughtlessness of the mob.
9. Some say that all great art is a ___________
of primitive instincts.
10. She let a fruitless, _______________,
uncontrolled life.
Section 6: True or False? Check your reaction
to each statement.
1. Psychoanalysts encourage their patients to
rationalize.
2. Gregarious people avoid social gatherings.
3. A haughty (stuck up) person is obsequious
4. Vicarious experiences are naturally more
satisfying than real ones.
5. Intoxicated people often become maudlin.
6. Asceticism is a popular practice among wealthy
Americans.

                                                17
7. Men of strong ethics and integrity usually
pander to the desires of others
8. Sublimation is a self-destructive practice
9. During its latter period, Ancient Rome was
noted or wanton excesses.
10. One becomes effete through self-discipline and
careful restraint.
Section 7: Same or Opposite? Is each pair of
words essentially the same or more nearly
opposite in meaning?
1. vicarious – actual
2. rationalization --- justification
3. gregarious --- solitary
4. obsequious --- rude
5. maudlin --- unsentimental
6. asceticism – luxury
7. pander --- cater
8. wanton – restrained
9. effete --- vigorous
10. sublimated --- detoured


                                                 18
 Section 8: Now it’s time to work on spelling. In
 your notebook, make a table like the one shown
 below – or at least write the words neatly in
 columns. Write the word five times. In the last
 blank, write a HOOK that will help you
 remember the spelling or definition of the word.
 It might be a letter pattern that reminds you of
 something etc.

Word       Word       Word       Word       Word     Hook
Practice 1 Practice   Practice   Practice   Practice
           2          3          4          5
ascetic    ascetic    ascetic    ascetic    ascetic It has
                                                     an sc
                                                     like the
                                                     word
                                                     science
                                                     or
                                                     scene




                                                            19
          Vocabulary Building
   Verbs Give You Power                   List 2
Do you remember the verb commercial? “Verb.
It’s what you do.” A dynamic verb is more than
this. It is the catalyst of the sentence. It is the
word that brings the sentence to life. The lesson
here is to choose your verbs with care.
If you pick a dull verb, your speech and writing
will be dull, barely serving its primary purpose of
communication, making little impression on the
mind of your reader or listener.
A choice of powerful verbs, on the other hand,
will make your speech electric, galvanic. Like a
powder charge, it can give the impact of bullets to
all the other words in your sentence.
A single illustration of this statement will be
enough. Which of the two following sentences
has the greater force?
  1. He is a moral leper; let us keep away from
him and have nothing to do with him.
  2. He is a moral leper; let us ostracize him.
                                                      20
The answer is obvious, isn’t it? One word has
expressed the meaning of ten. So watch your
verbs. They are packed with power.
Section 1: Here are ten dynamic verbs that
belong in a rich vocabulary.
Make your list by labeling your page Vocabulary
List 2. Write each word AND the phonetic
pronunciation. Leave about 2 – 3 inches of
space between each word. You will be adding
definitions, sentences and alternate endings to
each word.
1. expiate (EKS’-pee-ate)
2. importune (im-pohr-TOON’)
3. impute (im-PYOOT ‘)
4. scintillate (SIN’-tel-late)
5. mulct (MULKT)
6. ostracize (OS’-treh-size)
7. deprecate (DEP’-reh-kate)
8. procrastinate (pro-KRAS’-teh-nate)
9. rusticate (RUSS’-teh-kate)
10. vegetate (VEJ’-eh-tate)
                                                21
11. dominate (DOM’-ehn-ate)
12. facilitate (fas-SILL’-eh-tate)
13. emulate (EHM’-yoo-late)
14. gesticulate (jes-TIC’-yoo-late)
15. recuperate (re-COO’-per-ate)
16. patronize (PAT’-roh-nize)
17. penalize (PEN’-al-ize)
18. dramatize (DRAH’-mah-tize)
19. immortalize (im-MORT’-al-ize)
20. plagiarize (PLAY’-jar-ize)
Section 2: Now, we’ll discuss each word one-by-
one. As you read, add a solid definition for each
word to your list. For some words, we’ll also
discuss the etymology (ett-im-OL’-ogy) or history
of the word.
1. expiate (verb) A person who expiates feels
the need to make amends for or atone for poor
judgment. They expiate their sins, crimes,
blunders or errors. The noun form expiation
would be used in the same way as the word


                                                    22
explanation. For example, His expiation was not
taken well, since we’d heard it all before.
Now, write sentences using both the verb and
noun versions of the word.
2. importune (verb) To importune is to beg
incessantly, almost like a child in the candy aisle
of a store. “Pleeeeaaase!” Can’t you hear it? It is
asking continually, repeatedly, or forcefully for
something, especially in a troublesome way.
Now, write a sentence using importune.
3. impute (verb) To impute is to attribute a bad
quality or action to somebody. When you gossip
about someone or talk behind their backs, you are
often imputing blame or unjustly laying the
responsibility of an action onto someone else.
Now, write a sentence using the word impute
(ing or ed ending is okay)
4. scintillate (verb) To scintillate is to emit light
either with sparkle or sparkling personality. A
scintillating (adjective) person tends to be clever
                                                    23
and witty, lively and entertaining. They scintillate
with their brilliant conversation.
Now, write sentences using both the verb and
adjective forms of scintillate.
5. mulct (verb) To mulct is to swindle or con
someone. Usually the gullible are swindled out of
money. There really is no past tense of the word.
It’s just mulct and it’s used in the same way as the
word swindle.
Now, write a sentence using the word mulct.
Begin your sentence with the word Swindlers
or Conmen.
6. ostracize (verb)       To ostracize is to banish
or exclude someone from a group or society,
either formally or informally. This banishment
occurs because of actions that the group perceives
to be wrong.
Now, write a sentence using the word
ostracize and apply it to life at middle or high
school.
                                                   24
7. deprecate (verb)       Make sure you’ve got
the right word here. It’s not “defecate” or
“depreciate”. If you’re unsure of the word
“defecate” ask a classmate . “Depreciate” is to
lessen in value. Now, to deprecate is to belittle or
express disapproval of somebody’s weaknesses or
wrongdoings. You might have also heard the
phrase “self-deprecation” which means that
someone is humorously pointing out their own
flaws.
Now, write a sentence using deprecate in any
of the ways you’ve learned it.
8. procrastinate         (verb)     Do we even
need to do this one? Maybe we can cover it later
. As most of you know, procrastinate means to
put off until later, especially something that
should be a regular event, such as homework.
This one should be easy, so write a sentence
using the word procrastinate
9. rusticate (verb)       To rusticate is to move
to or send to the country to live. Some of you
                                                    25
rusticate at a cabin in the summer. While
rusticating, you might enjoy the lake or the
country air, go for hikes in the woods or fields,
and generally just get away from the hustle and
bustle of city life. Notice that the root of the
word is rustic -- meaning rough, natural, relating
to the country.
Now, write a sentence using the word
rusticate or rusticating.
10. vegetate(verb)      I’m not sure we need to do
this one either. I’m vegetating. Leave me alone .
Sometimes in the summer I lack imagination,
initiative or energy and I just enjoy some time on
the couch doing nothing. You know the word
already as it relates to the process of doing
nothing, however, you may not understand its
other uses. Clinically, someone in a coma might
be considered to be in a vegetative (adj.) state.
Also, notice the spelling. It’s vegEtate like
vegEtable, not vegItate.


                                                     26
Now, write a sentence using the word
vegetate.
11. dominate (verb)      To dominate is to have
ultimate control over someone or something.
Write a sentence using the word dominate.
12. facilitate (verb)   To facilitate means to
make something easier or to help being about. It
comes from the French word facile which means
ease or easy.
Write a sentence using the word facilitate.
13. emulate (verb)     To emulate means to try to
equal somebody or something that is successful
or admired. You might try to emulate the batting
stance of a professional baseball player hoping
that you, too, would be a successful hitter. People
that we emulate are seen as role models, and they
make us want to follow their example.
Write a sentence using the word emulate.
14. gesticulate (verb)   To gesticulate means to
talk with your hands and use lots of gestures to
convey meaning. Think of a hysterical person
                                                   27
trying to tell the police about an accident they’ve
witnessed. They point and use lots of actions to
convey the story.
Write a sentence using the word gesticulate.
15. recuperate (verb)    To recuperate is to
improve from an injury or illness.
Write a sentence using the word recuperate.
16. patronize (verb)        To patronize is to be
condescending (snobbish) toward. When you
patronize others, you are behaving in a way that
shows that you consider yourself socially or
intellectually superior to them. To treat someone
in a patronizing way makes them feel worthless
and hurts their self esteem.
Write sentences using the words patronize
and patronizing.
17. penalize (verb)       To penalize is to make
someone pay a fine or suffer punishment.
Sometimes the penalty (notice the root of the
word penal means punish) is monetary and
                                                      28
sometimes it simply brings a disadvantage to a
team or player, maybe for breaking a rule.
Noting again the root of the word, prisons are
sometimes called penal institutions and are
governed by the penal code.
Write a sentence using the word penalize.
18. dramatize (verb)       To dramatize is to make
vivid or moving. To dramatize means to make
something more dramatic by exaggerating the
importance or seriousness of a situation in an
attention-seeking and theatrical way…
(um…welcome to high school!) It also can mean
the process of adapting a literary work or even
for the stage or screen.
Write a sentence using the word dramatize.
19. immortalize (verb)        To immortalize is to
make somebody’s memory live on. It is the act of
(ize) making something not (im) able to die
(mortal). Typically it involves elevating the
memory of somebody or something to a state of

                                                 29
divinity or bestowing eternal life on somebody. A
synonym for immortalize is commemorate.
Write a sentence using the word immortalize.
20. plagiarize (verb)        To plagiarize is to
appropriate (steal) and claim as one’s own the
literary work of another. Plagiarism is not
limited to written work. It also includes copying
another’s ideas and claiming them to be original.
Let’s just say that you will be penalized severely if
you are caught plagiarizing. Note: look carefully
at the ‘ia’ spelling pattern.
Write sentences using the words plagiarize
and plagiarism.
Section 2: Match the given definition to the
word, and then add the definition to your notes.
They’re in random order.
1.   Live in a passive way.
2.   Deprive of a possession unjustly
3.   Make amends for
4.   Have control over
                                                    30
5. Get better
6. Beg for ceaselessly; beseech; entreat
7. Follow the example of
8. Be condescending toward
9. Exclude form public or private favor; ban
10. Put off until a future time; delay
11. Make vivid or moving
12. Claim another’s work or ideas as your own
13. Make live forever
14. Sparkle with wit or humor
15. Spend time in the country
16. Make pay a fine or suffer punishment
17. Ascribe, attribute, or charge an act or thought
(to someone), usually in a bad or accusatory sense
18. Make gestures or motions to convey
meanings
19. Disapprove of (the actions of someone)
20. Make easier
Section 3: As in the first section, it’s important
not to just write down the answers for the
exercises in the following sections. It’s important
to recopy the information somehow so you have
                                                  31
something to study from. Every piece of
information helps your understanding of and
command of the language.
For the following exercises, figure out which of
the verbs best describes the characteristic action
of the following people. You will need to use
different endings for the verbs to make them fit
correctly.
1. He is too indolent (lazy) to get his work done
on time. He _____________
2. He is accustomed to blaming others. He
___________________________
3. She always wins her tennis matches. She
__________________________
4. She is excellent at planning; things are easy
and organized. She ___________
5. He looks up to his uncle and wants to be like
him. He ___________________
6. He is passionate and talks with his hands
when he speaks. He ____________
7. She is a sparkling and witty person. She
________________________
                                                     32
8. She is remorseful and wishes to make amends.
She ____________________
9. He is getting stronger every day after his
accident. He _______________
10. He looks down upon those with less
education. He ________________
11. She punishes those who break the law. She
___________________
12. She over exaggerates problems and makes a
scene. She _________________
13. He is a person who is in a rut and leads a
monotonous life. He _____________
14. He is an exclusive individual, avoiding people
who are different from himself.
He _______________________
15. She cheats others. She ______________
16. She’s an insistent beggar. She __________
17. He built a shrine in his room to his favorite
celebrity. He _________________
18. She regularly copies items she finds on the
internet. She __________________

                                                 33
19. He looks down on the acts of others.
He _________________________
20. He is on a vacation in the country.
He ______________________

Section 4: Below you will find eleven pairs of
sentences. The second sentence of each pair has a
blank line that corresponds to an italicized phrase
in the first sentence. Figure out the correct
vocabulary word to go on each line. It will be
either a variation of the verb form, a noun form,
or an adjective derived from one of the verbs on
your list. In other words, be ready to change the
ending in order for the word to fit the sentence
correctly.
1. He has been spending his time in the country. He
has been _____________________.
2. Why do you keep nagging me for favors? Why
are you so ________________?
3. He took $1,000,000 from the public by
dishonest methods. He _______________ the
public of $1,000,000.
                                                  34
4. Excluding him from our group is our most
potent weapon against someone who is disloyal.
We must ___________________ him.
5. For the past two years, I have been
accomplishing nothing and getting nowhere. For the
past two years, I have been
__________________________,
6. He showed contempt and disapproval of the
younger generation. He _____________ the
younger generation.
7. To make amends for his sin, he did penance for
three days. In ________________ for his sin, he
did penance for three days.
8. Do they accuse me of committing these
offenses? Have they ___________ these offenses
to me?
9. I resent your accusation that I committed these
offenses. I resent your __________ of these
offenses to me.
10. She is a sparkling and witty speaker. She is a
________________ speaker.

                                                 35
11. Putting off till tomorrow is the thief of time.
___________ is the thief of time.
Section 5: Some more sentences. Remember to
change the verb ending to fit.
12. Beethoven’s compositions have always
________________ the musical scene.
13. Carl Sandburg’s biography vividly
______________ the life of Lincoln as no other
book has ever been able to.
14. I have never seen a sick man _____________
so quickly.
15. Your friends think you are conceited because
you seem to ____________ them.
16. Life will __________________ you for your
alcoholic excesses.
17. In her confusion, she _________________
wildly.
18. He built an insecure and dishonest literary
reputation by _______________ the classics.

                                                      36
19. Let me pack for you; that will
_________________ your departure.
20. The “Elegy in a Country Churchyard” did
much to __________________the poet Thomas
Gray.
Section 6: Spelling and Hooks Now it’s time to
work on spelling. In your notebook, make a table
like the one shown below – or at least write the
words neatly in columns. Write the word five
times. In the last blank, write a HOOK that will
help you remember the spelling or definition of
the word. It might be a letter pattern that
reminds you of something etc.

Word       Word       Word       Word       Word       Hook
Practice 1 Practice 2 Practice 3 Practice 4 Practice 5
plagiarize plagiarize plagiarize plagiarize plagiarize ‘ia’ in
                                                       the
                                                       middle




                                                             37
         Vocabulary Building
   Words About Theories                  List 3
The mentally alert person is not content to live
merely from day to day, completely circumscribed
(limited) by such things as food, money, clothing,
and entertainment. Occasionally he is tempted to
speculate (wonder) on why he is living and what
the controlling forces of his life are. This chapter
deals with a few of the terms that are applied to
these motivating forces by different people who
have varying points of view.
1. atheist      (AY’-thee-ist) Is there a God?
Nothing so closely approaches the outer limits of
abstraction as theorizing about a supernatural
and supreme being. Many of us worship, most of
us at least accept, some form of deity (God). You
may, however, belong to the minority who insist,
often belligerently, that man makes God in his
own image, that God is a figment of the
imagination and hence completely, irrevocably
nonexistent. If so, then you are an atheist and
                                                  38
your philosophy is called atheism (AY’-thee’-iz-
uhm). The word origin is Greek a, “without,” and
theos, “god.” Note: the endings are ist and ism
which means that the ‘e’ comes first.
In your notes, write sentences for both the
person atheist and the belief atheism.
2. agnostic (ag-NOSS’-tic) To many other
thinkers it seems more reasonable to say that the
existence or nonexistence of a supreme being is
one mystery the human mind will never fathom.
How did the world come into being? How did life
begin? Is there a father who looks after his
children, or are we the products of purposeless
chance? Do you answer these questions by
saying that no one knows and no one can ever
hope to know? Then you are an agnostic, and
your doctrine is called agnosticism (ag-NOSS’-ti-
siz-uhm). This word, too, is from the Greek,
derived from agnostos, “not knowing.”
In your notes, write sentences for both the
person agnostic and the belief agnosticism.
                                               39
3. fatalist (FAY’-tahl-ist) Why did that young
child dart across the roadway just as a huge truck
rounded the bend? How do you explain the
needless snuffing out of an innocent life? Is it due
to blind chance? To cause and effect? Why
should some great benefactor of humanity be cut
off in his prime? Are such events controlled by
accident? Or are they determined by fate? (Fate,
incidentally, is derived from the Latin fatus,
“spoken” or “predicted.”
If you believe that everything that happens is
predetermined, foreordained, written down, as it
were, on the far-off pages of some mighty volume,
you are a fatalist and your theory is called fatalism
(FAY’-tah-liz-uhm).
In your notes, write sentences for both the
person fatalist and the belief fatalism.
4. egoist      (EE’-go-ist)     In this world of
ours you will find some people who think only of
themselves and of their own selfish advantage,
and who actually maintain that all virtue consists
                                                   40
in the pursuit of self-interest. What’s good for
me is what I’ll do.          They are completely
indifferent to the needs, feelings, or wishes of
others basing their actions on personal gain and
direct benefit. They believ in, and are motivated
by, egoism (EE’-go-iz’uhm); a believer in such a
theory is an egoist.               These words,
characteristically, derive from the Latin, ego¸ “I.”
In your notes, write sentences for both the
person egoist and the belief egoism.
5. altruist (AL’-troo-ist) If your characteristics
are opposite to those of an egoist, if you have an
unselfish regard for, and devotion to, the interests
and needs of others, then you are an altruist and
you practice altruism (AL’-troo-iz-uhm). The
relationship of this word to the Latin alter, “other”
is clear.
In your notes, write sentences for both the
person altruist and the belief altruism.
6. stoic (STOW’-ic)           Can you rise above
petty considerations of pleasure and pain, joy and
                                                   41
grief? Can you meet adversity with indifference
and submit to the arrows and slings of misfortune
with a dignified resignation? Can you give up
envy, greed, jealousy, hatred, and other human
passions? Can you suffer mental and physical
pain without complaint? If you can honestly say
“yes” to these questions, and if you sincerely
believe that such self-control makes for a better
way of life, then you are a stoic, a practitioner of
stocicism (STOW’-e-siz-uhm). The founder of
stoicism was the Greek philosopher Zeno, who
lived about three hundred years before Christ.
Stoice is from the Greek stoikos, which, in turn, is
from stoa, “porch.” Zeno taught in the Stoa
Poikile, or “Painted Porch” in Athens.
In your notes, write sentences for both the
person stoic and the belief stoicism.
7. chauvinist (SHOW’-van-ist) Are you likely to
say, “No other nation can hold a candle to my
country. We are the supermen, the chosen
people. Every other race is inferior to mine and
                                                  42
they are all destined to be our slaves when the
day comes? This is not patriotism. Or, rather, it
is patriotism carried to an illogical and ludicrous
extreme. If you happen to talk this way, you are a
chauvinist; you are addicted to chauvinism
(SHOW’-van-iz-uhm). These terms come from
the name of a real man, Nicolas Chauvin of
Rochefort, who was so demonstrative in his
devotion to Napoleon and to the imperial cause
that he was ridiculed on the French stage at the
time.
In your notes, write sentences for both the
person chauvinist and the belief chauvinism.
8. jingoist (JING’-go-ist) Are you a braggart
about your country’s power? Do you always
want your nation to use force? do you want to
call our the Army, Navy, and Marines on the
slightest provocation, and send our soldiers and
sailors around the world to show those “damn
foreigners” who’s the boss? “Do the other nations
want war” you ask. “We’ll give it to them. And if
                                                 43
they don’t want it, we’ll give it to them anyway.”
If this is a description of your philosophy, you are
a jingoist, and your heart believes in jingoism
(JING’-go-iz-uhm).          The “Jingoes” were
originally a section of the conservative party in
England in 1877 who were eager to have their
nation support the Turks in the Russo-Turkish
War.
In your notes, write sentences for both the
person jingoist and the belief jingoism.
9. liberal     (LIB’-er-al)     Is it best that
our government follow the political faith,
methods, and tenets of our fathers and
grandfathers, or shall we move rapidly ahead,
change constantly, explore and experiment?
Those who believe in liberalism follow the latter
philosophy. They owe allegiance to no political
party, are independent in thought and action, and
are always against those who wish the
government to pursue the well-trodden,
bureaucratic, paths. Liberals prefer a changing,
                                                  44
dynamic, experimenting government. They vote
for progress, sometimes in the sense that
anything new and different and previously
untried is progressive. The Romans gave us the
word liber, meaning “free.”
In your notes, write sentences for both the
person liberal and the belief liberalism.
10. conservative     The conservative, on the
other hand, is opposed to change. He believes
that what is, is best. He prefers that his
government follow familiar, tried, tested, and safe
policies. “We’re content with what we have,” he
says. “Why take the risk of sailing into uncharted
waters?” The word derives from Latin conservare,
“to preserve.”
In your notes, write sentences for both the
person   conservative    and    the   belief
conservatism.
11. anarchist (AN’-ark-ist) The anarchist is one
who believes in or advocates the absence of
hierarchy or authority in most forms especially
                                                 45
when it comes to government. Because of this
belief, the anarchist is one who disregards laws
and social norms as a form of rebellion against
authority. They resent the idea of outside control
or influence from the government and therefore
desire the complete absence of political control.
Their belief system is known as anarchism (AN’-
ark-iz-uhm). Anarchism is the political belief that
society should have no government, laws, police,
or other authority, but should be a free
association of all its members. William Godwin,
an important anarchist philosopher in Britain
during the late 18th century, believed that the
"euthanasia of government" would be achieved
through "individual moral reformation.”
In your notes, write sentences for both the
person anarchist and the belief anarchism.
12. antidisestablishmentarianism (anti-dis-es-tab-
lish-men-TAR’-ee-ahn-iz-uhm) Because it’s a
long word and you’ve probably heard someone


                                                 46
say it to impress you. More impressive would be
to know what it actually means…
Antidisestablishmentarianism is a political position
that originated in 19th-century (1860s to be
exact) Britain in opposition to proposals for the
disestablishment of the Church of England, that
is, to remove the Anglican Church's status as the
state church of England, Ireland, and Wales. The
establishment was maintained in England, but in
Ireland the Church of Ireland (Anglican) was
disestablished in 1871. In Wales, four Church of
England dioceses were disestablished in 1920,
subsequently becoming the Church in Wales.
The question of disestablishment of the Church of
England is still current, often tied with the
position of the English monarch as "Supreme
Governor" of the Church. Those who wish to
continue the establishment of the Church of
England are referred to as
Antidisestablishmentarians.
So, it has something to do with the
disestablishment of the Church of England as the
state church…good to know. It is, however, a

                                                   47
good word to pick apart using prefixes, roots, and
suffixes.
establish (9)        to set up, put in place, or
institute (originally from the Latin stare, to stand).
dis-establish (12)       to end the established status
of a body, in particular a church, given such status
by law, such as the Church of England.
disestablish-ment (16)           ment = the act of,
state of & result of an action. In this case, the
separation of church and state (in this context it is
the political movement of the 1860s in Britain).
anti-disestablishment (20)       opposition to
disestablishment.
antidisestablishment-ary (23)         of or pertaining
to opposition to disestablishment.
antidisestablishmentari-an (25)           a person who
is an opponent of disestablishment
antidisestablishmentarian-ism (28) the
movement or ideology that opposes
disestablishment

You do not need to write a sentence for
disestablishmentarianism 

                                                    48
13. capitalist (CAP’-ih-tall-ist) A capitalist
believes in the theory of capitalism. This is the
belief in an economic system based on the private
ownership of the means of production and
distribution of goods, characterized by a free
competitive market and motivated by profit.
Capitalism is also known as a free-market
economy or a belief in free enterprise or
entrepreneurship. A capitalist is a person who
believes in this philosophy and practices it,
possibly by being a business owner or investor.
In your notes, write a sentence for the word
capitalist.
14. hedonist (HE’-don-ist) A hedonist believes
in the theory of hedonism. Hedonism is a school of
thought which argues that pleasure is the only
intrinsic good. In very simple terms, a hedonist
strives to maximize net pleasure (pleasure minus
pain). In contrast to the philosophy, the
commonplace use of the term hedonism often
refers to a lifestyle oriented only towards selfish
momentary pleasures.
In your notes, write sentences for the words
hedonist and hedonism.
                                                  49
15. humanitarian (hyoo-man-i-TAR’-ee-an) A
humanitarian believes in the theory of
humanitarianism. Humanitarianism is an ethic of
kindness, benevolence and sympathy extended
universally and impartially to all human beings.
Humanitarians believe that no distinction is to be
made in the face of suffering or abuse on grounds
of gender, sexual orientation, tribe, caste, age,
religion, or nationality.
Humanitarianism can also be described as the
acceptance of every human being for plainly just
being another human, ignoring and abolishing
biased social views, prejudice, and racism in the
process, if utilized individually as a practiced
viewpoint, or mindset.
In your notes, write a sentence for the word
humanitarian.
16. pessimist (PESS’-ih-mist) A pessimist
believes that the glass is half full. Pessimism is a
state of mind in which one anticipates negative
outcomes. Pessimists have a tendency to see,
anticipate, or emphasize only bad or undesirable
outcomes, results, conditions, and problems.

                                                    50
In your notes, write sentences for the words
pessimist and pessimism.
17. narcissist (NAR’-siss-ist) A narcissist is a
person who is overly self-involved, and often vain
and selfish. Psychologists would define a
narcissist as a person who suffers from narcissism,
deriving gratification from admiration of his or
her own physical or mental attributes.
In your notes, write a sentence for the word
narcissist.
18. skeptic     (SKEP’-tic)       A skeptic is a
person who demonstrates the doctrine of
skepticism. Skepticism means that true knowledge
is always uncertain. To be a skeptic is to always
question and demonstrate an attitude of doubt.
In your notes, write a sentence for the word
skeptic.
Section 2: What philosophy is expressed by each
of the statements below?


                                                    51
1. “I’m interested in the welfare of the other
fellow, not in my own.”
2. “Let the other fellow take care of himself. My
interests come first, last, and always.”
3. “Mine is the superior race. Have we not the
monopoly on beauty, strength, brains, creativity,
honest, virtue and bravery?”
4. “Let’s not stand still in politics. Progress,
change, experimentation –that’s what we need!”
5. “Happiness, pleasure, fun, revelry: these are
the most important things in life. Making sure I
have them is the right thing to do.”
6. “There’s a God? Don’t be silly. Only stupid
people believe in God.”
7. “Maybe there is a God. Maybe there isn’t. I
don’t know, and I don’t believe anybody else does
or ever will.”
8. “The wise and brave man is indifferent to
both pain and pleasure.”
9. “We’ll build up our nuclear power, our troops,
and our navy; we’ll arm to the hilt. Then we’ll
dare any nation in the world to challenge us!”
                                                52
10. You can’t change the future. It’s all planned
and written down.”
11. “Let’s keep things just as they are. We’re
getting along all right, so why fool around with
any dangerous, new-fangled theories.”
12. “Look in the mirror with me. Does my face
lift look natural to you? Are my wrinkles too
deep? Do I need Botox? How’s my hair?”
13. “I doubt that the world will end any time
soon. All these theories and predictions are a pile
of junk.”
14. “We’ll never be able to finish this assignment
in time. She’s given us too much work, and it’s
absolutely impossible!”
15. “I’d like to open a new business in order to
make money for college. I’m going to fix other
people’s computers and electronic gadgets and
charge $20 per hour.”
16. “It is important that each and every person in
this world, regardless of race, religion or ability
to pay, has a safe place to live and food to eat. I
will not stop my life’s work until this is so.”
                                                  53
17. “This is a lawless world with no
governmental rule to keep us from living our
lives. I love it!”
Section 3: We’ve looked at the noun versions of
these words. For example, the –ist ending shows
that the noun is “a person who.” The –ism ending
shows that the noun is “a belief in.” The adjective
form of each of the words typically ends with –ic.
Notice that sometimes the endings are irregular.
NOUNS                        ADJECTIVE
altruist/altruism                altruistic
atheist/atheism                  atheistic
agnostic/agnosticism             agnostic
fatalist/fatalism                fatalistic
egoist/egoism                    egoistic
stoic/stoicism                   stoical
chauvinist/chauvinism            chauvinistic
jingoist/jingoism                jingoistic
liberal/liberalism               liberal
conservative/conservatism        conservative
anarchist/anarchy                anarchic
                                                 54
humanitarian/humanitarianism     humanitarian
narcissist/narcissism            narcissistic
capitalist/capitalism            capitalistic
hedonist/hedonism                hedonistic
pessimist/pessimism              pessimistic
skeptic/skepticism               skeptical
After reading and copying the above information
into your notes, try to match the adjective form
to the following sentences.
1. The _____________ attitude of the ungodly.
2. The _____________ doubts of those skeptical
about religion.
3. Age tends to bring a ________________
tinge to one’s politics.
4. Politically, youth is inclined to be _________.
5. The narrow, ______________ desires of the
conceited.
6. The ____________ resignation of those who
have suffered much.
7. The ________ blatancy of professional “flag-
wavers.”
8. The __________ desires of the self-indulgent.
                                                   55
9. Threats, “saber-rattling,” and a call-up of the
reserves have often been the ______________
means by which strong nations have imposed
their will on their weaker neighbors.
10. The __________ attitudes of most parents to
their children.
11. The unemotional, ____________ response to
the tragic event.
12. The ______________ response to the
seemingly impossible task.
13. The ____________ belief that any kind of
government is evil.
14. America is a ___________ society where
people are encouraged to develop businesses.
15. The ______________ preoccupation with
one’s looks.
Section 3: True or False – Make these words an
integral part of your thinking and speaking
vocabulary by trying these true and false
exercises. Try to react immediately to each
statement. Read each statement quickly, once

                                                     56
only, then decide which answer you trust the
most.
1. The altruist hates people.
2. An atheist is a steady church-goer.
3. The agnostic is deeply religious.
4. A fatalist never takes chances.
5. An egoist wants to help his fellow-man
6. The stoic becomes hysterical under
the stress of tragedy or disaster.
7. Chauvinists often switch their
allegiance to other nations.
8. A jingoist is interested in peace at any cost.
9. A political liberal shies away from innovation.
10. A political conservative believes in greatly
enhanced governmental power.
11. A humanitarian believes in the welfare of all.
12. A skeptic is forever doubting.
13. A pessimist can be described as a person whose
glass is half-empty.
14. A hedonist wants the finer things in life.
15. A capitalist believes that government should
have ultimate control over industry.
                                                 57
16. An anarchist believes that the government
is truly working in the public’s best interest.
17. A narcissist is forever looking in the mirror.


Section 4: Spelling and Hooks Now it’s time to
work on spelling. In your notebook, make a table
like the one shown below – or at least write the
words neatly in columns. Write the word five
times. In the last blank, write a HOOK that will
help you remember the spelling or definition of
the word. It might be a letter pattern that
reminds you of something etc.

Word       Word       Word       Word       Word       Hook
Practice 1 Practice 2 Practice 3 Practice 4 Practice 5
atheist    atheist    atheist    atheist    atheist    e before i




                                                               58
       Vocabulary Building            List 4


English is a reservoir of the classical languages.
It has taken over to itself and has absorbed for its
own use more than 25 per cent of the Greek
language and more than 50 per cent of the Latin
language. It is obvious, then, that a knowledge of
Greek and Latin roots is invaluable in any
program of vocabulary building.
In the exercises ahead we will take English words
apart and will show how you can easily identify
and understand scores of words that you may
never have seen before.
Section 1: Please read these instructions: This
list is a bit different. First, we’ll go through
several Greek and Latin roots and then create the
vocabulary words around them. Create a table or
chart in which you write each root first,
preferably on the left-hand side. Once words
have been introduced, add them to the right side

                                                   59
under the correct root. It should look something
like this:
Root    Word List
monos monogamy - leave 2-3 inches for each
(Greek) word, definition, endings etc.
“one”

The roots are as follows. Please write their
definitions in the table you’ve just created.
monos – Greek meaning “one”
gamos – Greek meaning “marriage”
bis – Latin meaning “twice” or “two”
polys – Greek meaning “many”
misein – Greek meaning “to hate”
theos – Greek meaning “god”
cuspis – Latin meaning “point”
glotta – Greek meaning “tongue”
anthropos – Greek meaning “man”
logos – Greek meaning “word” “study”
“knowledge”
philein – Greek meaning “to love”
                                                60
Section 2: From the list of Greek and Latin roots
above, it is easy to create and understand many
new words.
In your table, list and define the following words.
monogamy (mon-AH’-ga-mee) = marriage (gamos)
to one (monos) person.
bigamy (BIG’-ah-mee) = marriage (gamos) to two
(bis) people. Yep, it’s illegal.
polygamy (pol-IG’-ah-mee) = marriage (gamos) to
many (poly) people. Typically, it’s a man taking
many wives. Polygamy is a marriage custom,
once prevalent among the Mormons in Utah and
encountered today in some parts of Asia and
Africa.
misogamy (mis-OG-ah-mee) = hatred (misein) of
marriage (gamos). Somebody was dumped and is
still a little bitter. 
monotheism (mono-THEE’-ism) = A belief (ism) in
a single God. Greek monos, “one,” combined with
theos, “God.”
polytheism – (poly-THEE’-ism) = A belief in many
                                                  61
(poly) Gods (theos).
bicuspid (bi-CUS’-pid) = A tooth with two prongs.
Latin bis, “two” and cuspis “points”
polyglot (POLY’-glot) = Glotta is Greek for
“tongue”; the polyglot is one who speaks many
languages. Are you a polyglot?
misanthropy (mis-ANN’-throp-ee) = Anthropos is
Greek for “man”. We have, then the hatred
(misein) of man or of mankind. A misanthrope,
therefore, is anyone who has a morbid aversion to
or distrust of, his fellow man.
theology (thee-ALL-o-gee) = The study of God
and religion. To theos we add the Greek root
logos, “knowledge,” “study,” or “word.”
philanthropy (fil-AN’-throp-ee) Love of mankind.
The root anthropos is combined with the Greek
philein, “to love.” A philanthropist, then, who gives
money to the poor, is literally a “lover of his
fellow man.”
anthropology (an-thro-POL’-ogy) Study of man,
i.e., science of human development and history – a
combination of anthropos and logos.
                                                    62
philology (fi-LOL’-eh-jee) Study of language, i.e.
science of linguistics – literally, a love of words,
from philein combined with logos.


Section 3: In your notes, practice the following.
Write the root, its meaning in your own words
and a few example words (from the list you’ve
been given or others that you can think of) for
each root.
  ROOT           MEANING              EXAMPLES
bis
theos
philein
misein
gamos
glotta
monos
cuspis
polys
anthropos
logos


                                                       63
Section 4: Now it’s time to be a word detective.
We’ve learned eleven roots. Now it’s time to
arrive at the meanings of the italicized words.
Guess intelligently, referring to previous
explanations as often as you wish to. Write each
new word and your definition in your notes.
1. Some Englishmen wear a monocle (MON-e-kel)
2. He delivered an interesting monologue
(MON’-eh-log).
3. He has a monopoly of the coffee distribution
market.
4. He lives in a monastery (MON’-eh-stair-ee)
5. The governments of France and England
made a bilateral trade agreement.
6. Man is a biped.
7. A rectangle is a polygon
8. A misogynist (me-SAHJ’-eh-nist) shuns the
company of women.
9. Romans practiced polytheism.
10. This tooth is a tricuspid.
11. The President’s wonderful stamp collection is
the envy of philatelists (fi-LAT’-eh-lists)
                                                   64
12. The anthropoid (AN’-thre-poid) apes are
similar in appearance to humans.
Section 5: If you feel a happy and secure control
of the material of this chapter, try this simple test,
in which you have to fill in one or more blanks in
each sentence. Can you make a perfect score
without referring to previous information?
1. One who practices monogamy has only one ___.
2. A misogamist _____________ marriage.
3. Theology is the study of _____ or _________.
4. Biology is the ___________ of life.
5. A philatelist collects ___________.
6. A misanthropist __________ mankind.
7. Anthropology is the science of ________
development.
8. A bicuspid is a tooth that has _____ points.
9. A tricuspid is a tooth that has _____ points.
10. Anthropoid means “similar to, or in the form
of, a ___________.
11. A polyglot speaks _________ languages.
12. A polygon has _________ sides.
13. Under polygamy, a man may have ____ wives.
                                                    65
14. In America, a bigamous marriage is _______.
15. In a monotheistic religion, there is only one ___
16. A biped has two ___________.
17. A two-wheeled vehicle is a ______________.
18. An agreement endorsed by two sides is called
__________.
19. A lens for only one eye is called a ________.
20. A speech by one person is a ______________.
21. Control of the market by one person or group
is a ________.
22. A place where men live in seclusion is a
______________.
23. A nation which has one, usually hereditary,
ruler is a ___________.
24. Belief in many gods is called __________.
25. A misogynist hates ___________.
Section 6: The List
What are the actual spelling words for this unit,
you ask? Here they are. Make sure you have this
list and the definitions highlighted in your notes.


                                                    66
1.    monogamy
2.    bigamy
3.    polygamy
4.    misogamy
5.    monotheism
6.    bicuspid
7.    polyglot
8.    misanthropy
9.    theology
10.   philanthropy
11.   anthropology
12.   philology
13.   monologue
14.   monopoly
15.   monastery
16.   misogynist
17.   monocle
18.   tricuspid
19.   anthropology
20.   philatelist




                     67
Section 7: Spelling and Hooks Now it’s time to
work on spelling. In your notebook, make a table
like the one shown below – or at least write the
words neatly in columns. Write the word five
times. In the last blank, write a HOOK that will
help you remember the spelling or definition of
the word. It might be a letter pattern that
reminds you of something etc.

Word       Word       Word       Word       Word       Hook
Practice 1 Practice 2 Practice 3 Practice 4 Practice 5
bicuspid bicuspid bicuspid bicuspid bicuspid I cuss
                                                       with my
                                                       mouth –
                                                       which
                                                       has teeth




                                                              68
Vocabulary Builder
Words About Your Fellow Man              List 5
We have now a wide and most important group
of words to consider. These are the words that
describe and catalog a few of the various classes
of our fellow man and that identify some of their
activities. As you write down the words and their
definitions, it might be of help to think of a
person you know or a well-known actor or public
personality who, you believe, best personifies the
word. Connecting the word to a real person will
help as the hook to fix its meaning into your
mind.
You will notice some repeats of words in this
section, but repetition is a part of learning, and
very often, when a word appears a second time, it
will be presented in another form and with a
considerably enriched meaning.
In your notebook, write the word and its
pronunciation, and then leave 2-3 inches of space
to fill in definitions and sentences as you go
                                                    69
through the exercises.
1. coquette (koh-KET’) This girl promises much,
flirts all the time, and delivers very little. In
today’s language, such a girl would be considered
a “tease.” She likes the attention but gives mixed
signals.
In your notes, write a sentence using the word.
2. circe (SUR’-see) Her greatest pleasure
comes from luring men to their destruction. In
Homer's Odyssey, Circe is described as living in a
mansion that stands in the middle of a clearing in
a dense wood. Around the house prowled
strangely docile lions and wolves, the drugged
victims of her magic; they were not dangerous,
and fawned on all newcomers. Circe worked at a
huge loom. She invited Odysseus' crew to a feast
of familiar food, a pottage of cheese and meal,
sweetened with honey and laced with wine, but
also laced with one of her magical potions, and
she turned them all into swine with a wand after
they gorged themselves on it. A circe will lead a

                                                  70
man on only to destroy him.
In your notes, write a sentence using the word.
3. amazon (AM’-eh-zon) She’s the tall,
strapping, masculine kind of women. Brittney
Griner might be considered an amazon. (Ask a
boy in the room if you don’t know who she is) 
In your notes, write a sentence using the word.

4. virago (veh-RAY’-go) Virago is defined as
both a woman who has unexcellent male
characteristics, such as being noisy or
domineering, as well as a woman of "great stature,
strength, and courage." The word Virago
continues to be associated with the naming of a
woman who has risen above cultural and gender
stereotypes to embody heroism at its best. Joan of
Arc would be considered a virago. In fact, the
British Royal Navy christened at least four
warships Virago.
The word also refers to a masculine, aggressive
woman. The Merriam-Webster dictionary
describes a virago as: a loud, overbearing woman.
Although virago can be seen as a good thing, we’ll
                                                  71
use the definition “a loud, overbearing woman.”
In your notes, write a sentence using the word.
5. adonis (ah-DON’-is) He’s the handsome,
Greek-god type who makes the hearts of young
girls flutter.
In your notes, write a sentence using the word.

6. judas (JOO’-dahs)       Don’t trust him. He’s
the traitor who will sell out his best friend for
money. Judas Iscariot was, according to the New
Testament, one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus.
He is infamously known for his kiss and betrayal
of Jesus to the hands of the chief Sanhedrin (san-
HEE-dron) priests for a ransom of 30 pieces of
silver.
In your notes, write a sentence using the word.

7. futilitarian (fyoo-til-eh-TAR’-ee-ehn) The
pessimist and cynic who sees no particular point
to anything in life. Note the word futile which
means serving no useful purpose: completely
ineffective.
In your notes, write a sentence using the word.

                                                   72
8. vulgarian (vul-GAIR’-ee-ehn) This person
has vulgar tastes and manners. A vulgar person
(especially someone who makes a vulgar display
of wealth).
In your notes, write a sentence using the word.
9. pedant (PED’-ehnt) His greatest delight is
making an unnecessary show of his learning,
especially by correcting petty errors. He attaches
exaggerated importance to minute and minor
details of scholarship. The term in English is
typically used with a negative connotation,
indicating someone overly concerned with small
details and whose tone is perceived as
condescending. If you are a person who does this,
you are behaving in a pedantic way.
In your notes, write a sentence using the word.
10. egoist (EE’-go-ist) This person is selfish.
His interests come first, and no one else matters.
In your notes, write a sentence using the word.
11. ascetic (a-SET’-ic) He lives a severely
temperate life and avoids human pleasures and
                                                     73
vices. The ascetic is a person who dedicates his or
her life to a pursuit of contemplative ideals
(maybe meditation or prayer) and practices
extreme self-denial or simplicity for religious
reasons. In the early Christian church, a monk
or nun would be considered an ascetic person.
In your notes, write a sentence using the word.
12. esthete (ESS’-theet) This is a person of fine
taste and artistic flair. Hence, he is most
responsive to, and delighted with, whatever is
beautiful. A word we more commonly use to
describe beauty is esthetic…as in, “I really like the
esthetic you’ve created in this room. It warms my
soul.” An esthete, then, is a person who enjoys and
who can identify this type of beauty.
In your notes, write a sentence using the word.
13. demagogue (DEM’-a-gogg)             By appealing
to the beliefs and hatreds of the population, the
demagogue creates social discontent in order to
further his own political ambitions. This person,
especially an orator or political leader, gains
                                                      74
power and popularity by arousing the emotions,
passions, and prejudices of the people. You might
say that some of the more biased news networks
use demagoguery as a way to push their political
ideals onto their viewers by loading their
newscasts with emotion-inducing sound bites.
In your notes, write a sentence using the word.
14. sycophant (SIK’-eh-fant) A suck-up or brown-
noser. This person uses insincere flattery because
he hopes to make rich or influential people think
of him kindly, especially something from which
the flatterer can benefit.
In your notes, write a sentence using the word.
15. tyro  (TY’-ro) The tyro is a beginner in
some profession, occupation, or art. He shows
promise but still has a lot to learn.
In your notes, write a sentence using the word.
16. virtuoso   (vir-choo-O’-so) The virtuoso is
the opposite of the tyro. This person has reached
the greatest heights of skill and competence in
music, painting or any one of the fine arts.
                                                    75
Notice, virtuoso is a word that’s only applied to an
expert in the arts.
Write a sentence using the word.
17. clairvoyant (klair-VOY’-ant) The clairvoyant
claim the ability to see things not visible to those
with normal sight. Hence, he or she often makes
prophecies or predictions about the future.
Write a sentence using the word.
18. philatelist (fil-LAT’-eh-list) A stamp
collector.
Write a sentence using the word.
19. numismatist (noo-MIZ’-me-tist)        A coin
collector.
Write a sentence using the word.
20. gourmet (gore-MAY’) The gourmet is
knowledgeable and fastidious about eating and
drinking, devoting him or herself to excellent
food, special wines, exotic seasonings etc.
Write a sentence using the word.


                                                   76
21. connoisseur (con-eh-SUR’)       A connoisseur is a
critical judge of excellence in the arts, food, drink.
Write a sentence using the word.
Section 2: See if you can match the definition to
a word from your list. Add any information to
your notes that you find helpful.
1. A skillful practitioner of some art.
2. Collects rare coins
3. Has an unusual appreciation of beauty.
4. Is ostentatious (over the top) about his
learning.
5. Will betray a friend.
6. She is a flirt.
7. She is a destructive siren (dangerous and devious
creatures, portrayed as femme fatales who lured nearby sailors
with their enchanting music and voices to shipwreck on the rocky
coast of their island).
8. Lives only for himself.
9. Lives a simple and austere (rigorously self-
disciplined and severely moral) existence.
10. Sucks up to the rich and powerful.
11. False leader of the common people.
                                                               77
12. Claims that life is completely futile.
13. She’s a masculine woman, big and muscular.
14. Has a sharp tongue and a vicious temper.
15. Has good taste in food.
16. He’s extremely handsome.
17. He or she is coarse and uncouth.
18. A beginner in a profession.
19. Can see things that you can’t.
20. An authoritative judge and critic in some fine
art of other area of excellence.
21. Collects stamps.
Section 3: Choose the correct adjective out of the
three offered that most nearly fits each noun.
You may need to look up some of the other
words.
coquette       sincere         flirtatious      talkative
circe          untrustworthy   unapproachable   nagging
amazon         feminine        alluring         big
virago         fierce          docile           feminine
adonis         feminine        good-looking     wasteful
judas          untrustworthy   unapproachable   unassuming
futilitarian   optimistic      pessimistic      indifferent
                                                         78
vulgarian     courteous    crude         clever
pedant        corrective   sentimental   soft-hearted
egoist        ambitious    boring        self-
                                         centered
ascetic     puny           puerile       puritanical
esthete     talkative      tasteful      triumphant
demagogue traitorous       troublemaking temperate
sycophant sincere          hypocritical  handsome
tyro        expert         uncouth       unskilled
virtuoso    skilled        indifferent   alluring
clairvoyant prophetic      protesting    fearful
philatelist stamp-         coin-involved book-
            involved                     involved
numismatist stamp-         coin-involved book-
            involved                     involved
gourmet     fastidious     vulgar        piggish
connoisseur discriminating ignorant      ambitious


Section 4: Choose the letter of the from Column
II that each person in Column I is involved in.
Column I            Column II
1. coquette         a. strength
2. circe            b. uselessness
3. amazon           c. obedience
4. virago           d. austere existence
                                                   79
5. adonis         e. preciseness
6. judas          f. stamps
7. futilitarian   g. gaining experience
8. vulgarian      h. all beauty
9. pedant         i. destruction of males
10. egoist        j. insincere flattery
11. ascetic       k. flirting
12. tyro          l. coarseness
13. virtuoso      m. extrasensory perception
14. clairvoyant   n. top performance
15. philatelist   o. food
16. numismatist   p. betrayal
17. demagogue     q. nagging
18. sycophant     r. coins
19. gourmet       s. male beauty
20. connoisseur   t. high quality
21. esthete       u. self-interest




                                               80
Section 5: Spelling and Hooks Now it’s time to
work on spelling. In your notebook, make a table
like the one shown below – or at least write the
words neatly in columns. Write the word five
times. In the last blank, write a HOOK that will
help you remember the spelling or definition of
the word. It might be a letter pattern that
reminds you of something etc.

Word       Word       Word       Word       Word       Hook
Practice   Practice   Practice   Practice   Practice
1          2          3          4          5
virtuoso   virtuoso   virtuoso   virtuoso   virtuoso   a VIolin
                                                       VIrtuoso




                                                              81
Vocabulary Builder
Words for Phobias and Manias             List 6
We’ve touched on a number of normal human
characteristics with the last list. Now we turn to
a few of the abnormalities of the human mind, to
the words that particularize mental peculiarities,
neuroses (ner-O’-sees), phobias, and mild or
violent personality disorders.
In this list, we’ll be discussing manias and
phobias.
Mania is a state of abnormally elevated or irritable
mood, arousal, and/or energy levels. In a sense, it is
the opposite of depression. Mania is a criterion for
certain psychiatric diagnoses. The word derives from
the Greek meaning madness, frenzy" and that from
the verb mainomai, "to be mad, to rage, to be furious".
Phobia is a persistent fear of an object or situation in
which the sufferer commits to great lengths in
avoiding, typically disproportional to the actual
danger posed, often being recognized as irrational.
Add these words to your notes leaving 2-3
inches of space beneath each one. Keep adding

                                                           82
information as you go through the exercises
given.
Section 1:
1. pyromaniac      (py-ro-MAY’-nee-ak) has a
strange and morbid fascination with fire. He or
she will burn down a house merely because they
are fascinated by the flames. Note: a pyromaniac
is the person. Pyromania is the disorder.
Write a sentence using the word pyromaniac.
2. dipsomaniac (dip-so-MAY’-nee-ak) has an
uncontrollable compulsion to drink. This vice is
a good deal more than a socially pleasant habit, of
course. It is an emotional problem. The
dipsomaniac must drink and get drunk whether he
or she really wants to or not.
Write a sentence using the word dipsomaniac.
3. megalomaniac (meg-e-low-MAY’-nee-ak)
This person believes that he is Napoleon or
Caesar, that he has enormous wealth, or even,
sometimes, that he is God. He is continually
obsessed with delusions of grandeur. In other
                                                   83
words, he/she has an inflated sense of self-esteem
and overestimation by persons of their powers
and beliefs.
Write a sentence using the word
megalomaniac.
4. monomaniac (mono-MAN’-nee-ak) is
unbalanced in just one area; on everything else
except his own pet and particular delusion, he
may be completely normal. The 19th century
writer Edgar Allan Poe would often write tales in
which the narrator and protagonist would suffer
some form of monomania, becoming excessively
fixated on an idea, an urge, an object, or a person,
often to the point of mental and/or physical
destruction.
Write a sentence using the word monomaniac
5. kleptomaniac (klep-to-MAY’-nee-ak) has a
compulsion to steal. The victim may be wealthy,
and the object stolen may be worthless; moreover,
the kleptomaniac never has any use for the lifted
trinkets, nor any plans for their disposal. He/she
                                                   84
just can’t help taking them.
Write a sentence using the word kleptomaniac


What is your pet phobia? You haven’t any?
Don’t be too sure. How about your startled-
turtle habit of ducking under your bedding when
there’s a clap of thunder? Or you shudders when
a snake crosses your path? Or possibly you edge
away from the tops of tall buildings because
height makes you feel funny? If you are an average
man you have not one but 2.21 phobias. If you are an
average woman, you have 3.55 phobias.
6. ophidiophobia (oh-FID’-ee-o-fohbia) is
the abnormal fear of snakes. Fear of snakes is
sometimes called by a more general term,
herpetophobia, fear of reptiles and/or amphibians.
The word comes from the Greek words "ophis"
which refers to snakes and "phobia" meaning fear.
Care must also be taken to differentiate people
who do not like snakes or fear them for their
venom or the inherent danger involved. An
ophidiophobic would not only fear them when in
                                                   85
live contact but also dreads to think about them
or even see them on TV or in pictures.
Write a sentence using ophidiophobia.
7. arachnophobia (a-RAK’-neh-fobia) is the fear
of spiders and other arachnids such as scorpions.
The reactions of arachnophobics are often
irrational. It is one of the most common specific
phobias, and some statistics show that 50% of
women and 10% of men show symptoms.
Write a sentence using arachnophobia.
8. nyctophobia     (NICK’-toe-fobia) is the phobia
characterized by a severe fear of the darkness. It
is triggered by the brain’s disfigured perception
of what would or could happen when in a dark
environment.
Write a sentence using the word nyctophobia.
9. pyrophobia (PY’-roh-fobia) The opposite of
pyromania, is pyrophobia – the morbid fear of fire.
Write a sentence using the word pyrophobia.
10. aquaphobia     (AH’-quah-fobia) is a
persistent and abnormal fear of water.
Aquaphobia involves a level of fear that is beyond
the patient's control or that may interfere with
                                                      86
daily life. People suffer aquaphobia in many ways
and may experience it even though they realize
the water in an ocean, a river, or even a bathtub
poses no imminent threat. They may avoid such
activities as boating and swimming, despite
having mastered basic swimming skills.
Write a sentence using the word aquaphobia.
11. triskaidekaphobia (tris-kah-deck-ah-FO-bia)
from Greek tris meaning "3", kai meaning "and",
deka meaning "10" and phobia meaning "fear" or
"morbid fear" is fear of the number 13; it is a
superstition and related to a specific fear of
Friday the 13th, called paraskevidekatriaphobia or
friggatriskaidekaphobia.
Write a sentence using the word.
12. claustrophobia (klaws-treh-FO’-bia). The
victim feels choked by small rooms or crowded or
confined places. If there is not plenty of open
space around him/her, this causes great
discomfort and may lead to a panic attack.
Write a sentence using the word.
13. agoraphobia (ag-eh-ra-FO’-bia) Someone
suffering from this problem cannot stand open
spaces. The opposite of claustrophobia, this person
                                                     87
cannot tolerate large rooms, public areas that
have few people (such as empty theaters). He/she
is terrified by limitless horizons.
Write a sentence using the word.
14. acrophobia (ak-re-FO’-bia) The person
burdened with this fear is panic-stricken by
heights. He/she cannot climb past the third or
fourth rung of a ladder, cannot look out of the top
windows of a tall building, is terrified of rapidly
ascending elevators, would rather die than take a
plane trip.
Write a sentence using the word.
15. hypochondriac (hy-po-KON’-dree-ak) suffers
from hypochondria, or the continual worry and
complaining about imaginary illnesses. A heart
flutter means a heart attack; a headache means a
brain tumor or aneurysm; an upset stomach
indicates ulcers or cancer. The only real problem
hypochondriacs suffer from is an overactive
imagination.
Write a sentence using the word.
16. amnesiac (am-NEE’-zee-ak) suffers from loss
of memory or amnesia. The cause is often a blow
on the head or some sudden emotional shock,
                                                  88
after which the victim’s past becomes a complete
blank. He/she cannot even recognize their family
and closes friends.
Write a sentence using the word.
17. somnambulist (som-NAMB’-yoo-list) suffers
from somnambulism or sleepwalking.
Write a sentence using the word.
18. insomniac (in-SOM’-nee-ak) suffers from
insomnia or wakefulness at times when he/she
wishes to sleep.
Write a sentence using the word.
19. manic-depression is a disorder which is more
commonly called bipolar disorder where the manic-
depressive person alternates moods of black
depression and wild, uncontrollable exaltation or
excitability. Changes are often unpredictable and
come without warning. The current term bipolar
disorder is of fairly recent origin and refers to the
cycling between high and low episodes (poles).
Write a sentence using the word.
20. schizophrenic (skiz-eh-FREN’-ik) suffers from
a split or divided personality. He/she loses
contact with his/her environment, lives in an
                                                    89
unreal world of his/her own making, and often
imagines he is someone else.
Write a sentence using the word.
21. melancholia c (mel-an-CAHL’-ee-ak) suffers
from melancholia or a continual condition of
depression or despondency. He/she may often
think of, or attempt, suicide.
Write a sentence using the word.
22. paranoiac (pair-eh-NOY’-ak) suffers from
paranoia and has delusions of persecution. This
person imagines that people are trying to poison
him, that he is being pursued by enemies, or that
everyone is against him.
Write a sentence using the word.


According to the psychological theories of
Sigmund Freud, the person who has grown up
without successfully adjusting to the parent-child
relationship or to his own place in the family may
develop either of the following:
23. Oedipus (ED’-e-pus) Complex. This happens
when the male is a typical “mama’s boy” who has
been overprotected and overbabied and prevented
                                                    90
from maturing emotionally. Freud believe that
unconsciously, the boy has a repressed desire to
kill his father and marry his mother. Freud
derives the name from the 5th-century BC Greek
mythological character Oedipus, who unwittingly
kills his father, Laius, and marries his mother,
Jocasta, in Oedipus Rex, by Sophocles, ca. 429 BC.
Write a sentence using this term.
24. Electra Complex The female version of the
Oedipus Complex. The daddy’s girl is
overprotected and overbabied and prevented from
maturing emotionally. She, therefore, has a
repressed desire to kill her mother and marry her
father.
Section 2:      Figure out which vocabulary word
fits each of the following sentences or
descriptions.
1. He can’t take one drink and then stop.
2. He is mentally deranged on one subject.
3. She is apt to steal any little object that she
sees.
4. He imagines he is God.
5. It is dangerous to leave him alone with
matches.
                                                    91
6. “I can’t go on a hike in the Badlands. Didn’t
you notice all the signs saying ‘Beware of
Rattlesnakes?’”
7. “What a horrible night. I couldn’t sleep a
wink!”
8. “I walked around the room last night? But, I
was fast asleep.”
9. “Ooh…it’s way too dark in here. Are there
any night lights I could use?”
10. “Who am I? I’ve completely forgotten my
name.”
11. “A campfire, you say? I’m not interested in
coming to your cook out, then.”
12. “A pool party, you say? I won’t be attending.
I’m really not a fan of water.”
13. “Look! There’s no 13th floor in this hotel.
How superstitious!”
14. “I don’t care what the doctor says. I know
I’ve got heart trouble.”
15. “I can’t live in an apartment on the fifth floor.
Isn’t there anything vacant on a lower floor?”
16. “I’m getting out of here. This place is so
small I think the walls are going to crush me!”
17. “No thanks, I can’t go fishing with you on
that enormous lake. It goes on forever!”
                                                    92
18. This person has unpredictable mood swings.
19. This person has a split personality.
20. This person experiences bouts of depression.
21. “He’s after me. Seriously. I’m calling the
police.”
Section 3: Match the problem area with the name
of the disturbance.

Disturbance          Problem Area
1. pyromania         a. grandeur
2. dipsomania        b. illness
3. megalomania       c. sleepwalking
4. monomania         d. one single obsession
5. kleptomania       e. hilarity followed by
                     gloom
6. hypochondria      f. loves fire
7. amnesia           g. no contact with reality
8. somnambulism      h. persecution
9. insomniac         i. snakes
10. manic-depression j. attachment to mother
11. schizophrenia    k. thievery
12. melancholia      l. open areas
13. paranoia         m. hates fire
14. Oedipus complex n. thirteen
                                                   93
15. Electra complex     o. high places
16. claustrophobia      p. confined areas
17. agoraphobia         q. memory
18. acrophobia          r. liquor
19. ophidiophobia       s. attachment to father
20. pyrophobia          t. overwhelming sadness
21. triskaidekaphobia   u. sleeplessness
Section 4: Figure out which word fits each
definition. Add to your notes as you go.
1. Continued gloom and depression.
2. Moods of violent excitement alternating with
black depression.
3. Loss of memory
4. Walking and performing other actions during
sleep.
5. Uncontrollable craving for alcohol.
6. Distaste for snakes.
7. Freaked out by the number 13.
8. Petrified by flames.
9. Morbid anxiety about one’s health.
10. Delusions of persecution.
11. Early and abnormal attachment of a girl to
her father, with hostility to her mother.
12. Uncontrollable propensity to steal articles of
                                                     94
little value.
13. Delusions of grandeur.
14. Chronic inability to fall asleep.
15. Obsession in a single area.
16. Uncontrollable need to set fires.
17. Mental derangement characterized by loss of
contact with reality; split personality.
18. Morbid dread of confined places.
19. Morbid dread of open spaces.
20. Unresolved attachment to mother with
accompanying hatred of father.
21. Morbid dread of heights.
Section 5: Spelling and Hooks Write the
word five times. In the last blank, write a HOOK
that will help you remember the spelling or
definition of the word. It might be a letter
pattern that reminds you of something etc.
Word       Word       Word       Word       Word       Hook
Practice   Practice   Practice   Practice   Practice
1          2          3          4          5
Oedipus    Oedipus    Oedipus    Oedipus    Oedipus    pronounced
complex    complex    complex    complex    complex    Edipus, but
                                                       spelled
                                                       OEdipus


                                                                95
Vocabulary Building
Words About Your Feelings           List 7
During the last few chapters we have been
dealing with all kinds of people – with their
peculiarities, their mental quirks, their
philosophies, their ideas. Now let us deal with
ideas alone. To get more personal, we’re going to
deal with terms that describe your thoughts, your
feelings, your attitudes and emotions.
Write the following words in your notes and be
sure to leave 2-3 inches in between to make room
for additional notes and examples.
Section 1:
1. nostalgia (nos-TAL-ja) He was overcome
with a wave of nostalgia whenever he thought of
his boyhood years in Scotland. When you are
nostalgic, you think longingly about your past,
wishing to turn back the clock.
Write a sentence using the word.
2. satiated    (SAY’-shee-ay-ted) The huge
dinner left him satiated. He was full and
                                                  96
completely satisfied.
Write a sentence using the word.
3. benevolence (be-NEV’-e-lence)
desire to do good to others; goodwill and be
cheritable. Benevolence is also an act of kindness
or charity to others.
Write a sentence using the word.
4. frustration Failure or inability to attain
something that is desired.
Write a sentence using the word.
5. lethargy (LETH’-ar-jee) A state of apathy
or indifference. To be lethargic is to feel sluggish,
tired and unmotivated.
Write a sentence using the word.
6. enervated (EN’-er-vay-ted) To deprive of
vigor, force, or strength; to render feeble; to
weaken. To reduce the moral or mental vigor of.
Write a sentence using the word.
7. weltschmerz (VELT’-shmairtz) Yes, it’s a
German word that’s not used much, although it
                                                     97
has been used on an episode of The Big Bang
Theory. Weltschmerz is world weariness;
pessimism, apathy, or sadness felt at the
difference between physical reality and the ideal
state. It often occurs at about your age where the
ideals of what you dreamed the future would be
like back when you were a kid collide with the
realities of actually growing up.
Write a sentence using the word.
8. compunction (kem-PUNK’-shun) a moral
compass or a feeling of guilt or moral scruple that
follows the doing of something bad: "spend the
money without compunction". It is also a
pricking of the conscience. If you have no
compunctions about doing something wrong, then
you have no conscience.
Write a sentence using the word.
9. antipathy (an-TIP’-a-thee) is dislike for
something or somebody, the opposite of
sympathy.
Write a sentence using the word.
                                                  98
10. supercilious (soo-per-SIL’-ee-us) Do you know
someone who’s really popular and kind of
obnoxious because they think they are “all that?”
Perhaps they are supercilious and think they are
somehow superior to others in looks or athletics
or intelligence. They may come across as prideful
or arrogant. My bet is they’re annoying as well.
Write a sentence using the word.
11. vindictive (vin-DIK’-tiv) A vindictive person
is one with a desire for revenge. Possibly this
person has been hurt by some supercilious person,
causing an inability to forgive and a desire to get
back at the one who hurt them.
Write a sentence using the word.
12. misanthrope (MISS’-an-throap) this person
has a general hatred, mistrust or disdain of the
human species or human nature.
Write a sentence using the word.
13. vicariously (vy-KAIR’-ee-es-lee) Felt or
undergone as if one were taking part in the
experience or feelings of another indirectly, as,
                                                      99
by, or through a substitute. A parent might live
vicariously through the successes of their child.
Write a sentence using the word.
14. ennui (AHN’-wee) is a feeling of emptiness
or being stagnant. A synonym to the word
apathy, ennui is listlessness and dissatisfaction
resulting from lack of interest; boredom.
Write a sentence using the word.
15. misogynist (me-SAHJ’-e-nist)     a misogynist
is a misanthrope who dislikes women in
particular. Being a misogynist has nothing to do
with sexuality. Instead, this person may simply
feel that men are better than women. He may be
a chauvinist.
Write a sentence using the word.
Section 2: Use your list to figure out which word
fits each definition. Add these definitions to your
notes as well.
1. State of apathy or indifference.
2. Desire for the welfare of others;
charitableness
                                                    100
3. Severe homesickness; a longing for the
pleasant past.
4. Filled beyond natural desire; glutted.
5. Failure or inability to attain something
desired.
6. Manner of experiencing something indirectly
instead of directly.
7. Literally, world pain; sadness from a gloomy
world philosophy.
8. An instinctive feeling of aversion or dislike.
9. A hater of mankind.
10. A hater of women.
11. Self-reproach for wrongdoing; slight regret.
12. Deprived of physical, nervous, and emotional
energy.
13. Disposed to revenge; retaliatory
14. A feeling of listless weariness resulting from
satiety, boredom, or inactivity.
15. Lofty with pride; haughtily superior.
Section 3: Answer ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ to the following
questions. Add any needed information to your
notes.
                                                   101
1. When you have a feeling of lethargy, are you
full of bounce, pep, and ambition?
2. Is nostalgia a yearning for the past?
3. do kindly people often feel benevolent?
4. When you haven’t eaten for a long time, do
you feel satiated?
5. Is frustration an unpleasant feeling?
6. Do pessimistic people often experience
weltschmerz?
7. Do you feel antipathy to people you like?
8. Does a cruel and insensitive person have any
compunction about mistreating others?
9. Is it normal to wake up enervated after a good
night’s sleep?
10. If nothing seems exciting or worthwhile is it
justifiable to experience ennui?
11. Is living vicariously less fulfilling than direct
experience?
12. Does a misanthrope hate everyone?
13. Does a misogynist enjoy the company of
females?
14. Does a vindictive person forgive easily?
                                                    102
15. Does a supercilious person usually feel superior
to others?
Section 4: A very useful exercise, one that helps
you use words in a variety of ways, requires you
to experiment with different parts of speech –
noun, adjective, adverb, verb. Can you make the
proper changes asked for below? An example
phrase or sentence and, where possible, an
analogy are offered to help you.
1. Change lethargy to an adjective to fit into the
following phrase: A __________ attitude.
(i.e. neuralgia – neuralgic)
2. Nostalgia to an adjective: A ________ feeling.
claustrophobia – claustrophobic)
3. Benevolence to an adverb: He beamed ______.
(impotence – impotently)
4. Satiated to a negative adjective ending in –ble:
He is an ________ reader. (estimated – inestimable)
5. Satiated to a noun ending in –ty: I’ve had a
______ of motion pictures. (anxious – anxiety)
6. Frustration to a verb: Why do you try to
                                                    103
______ me? (appreciation – appreciate)
7. Antipathy to an adjective: I am _____ to such
ideas. (sympathy—sympathetic)
8. Enervated to a noun: The cause of his
_______. (saturated – saturation)
9. Vicariously to an adjective: A _______ thrill.
(famously – famous)
10. Misanthrope to another noun denoting the
person: He is a _________. (ends in –ist)
11. Misanthrope to a noun denoting the
philosophy: What is the cause of his ______?
(philanthropist – philanthropy)
12. Misogynist to a noun denoting the philosophy:
What is the cause of his _____? (botanist—botany)
13. Vindictive to a noun: I dislike him mainly for
his __________. (active—activeness)
14. Supercilious to a noun: Your ______ will make
you lose many friends. (fastidious-fastidiousness)
Section 5: If all your work with, and exposure to,
the words in this list have finally made you a
master of them, you will be able, without doubt or

                                                104
hesitation, to match the statement of feeling to each
noun below.
NOUNS                STATEMENT OF
                     FEELING
1. lethargy          a. “I can’t do it!”
2. nostalgia         b. “You do it, I’ll watch”
3. benevolence       c. “All is boredom.”
4. satiety           d. “I hate everyone!”
5. frustration       e. “I’m exhausted, worn
                     out.”
6. weltschmerz       f. “I hate women!”
7. antipathy         g. “I wish I were home.”
8. compunction       h. “I can’t stand it!”
9. ennui             i. “I’ll get even!”
10. enervation       j. “I can’t move, can’t
                     respond.”
11. vicarioiusness   k. “You’re dirt!”
12. misanthropy      l. “The world is a sad place.”
13. misogyny         m. “No more, please.”
14. vindictiveness n. “I’d better not.”
15. superciliousness o. “I wish the best for you.”




                                                   105
Section 6: Spelling and Hooks Write the
word five times. In the last blank, write a HOOK
that will help you remember the spelling or
definition of the word. It might be a letter
pattern that reminds you of something etc.
Word       Word       Word       Word       Word       Hook
Practice   Practice   Practice   Practice   Practice
1          2          3          4          5
ennui      ennui      ennui      ennui      ennui       e --
                                                       pronounced
                                                       “ah” then 2
                                                       n’s and a ui




                                                                106
Vocabulary Building
Words that end in “OLOGY”                  List 8
Humanity’s triumph is our intellect. Our ability
to study, learn, understand and communicate can
take us farther than any other of Earth’s species.
Section 1: The Fields of Human Knowledge
1. anthropology (an-throw-POL’- a-jee)
This word we have had before and you should
recognize it as the “science of mankind” in
general, his habits, history, distribution, culture.
Write as sentence using the word.
2. geology (jee-OL’-a-jee) The meaning of this
word is crystal clear when we know that the
prefix “geo” comes from the Greek geos, “earth,”
plus logos, “study” or “science.” Geology, then is
the science of the structure, forces and history of
the Earth.
Write as sentence using the word.
3. archaeology      (ahr-kee-OL’-a-jee)
this is the science of antiquities. it deals with the
                                                       107
old records that man leaves in such forms as
buildings and pottery and in the physical remains
of his industries. The key to the language of the
Aztecs of ancient Mexico, for example, has not
been fully discovered, but archaeologists can learn
much of the story of these people from the ruins
they left. (Greek archaios, “ancient,” and therefore
“the study of ancient things.”) Note: Pay careful
attention to the vowel pattern in the middle of the
words. “aeo”
Write sentences using both the word
archaeology and archaeologist.
4. embryology (em-bree-OL’-a-jee)
In the early stages of pre-natal development, the
unborn child is called an embryo. Once more the
Greeks have helped us, for en in their language
means “in,” and bryein, “swell;” so, literally, the
word means “to swell inside,” which is just what
happens in pregnancy. It is the science dealing
with the formation, development, structure and
functional activities of embryos. An embryologist,
                                                  108
then, deals with the beginnings of life. A couple
might deal with an embryologist if they are
interested in genetic testing or help with
pregnancy.
Write as sentence using both words.
5. entomology (en-ta-MOL’-a-jee)
When you know that entomon is Greek for
“insect,” the rest is easy to guess. The
entomologists have given us a wealth of knowledge
about the home life, habits, and social customs of
bees, ants, butterflies, and other members of the
species.
Write a sentence using both words.
6. ethnology (eth-NOL’-a-jee)
An ethnologist is interested in the study of races
and their origins. What is their history? Where
did they come from? Where do they live? How
do they differ in mind, culture, characteristics.
Ethnology comes from the Greek, ethnos, meaning
“race.”
Write a sentence using both words.
                                                    109
7. etymology (et-eh-MOL’-a-jee)       Simply, this
is the study of the history and origin of words.
Write a sentence using this word.
8. ornithology      (awr-ne-THOL’-e-jee)
If you are told the ornis is Greek for “bird,” you
can easily come up with a meaning for both the
words ornithology and ornithologist.
Write sentences using both words.
9. philology (fi-LOL’-e-jee)      This word we’ve
had before. It’s the study of words and language,
the whole area of linguistics.
Write a sentence using the word.
10. psychology Once more, we thank the Greeks
and we find that psyche, “soul,” “mind.” So the
psychologist is a student of, and an authority on,
the human mind, and human behavior in all of its
aspects.
Write sentences using both words.
Section 2:     Review your learning


                                                     110
Here are the ten fields of human knowledge once
again, in simple chart form, with the scientist in
the middle column. Review and add to your
notes the area of interest to each scientist.
Field          Scientist      Interest
anthropology   anthropologist
geology        geologist
archaeology    archaeologist
embryology     embryologist
entomology     entomologist
ethnology      ethnologist
etymology      etymologist
ornithology    ornithologist
philology      philologist
psychology     psychologist
Section 3: Where Does One Turn?
Add information to your notes as you answer the
following questions. Which of the following
specialists from Section 2 would you consult for
information?
1. What does the unborn baby look like during
the third week of its development?
                                                 111
2. How many Mayan ruins are there in Central
America?
3. What makes human beings behave the way
they do?
4. What kind of rock is found in Tennessee?
5. Is it true that the owl is wiser than other
birds?
6. What did the men of the Stone Age look like?
7. What is the life span of an ant?
8. What is the derivation or origin of the word
boycott?
9. How many different languages are spoken in
Europe?
10. Where is each race found in greatest
abundance?
Section 4: Making it stick
There are still many things you can do with these
words. Say them aloud, many times. If you aren’t
perfectly comfortable with their pronunciation,
you won’t dare to use them. Next, experiment
with etymologies. Greek geos means “earth.”
                                                  112
How easy is it then to read the meaning of
geography, geopolitics, geometry.
Psyche, “soul” or “mind,” produces words like
psychic, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, psychotic, as well as
psychology. Once you recognize the root, the word
itself can no longer be a complete mystery to you.
Add to your notes as you match the roots and
their meanings.
Root                                     Meaning
1. anthropos (anthropology)              a. earth
2. archaios (archaeology)                b. race
3. geos (geology)                        c. insect
4. bryein (embryology)                   d. bird
5. entomon (entomology)                  e. mind, soul
6. ethnos (ethnology)                    f. mankind
7. ornis (ornithology)                   g. word, study
                                         of
8. philein (philology)                   h. to love
9. psyche (psychology)                   i. to swell
10. logos (etymology)                    j. ancient



                                                        113
Section 5:      Spelling and Hooks Write the
word five times. In the last blank, write a HOOK
that will help you remember the spelling or
definition of the word. It might be a letter
pattern that reminds you of something etc.
Word       Word       Word       Word       Word       Hook
Practice 1 Practice 2 Practice 3 Practice 4 Practice 5
archaeology   archaeology   archaeology   archaeology   archaeology    vowel
                                                                      pattern
                                                                      “aeo”




                                                                                114
Vocabulary Building
Words for Human Traits                  List 9
Men and women have so many forms of behavior,
and such a multitude of varied characteristics and
points of view, that they have inspired a host of
descriptive adjectives.
Section 1:
1. loquacious (low-KWAY’-shus)
A loquacious person is one who tends to talk too
much or too freely; talkative; chattering;
babbling; verbose are some synonyms. We all
know someone who is loquacious. Use them as
your “hook” for this word. From the Latin loquor,
“speak.” Eloquent and colloquial come from the
same root.
Write a sentence using the word.
2. gullible     (GULL’-e-bel)
A gullible person is easily deceived or cheated.
They will believe anything you tell them. By the
way, did you know that Ewoks are real?
Write a sentence using the word.
                                                 115
3. suave (SWAHV)          A suave person is one
whose manner and speech is smooth and
agreeable. Often, though this smooth talker is
not genuinely gracious but instead is superficially
gracious and sophisticated. From the Latin
suavis, “sweet” or “smooth.”
Write a sentence using the word.
4. pompous (POM’-pus) A pompous person
has an elevated level of self-importance. They’re
arrogant and think quite a lot of themselves.
From the Latin pompa, “parade” or “solemn
procession.” Someone who is pompous parades
themselves around importantly.
Write a sentence using the word.
5. taciturn     (TAS’-e-turn) A taciturn person is
inclined to silence, is reserved in speech, and is
reluctant to join in conversation with others.
Someone who is taciturn may be considered shy.
From the Latin tacere, “be silent.”
Write a sentence using the word.


                                                 116
6. opinionated     (oh-PIN’-ya-nay-ted)
This person has their mind so completely made
up that they are unwilling to listen to opposing
views. They are often conceited about their
beliefs. From the Latin opinio, “thought” or
“opinion.” Opinionated came to mean too well
provided with opinions, and, finally, stubborn or
set in opinions.
Write a sentence using the word.
7. phlegmatic (fleg-MAT’-ik) This person has a
hard time getting excited over much of anything.
They may seem apathetic or sluggish.
Write a sentence using the word.
8. erudite (AIR’-eh-dite)     The erudite person is
full of book learning. This person is
characterized by great knowledge. We would
consider them to be scholarly.
Write a sentence using the word.
9. complacent (kem-PLAY’-sent) The
complacent person is pleased with the current
situation, often without realization or awareness
                                                    117
of some potential danger or defect.
Write a sentence using the word.
10. punctilious (punk-TILL’-ee-us) The
punctilious person is one who worries too much
about small details. They are precise with their
observance of formalities of conduct and action.
From the Latin puncturn, “point.” Punctilions is
used in our language to refer to someone who is
very attentive to fine points. Punctual and
puncture derive from the same root.
Write a sentence using the word.
11. indefatigable (in-de-FAT’-e-ga-bel)
The indefatigable person is tireless and
persevering. They are not able to be fatigued.
They are those who are able to function well on
four hours of sleep or keep going when everyone
else has tired out. From the Latin in, “not,” and
defatigare, “to tire out.”
Write a sentence using the word.
12. vapid (VAP’-id) The vapid person is one
without liveliness or spirit. They are dull or
                                                   118
tedious in conversation. A party may also be
vapid if it is dull and lifeless. From the Latin
vapidus, “flavorless” and vapidus itself is from the
Latin vappa, a wine that has lost its life or flavor.
Write a sentence using the word.
13. iconoclastic (eye-kon-e-KLASS’-tic)
The iconoclastic person attacks or ignores long-
cherished beliefs or long-held traditions as being
foolish, baseless, or superstitious. The iconoclast
(n.) might not believe in the institutions of
marriage, government or religion – a breaker of
traditions. From the Greek eikon, “idol”; klaein, “to
break.”
Write a sentence using the word iconoclastic.
14. misanthropic (mis-an-THROP’-ik)
A misanthropic person hates the world and
everyone in it. This person is called a
misanthrope.
Write a sentence using the word.
15. puerile (PYOO’-er-el)    A puerile person is
childish although they may actually be an adult.
                                                    119
They are immature and foolish in their actions
and behavior. From the Latin puer, “boy.”
Write a sentence using the word.
Section 2:    Look at the following definitions
and figure out which word fits. Add any extra
information you may learn to your notes.
1. Completely self-satisfied; smug
2. Smooth and pleasant in manner; bland;
gracious; smoothly ingratiating (charming)
3. By temperament, not easily perturbed
(annoyed); calm; emotionally sluggish or
unresponsive
4. One who assails or mocks traditional or
cherished beliefs.
5. Simple; credulous; easily deceived
6. Marked my assumed self-importance;
pretentious
7. Characteristic of childhood; juvenile; immature
and silly or trivial
8. Very learned; scholarly
9. Extremely talkative
10. habitually silent or unwilling to engage in
conversation
11. Unduly attached to one’s own opinions;
                                                 120
obstinate (stubborn) in holding on to beliefs
12. Not exhausted by labor or exercise; never
tiring
13. Hating mankind
14. Very exact or scrupulous in the observance of
forms of etiquette (manners), ceremony, or
behavior
15. Utterly lacking in sparkle, flavor, or interest;
empty and flat; dull
Section 3:     Phrases
Look at the series of phrases, each of which
should help you recognize one of the fifteen
words from this list. Note: some adjectives will
be used more than once. Add information to your
notes as needed.
1.   Emotionally sluggish
2.   Disinclined to conversation
3.   Having an antipathy for mankind.
4.   Easily duped (tricked)
5.   Insipid
6.   Scholarly
7.   Talkative
8.   Precise in the observance of forms
                                                   121
9. Ostentatiously self-important
10. Inane
11. Descriptive of the attitude of one who attacks
cherished beliefs as shams
12. Childish
13. Polished in manner
14. Stubbornly set in opinions
15. Self-satisfied
16. Attacking established traditions
17. Having an aversion to the human race
18. Tireless
19. Urbanely smooth and ingratiating
2o. Contented with oneself and with things as
they are
Section 4: True or False
Test your increasing understanding of these
fifteen words by deciding whether the given
sentence fits the word.
1. Talkative woman are called loquacious.
2. Country yokels are as a rule suave.
3. Enthusiastic people are usually taciturn.
                                                 122
4. The more impartial a man is, the more
opinionated he sounds.
5. Phlegmatic people usually become panicky in
an emergency.
6. Pomposity is usually amusing.
7. College professors are often erudite.
8. Smug people are never complacent.
9. Punctilious people are sticklers for form.
10. The beaver is an indefatigable worker.
11. The conversation of a conceited bore is
usually vapid.
12. The attitude of young people is usually
iconoclastic.
13. Misanthropic remarks show a feeling of love
and trust for people.
14. Puerile behavior indicates maturity.
15. A young child is apt to be gullible.
Section 5: Multiple choice
Figure out which word or phrase best completes
each sentence. Add information to your notes as
needed.
                                                  123
1. Loquacity is an inordinate amount of:
   a. singing
   b. attention to details
   c. talking
2. Gullible people fall easy prey to:
   a. doctors
   b. used-car salesmen
   c. teachers
3. Suave men might be experts at:
   a. home repair
   b. surfing
   c. getting along with women
4. Pomposity probably comes from:
   a. fear
   b. obesity
   c. vanity
5. Taciturnity would likely be found in:
   a. salesmen
   b. public speakers
   c. hermits

                                           124
6. Opinionated assertions may likely lead to:
   a. marriage
   b. arguments
   c. truth
7. A phlegmatic person:
   a. sheds tears at an emotional play
   b. becomes hysterical in a crisis
   c. does not become easily emotional
8. Erudite men are most interested in:
   a. scholarly books
   b. light fiction
   c. the comics
9. People who are complacent about their jobs
will:
    a. take it easy
    b. worry about their future
    c. keep an eye on the help-wanted ads
10. A punctilious person is a stickler for:
    a. originality
    b. courage
    c. proper etiquette
                                                125
11. To be indefatigable, one usually needs a great
amount of:
    a. money
    b. energy
    c. education
12. Vapid people are:
    a. boring
    b. successful
    c. quarrelsome
13. Iconoclasts are opposed to:
    a. change
    b. tradition
    c. stealing
14. A misanthrope dislikes:
    a. people
    b. good food
    c. literature
15. Men are most likely to be puerile when:
    a. they don’t get their own way
    b. they are reading
    c. they are eating
                                                     126
Section 6: Spelling and Hooks
Write the word five times. In the last blank,
write a HOOK that will help you remember the
spelling or definition of the word. It might be a
letter pattern that reminds you of something etc.
Word       Word       Word       Word       Word       Hook
Practice   Practice   Practice   Practice   Practice
1          2          3          4          5
puerile    puerile    puerile    puerile    puerile    puerile
                                                       remember
                                                       the UE.
                                                       “PU” e
                                                       riles me up




                                                               127
Vocabulary Building
Words about Personalities               List 9
Language, most naturally, is an intensely human
subject, and all words lead finally to humans. In
List 9, we will turn to terms that deal directly
with your friends and with you. Here are twelve
words that describe different kinds of
personalities.
Section 1: Which Personality are you?
1. introvert Are you moody, quiet, happy to be
alone? Do you spend much of your time thinking
of yourself? You are probably an introvert.
Write a sentence using the word.
2. extrovert Are you a good mixer? Do you
prefer the company of others to solitude? Are
you rarely self-conscious and usually more
interested in the outside world and in the other
fellow than you are in yourself? You are probably
an extrovert.
Write a sentence using the word.

                                                 128
3. ambivert Do you feel that you have some of
the qualities listed in (1) combined with some of
those listed in (2)? Most people, few of whom are
pure introverts or extroverts, are actually
ambiverts.
Write a sentence using the word.
4. egocentric Is your mind so selfishly occupied
with your own thoughts, desires, opinions, and
needs as to make you indifferent to the interests
of other folks? If so, you are egocentric.
Write a sentence using the word.
5. inhibited Do you often wish to do perfectly
innocent, or perhaps not so innocent, things
which your conscience, your fear of ridicule, or
your conservative upbringing prevents you from
doing? If so, you are inhibited. The opposite of
which, of course, is uninhibited.
Write a sentence using the word.
6. exhibitionist Are you so completely lacking
in modesty and self-consciousness that you
delight in making a spectacle of yourself? Do you
                                                129
make a play for the spotlight and are you eager to
put on a one-man show at every gathering? If so,
you are an exhibitionist.
Write a sentence using the word.
7. diffident do you always think of that perfect
and witty remark after you get home? Do you
feel that your opinions are not worth expressing?
Are you so completely lacking in self-confidence
that you rarely achieve the success or recognition
that your talents and ability seem to deserve? If
so, you are diffident.
Write a sentence using the word.
8. effervescent Are you generally sparkling,
happy, bubbling over with zest and high spirits?
If so, you are effervescent.
Write a sentence using the word.
9. gregarious Are you happiest when you are
with a crowd? Do you prefer people to solitude
and do you feel emotionally most content in the
company of friends? If so, you are gregarious.
Write a sentence using the word.
                                                   130
10. truculent (TRUCK’-yoo-lent) Do you walk
around with a chip on your shoulder? Are you
always ready to do battle? Are you savage, fierce,
ruthless, unyielding in your manner and in your
arguments? If so, you need an attitude
adjustment because you are truculent.
Write a sentence using the word.
11. saturnine (SAT’-er-nyne)   Are you grave,
gloomy, heavy, foreboding? Do you rarely smile?
Are you sluggish in temperament and taciturn?
If so, you are saturnine.
Write a sentence using the word.
12. quixotic   (kwik-ZOT’-ik) Are you
chivalrous, romantic, and idealistic almost to a
ridiculous extreme? Are you the opposite of
practical? Do you place women on so high a
pedestal that she is unapproachable? If so, you
and your fanciful ways are quixotic.
Write a sentence using the word.



                                                   131
Section 2: Match the word
In this section, match the definition given to the
word. Add information to your notes as needed.
1. Possessed with self-distrust; shy; timid
2. Bubbly and sparkling in personality
3. Looking at everything from a personal point
of view
4. Delight with putting on an act in front of
others
5. One whose chief interests are outside of
himself and who makes friends easily
6. Preferring the company of others over
solitude
7. One whose interest is directed inward, who is
turned in upon himself, and who is much alone
8. Idealistic but unpractical
9. Morose, gloomy, heavy, dull
10. Savage and pugnacious
(belligerent/combative) in character
11. One who finds his satisfactions both within
and in the outside world

                                                     132
12. Held back by conscience, early training, fear,
feelings of shyness, etc.
Section 3: Match Again
Match the definition given to the vocabulary
word. Add information to notes as needed.
1. Cruel, ferocious
2. Shy and timid
3. Bubbling over
4. Considering self the center of everything
5. Uses self-restraint in action
6. One who loves to be the center of attention
7. One whose interests are directed outward
8. Liking to be with other people
9. One whose interest is directed inward
10. Idealistic but impractical
11. Gloomy and morose
12. One who finds his satisfactions both inside
and outside himself
Section 4: Nouns
Nouns often end in such characteristic suffixes as
–tion or –sion, --ism,--ence, --ness, and –ity. can you
                                                     133
figure out the noun form of each adjective? Add
it to your notes as you do.
1. introverted (as in: characterized by ________)
2. extroverted (as in: known for his ________)
3. ambiverted (as in: most people tend toward __)
4. egocentric (as in: hated for his annoying ____)
5. inhibited (as in: a prey to oppressive _____)
6. exhibitionistic (as in: accused of __________)
7. diffident (as in: projects a poor image
because of his __________)
8. effervescent (as in: delighted with his charm
and __________)
9. gregarious (as in: a slave to his unending ___)
10. truculent (as in: offended everyone with his __)
11. quixotic (as in: such ridiculous ______)
12. saturnine (as in: oppressed by __________)
Make sure you got them…1. introversion; 2.
extroversion; 3. ambiversion; 4. egocentrism; 5.
inhibition; 6. exhibitionism; 7. diffidence; 8.
effervescence; 9. gregariousness; 10. truculence;
11. quixotism; 12. saturnism
                                                    134
Section 5: Spelling and Hooks
Write the word five times. In the last blank,
write a HOOK that will help you remember the
spelling or definition of the word. It might be a
letter pattern that reminds you of something etc.
Word       Word       Word       Word       Word       Hook
Practice 1 Practice 2 Practice 3 Practice 4 Practice 5
quixotic quixotic quixotic quixotic quixotic quick
                                                       with an x




                                                             135
Vocabulary Building
Adjectives Give You Power              List 10
Adjectives are words that compress a wealth of
meaning and emotion into a few syllables.
Section 1:
1. plebian (PLEE’-bee-an) Common; coarse;
vulgarly ordinary, mediocre, or commonplace. If
you call someone plebian, you’ve just insulted
them by saying they’re nothing special.
Write a sentence using the word.
2. obsequious (ob-SEE’-kwee-us) If you’re over-
courteous, overly attentive to the point of
fawning in a servile way, you’re obsequious.
Write a sentence using the word.
3. maudlin (MAWD’-lin) if you’re drunk
enough to be emotionally silly or weakly
sentimental, you’re maudlin.
Write a sentence using the word.
4. perfunctory (per-FUNK’-tor-ee) if you lack
interest, care and enthusiasm. If you are
                                                 136
performing a task mechanically, without care or
emotion.
Write a sentence using the word.
5. abortive (ah-BAWR’-tiv) Failing to
succeed; unsuccessful. Coming to naught or
failing.
Write a sentence using the word.
6. surreptitious (sur-rep-TISH’-ess)
Obtained or done by secret or stealthy means.
Write a sentence using the word.
7. presumptuous (pre-ZUMP’-choo-us)
Unduly confident or bold; audacious; arrogant;
taking too much for granted.
Write a sentence using the word.
8. flagrant (FLAY’-grent)
Openly, glaringly wrong or scandalous.
Purposefully unfair, shockingly noticeable or
evident.
Write a sentence using the word.


                                                  137
9. sadistic    (sad-IS’-tik)
Inclined to cruelty; getting pleasure out of
hurting others.
Write a sentence using the word.
10. inane (in-AYN’)
Senseless; silly; empty; ridiculous.
Write a sentence using the word.
11. wanton     (WANT’-ehn) recklessly
inconsiderate or heartless; unrestrained;
extravagant.
Write a sentence using the word.
12. crass Stupid in a grossly inconsiderate way.
Without refinement, delicacy or sensitivity.
Write a sentence using the word.
13. macabre (ma-KAH’-bruh) Gruesome and
horrifying; ghastly; horrible. Representing death
and its grim aspects.
Write a sentence using the word.
14. dogmatic Asserting opinions in a stubborn
or arrogant manner; opinionated; especially with
                                                138
politics.
Write a sentence using the word.
15. vitriolic   (vi-tree-AWL’-ik)   Bitter,
scornful, and sneering. Highly caustic and severe;
hateful as in criticism.
Write a sentence using the word.
16. intermittent  (inter-MITT’-ent)      Ceasing
and starting again; not continuous; occasional.
Write a sentence using the word.
17. subversive (sub-VER’-sive) Tending to
overthrow from the very foundations, as of a
moral or political force; aiming to destroy, often
from within a government.
Write a sentence using the word.
18. desultory (dee-SULT’-er-ee) Passing
irregularly from one thing to another;
changeable; without method or plan.
Write a sentence using the word.
19. sardonic (sar-DON’-ik) Disdainfully or
skeptically humorous; derisively mocking.
                                                     139
Extremely biting or sarcastic.
Write a sentence using the word.
Section 2: Changing adjectives to nouns or
adverbs
-- You will recall from the previous chapter that a
noun often and characteristically ends in such
suffixes as –ity, -ness, -ion, -ism, -ence, -ance, -
ency, or –ancy.
Adverbs end in –ly.
Can you change each adjective as required below?
As you do, add information to your notes.
1. Obsequious to a noun: “His ___________ was
annoying.”
2. Perfunctory to an adverb: “He did his work
________.”
3. Surreptitious to an adverb: “He crept through
the house ________.”
4. Presumputous to a noun: “Your _________ will
be punished.”
5. Sadistic to a noun denoting the person: “He is
a __________.”
                                                  140
6. Sadistic to a noun denoting the philosophy:
“He was a victim of his wife’s __________.”
7. Flagrant to a noun: “I cannot understand how
you can break the law with such ____________.”
8. Inane to an adverb: “He is speaking _______.”
9. Wanton to an adverb: “__________, she broke
her husband’s heart.”
10. Crass to a noun: “His __________ makes it
impossible for him to be accepted by refined
people.”
11. Dogmatic to a noun: “Why do you always
speak with such __________?”
12. Intermittent to an adverb: “The rain came
down ___________.”
13. Desultory to an adverb: “He works ________.”
Did you get all of them? Check and make sure…
1. Obsequiousness; 2. perfunctorily; 3.
surreptitiously; 4. presumption; 5. sadist; 6.
sadism; 7. flagrance; 8. inanely; 9. wantonly; 10.
crassness; 11. dogmatism; 12. intermittently; 13.
desultorily.

                                                 141
Section 3:
Review the nineteen words carefully (including
their noun and adverb forms), pronouncing them
aloud to fix them in your mind. In your notes,
complete each of the following sentences with one
of the words or forms that you think will fit best.
1. He made an ____________ attempt to regain
the governorship; his defeat left him a sad and
bitter man who thereafter spoke _________ of his
political past.
2. Can you think of anything quite so ________
cruel as war?
3. Pompous people delight in __________
attendance on their every wish.
4. Thievery will out, and anything you do
_____________ will someday be found out.
5. Please don’t state so _____ that democracy is
a fiasco. Time will show the stupidity of such a
statement.


                                                 142
6. He disliked his job heartily, and therefore it
was no surprise that he discharged his duties so
_______________.
7. With what malicious and ______ satisfaction
the prosecutor made the witness reveal his past!
8. Read with a purpose; ________ reading is
neither satisfactory nor sensible.
9. During a political campaign, candidates often
descend to making ___________ attacks on their
opponents.
10. It was an overcast day, with only
___________ sunshine.
11. This error is so glaring and _________ that
I’m amazed you didn’t catch it.
12. Isn’t it rather ____________ for a person of
your reputation to ask to be my friend?
13. He has a ______________ tongue; his biting
sarcasm has alienated everyone who knows him.


                                                    143
14. Peaceful people are aghast at the _________
destruction of life and property that occurs
during wars and riots.
15. He made a futile, ______ attempt at rescue.
16. Such ________ materialism will never lead to
real happiness.
Did you get them? There may be more than one
right answer in this section. As a person whose
vocabulary is becoming larger and larger, you
realize that there are many different ways of
saying the same thing. The particular word you
choose will determine the flavor of your thought.
1. abortive, sardonically; 2. sadistically; 3.
obsequious; 4. surreptitiously; 5. dogmatically or
inanely; 6. perfunctorily; 7. sadistic; 8.
intermittent or desultory; 9. vitriolic; 10.
intermittent; 11. flagrant; 12. presumptuous; 13.
vitriolic or sardonic; 14. macabre or wanton or
sadistic; 15. desultory; 16. wanton


                                                  144
Section 4: Synonym and Antonym
Compare the word to the meaning given and
determine whether the meaning is the same or
opposite to the word given. Add to your notes as
needed.
Word                    Meaning
plebeian                unusual
obsequious              brusque
maudlin                 sentimental
perfunctory             superficial
abortive                successful
surreptitious           aboveboard
presumptuous            humble
sadistic                cruel
flagrant                hidden
inane                   meaningful
wanton                  restrained
crass                   refined
macabre                 eerie
dogmatic                opinionated
vitriolic               sarcastic
intermittent            continuous
subversive              protective
desultory               aimless
sardonic                bitter
                                               145
Section 5: Spelling and Hooks
Write the word five times. In the last blank,
write a HOOK that will help you remember the
spelling or definition of the word. It might be a
letter pattern that reminds you of something etc.
Word       Word       Word       Word       Word       Hook
Practice   Practice   Practice   Practice   Practice
1          2          3          4          5
plebeian   plebeian   plebeian   plebeian   plebeian   note the
                                                       eia vowel
                                                       pattern
                                                       plebe-ian




                                                              146
Vocabulary Building
Learning Words the Modern Way            List 12
Merely memorizing lists of words by rote
happens to be the slowest and most difficult way
to remember them. If you follow such a routine
you will find that you have forgotten most of the
list by the next day.
What, then is the correct procedure? Just this.
Look at the word first, if you can, in its context:
in the paragraph where it appears. The very
sense of the paragraph will give you an inkling of
the importance of the word – even if you have
never seen it before. You naturally become eager
to know the definition of the word in order to
understand the sentence pattern in which you
have seen it. Your approach, then, is indirect and
psychological, because you wish the information,
not as an end in itself, but as a means to an end.
You realize that if you learn the meaning of the
word you will comprehend the meaning of the
sentence. You are using what is called the
                                                   147
inductive method, in that you first discover the
word at work, you are challenged by it, you guess
at its meaning, and you then confirm or correct
your guess by referring to the dictionary.
When you use this method, the words are no
longer so much dead wood, to be piled up on your
mind, but are living entities, charged with action
and emotion. They then become hard to forget.
In List 12, we will discuss thirteen adverbs and
two adverbial phrases and try to prove how much
easier it is to learn by the indirect, inductive, and
psychological route.
Section 1: Pay careful attention to the following
sentences in Groups A, B, C, D, and E. In each
sentence you will find an adverb in italics. If the
word is new to you, try to guess at its meaning.
Group A
   1. He complained acrimoniously
   2. We argued acrimoniously
   3. They mocked each other acrimoniously

                                                   148
   (You can feel the unpleasant overtone of this
word…)
Group B
1. The doctor completed the operation adroitly
2. She drove adroitly through the maze of traffic
3. Adroitly she knitted the complicated stitch
(this word obviously applies to some manual
action, possibly complicated)
Group C
1. He moved slowly and circumspectly through
the range of fire
2. Fearing a trick, he answered all questions
circumspectly.
3. By walking circumspectly, he avoided an
ambush.
(There’s a feeling of watchfulness about this
word)
Group D
1. These two building leases run concomitantly.
2. Living and learning go on concomitantly.
3. Rain, snow, and sleet, all came down
                                                   149
concomitantly.
(You probably know why two or more things
must be involved in these actions, even if you
happen never to have seen the word before).
Group E
1. He examined the plans cursorily.
2. He ran through the pages cursorily, then he
threw the novel down in disgust.
3. He did his homework so cursorily that he
flunked his examination.
(This word should carry an impression of
superficial haste)
Section 2:
1. acrimoniously (ak-re-MO’-nee-us-lee)
Speaking or behaving in a caustic, stinging or
bitter nature.
Write a sentence using the word.
2. adroitly      (a-DROIT-lee) Behaving in a
expert or nimble way with the hands or body. To
act in a clever, skillful, resourceful or ingenious

                                                 150
way.
Write a sentence using the word.
3. circumspectly (sur-kehm-SPECKT’-lee)
Behaving in a watchful, discreet, cautious and
careful manner.
Write a sentence using the word.
4. concomitantly (kon-KOM’-e-tent-lee)
Something is concomitant when it exists or
occurs with something else, often in a lesser way;
accompanying; concurrently
Write a sentence using the word.
5. cursorily (KUR’-se-re-lee) The adjective
form of this word is cursory (as in: Give a cursory
glance). Both the adjective and adverb form mean
going rapidly over something, without noticing
details; hastily; superficially.
Write a sentence using the word.
6. didactically    (did-AK’-tik-lee) The adverb is
to behave in a way intended for instruction; to
teach or lecture. The adjective is didactic.
Write a sentence using the word.
                                                 151
7. disparagingly (dis-PAIR’-e-jing-lee)
To speak in a way that belittles or brings
reproach to yourself or others.
Write a sentence using the word.
8. glibly (GLIB’-lee)
Someone who speaks fluently, often thoughtlessly
or superficially is said to be insincere and glib.
Write a sentence using the word.
9. plaintively (PLAIN’-tiv-lee) A person who
speaks plaintively is expressing sorrow or
melancholy. A plaintive melody is mournful and
sad.
Write a sentence using the word.
10. ominously (OM’-eh-ness-lee)
Behaving in a way that threatens evil or harm.
ex. An ominous sky before a thunderstorm.
Write a sentence using the word.
11. impunity (im-PYOO’-ni-tee)
Exemption or escape from punishment.
Write a sentence using the word.

                                                 152
12. inadvertently (in-ad-VUR’-tent-lee)
To do something by accident without intension.
Write a sentence using the word.
13. irascibly (eye-RASS’-eh-blee)
With ire. Behaving in an angry or irritated way.
Write a sentence using the word.
14. sub rosa (sub-RO’-seh) To behave
confidentially, secretly or privately.
ex. Inasmuch as the plans were executed sub rosa,
the stockholders realized too late how completely
they had been defrauded.
15. vociferously   (voh-SIF’-er-us-lee)
In a loud, noisy and continuously boisterous
manner. To clamor.
Write a sentence using the word.
Section 3: Matching
Choose the vocabulary word that fits best with
the definition given. Add information to your
notes as needed.


                                                 153
1. Expertly; dexterously; with skillful use of the
hands or mind.
2. Accompanying; occurring together
3. In the fashion of a teacher; as it teaching a
lesson
4. In a manner of smooth ease and fluency;
without hesitation.
5. In a heedless manner; without care;
inattentively
6. Forebodingly; in a way portending evil
7. In strict confidence; privately
8. In a loud-voiced manner; vehemently; noisily
9. Expressing sadness or melancholy
10. Angrily; irritably; in hot-tempered fashion
11. With freedom from punishment or injurious
consequences
12. Speaking slightingly of, in a way to
undervalue and discredit
13. Hastily and superficially, without due care
and attention
14. Cautiously with watchfulness in all directions

                                                 154
15. With sharpness and bitterness of speech or
temper
Section 3: Synonyms
Use the following synonyms and find the
matching vocabulary word. Each adverb or
adverbial phrase will be required two or three
times.
1. hastily
2. warily
3. in a teacher-like manner
4. irritably
5. in a way foreboding evil
6. sadly
7. in a hidden manner
8. loudly
9. inauspiciously
10. angrily
11. dexterously
12. cautiously
13. slightingly
14. fluently
15. caustically
                                                 155
16. heedlessly
17. at the same time
18. with anger and annoyance
19. prudently
20 with exemption from punishment
21. smoothly
22. stingingly
23. thoughtlessly
24. deprecatingly
25. conjointly
26. without danger of punishment
27. bitterly
28. unhesitatingly
29. depreciatively
30. skillfully
31. irately
32. in a way expressing coming danger or
misfortune
33. sorrowfully
34. without incurring penalty, harm, or loss
35. rapidly and hastily
36. like an instructor
                                               156
37. mournfully
38. secretly
39. clamorously
40. in loud tones
41. noisily
42. instructively
43. confidentially
44. in a melancholy way
45. belittlingly
46. superficially
Section 4: Spelling and Hooks
Write the word five times. In the last blank,
write a HOOK that will help you remember the
spelling or definition of the word. It might be a
letter pattern that reminds you of something etc.
Word       Word       Word       Word       Word     Hook
Practice   Practice   Practice   Practice   Practice
1          2          3          4          5
impunity   impunity   impunity   impunity   impunity im-pun-
                                                     ity
                                                     no “pun”
                                                     ishment



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