Building Codes by o9S16v4

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									Building Codes
CONCEPTS OF BUILDING CODES
   Codes provide for:
       Fire Protection
       Structural Integrity
       Health Safety


   Fire Protection for:
       Life
       Property


   Performance vs. Prescriptive Codes
CODE STRATEGY FOR LIFE SAFETY
1.   Prevention of ignition
2.   Detection of fire
3.   Control of fire development
4.   Confinement of the effects of fire
5.   Extinguishment of fire
6.   Provision of refuge and/or evacuation
     facilities
7.   Staff reaction
8.   Provision of fire safety information to
     occupants
PROPERTY PROTECTION
   Though important – Life safety is more
    important

   Whose concern is property protection?
CODES ARE A DESIGNERS FRIEND
   They provide a
    point of departure
    for decision making

   Minimum
    requirements to
    consider a building
    properly designed
CODES SHOULD BE USED AS
TOOLS FOR DECISION MAKING
   Codes are gray

   Codes have errors in them

   Rules of thumb don’t work in every situation

   Buildings are more complex than codes

   Architects, contractors, engineers, and
    interior designers are professionals
INHERENT FRUSTRATIONS WITH
CODES AND REGULATIONS
 Codesare thick and cumbersome
 because we desire flexibility

A uniform opinion on how to
 interpret codes is possible
IBC CODE PROMULGATION
CODE PROMULGATION
   Code Change
    Proposals
       Submitted by published
        deadline

   Proposed Changes
       Published 30 days
        before public hearing

   Public Hearing
       Discussion on floor
       Voting by Code
        Development
        Committee
       OCCUPANCY
CLASSIFICATION CONCEPTS
OCCUPANCY
CLASSIFICATION CONCEPTS
   Fire loading concepts
       Amount of combustible materials
       Amount of explosive or toxic materials


   Human behavior concepts
       Number of square feet per occupant (potential
        for panic)
       Familiarity with the building or structure
       Alertness of occupants
       Mobility of occupants
FIRE LOADING CONCEPTS
   Amount of combustible materials
       Pounds per square foot of fire loading
       Look for relative differences amongst occupancies
       All buildings have combustible materials within
        them


   Amount of explosive or toxic materials
       Look for relative differences amongst occupancies
       Most buildings have toxic materials within them
       Many buildings have explosive materials within
        them
HUMAN BEHAVIOR CONCEPTS
   Number of square feet per occupant
    (potential for panic)
       Crowd behavior is the concern
       Perception of adequate safety may diminish in
        a congested environment

   Familiarity with the building or structure
       Are most of the occupants intimately familiar
        with the environment?
       Visitors tend to go out the way they came in
HUMAN BEHAVIOR CONCEPTS
 Alertness      of occupants
     Do any of the occupants sleep in the facility?
     More a concern with a deep sleep than a “cat-nap”


 Mobility     of occupants
     Do any of the occupants need assistance in
      egressing the building or in egressing to a safer
      area of the building?
     Does this category include individuals with
      disabilities that may require some egress
      assistance
  OCCUPANCY
CLASSIFICATION
TYPICAL GROUP CLASSIFICATIONS
 Assembly (A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4, A-5)
 Business (B)
 Educational (E)
 Factory and Industrial (F-1, F-2)
 High Hazard (H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4, H-5)
 Industrial (I-1, I-2, I-3, I-4)
 Mercantile (M)
 Residential (R-1, R-2, R-3, R-4)
 Storage (S-1, S-2)
 Utility (U)
TYPICAL OCCUPANCY
CLASSIFICATION LANGUAGE
 “Assembly  Group A occupancy
 includes, among others, the use of a
 building or structure, or portion
 thereof, for…”
ASSEMBLY OCCUPANCIES
   Assembly Group A occupancy is for the
    gathering together of persons for
    purposes such as civic, social or religious
    functions, recreation, food or drink
    consumption or awaiting transportation.
    Any with an occupant load of less than 50
    is accessory to another occupancy.
ASSEMBLY
OCCUPANCY SUBCLASSIFICATIONS
   (A-1) usually with fixed seating; for production
    and viewing of performing arts or motion pictures

   (A-2) for food and/or drink consumption

   (A-3) for worship, recreation or amusement and
    other uses not covered by other A
    subclassifications

   (A-4) for viewing indoor sporting events with
    spectator seating

   (A-5) for participation in or viewing outdoor
    activities
ASSEMBLY OCCUPANCY CONCERNS
   Amount of combustible materials

   Amount of toxic or explosive materials

   Number of square feet per occupant

   Lack of familiarity with the building
BUSINESS OCCUPANCIES
 Business  Group B occupancy is for
  office, professional or service-type
  transaction, including storage of
  records and accounts
BUSINESS OCCUPANCY CONCERNS
 Group   B concerns are minimal
EDUCATIONAL OCCUPANCIES
   For educational purposes through the 12th
    grade by six or more persons at any one
    time

   “The use of a building or structure, or
    portion thereof, for educational,
    supervision or personal care services for
    more than five children older than 2 ½
    years of age, shall be classified as a Group
    E occupancy.”
EDUCATIONAL
OCCUPANCY CONCERNS
   Amount of combustible materials
   Amount of toxic or explosive materials
   Number of square feet per occupant
   Lack of familiarity with the building
   Many occupants require some assistance
    in self preservation
FACTORY
INDUSTRIAL OCCUPANCIES
   “Factory Industrial Group F occupancy
    includes, among others, the use of a
    building or structure, or portion thereof,
    for assembling, disassembling, fabricating,
    finishing, manufacturing, packaging,
    repair or processing operations that are
    not classified as a Group H hazardous
    occupancy.”
FACTORY INDUSTRIAL
OCCUPANCY SUBCLASSIFICATIONS
   (F-1) Moderate-Hazard

   (F-2) Low-Hazard
FACTORY INDUSTRIAL
OCCUPANCY CONCERNS
 Amount   of combustible materials

 Amount of toxic or explosive
 materials
HIGH-HAZARD OCCUPANCIES
   “Hazardous Group H occupancy includes,
    amount others, the use of a building or
    structure, or portion thereof, that involves
    the manufacturing, processing, generation
    or storage of materials that constitute a
    physical or health hazard in quantities in
    excess of those found in Tables 307.7(1)
    and 307.7(2). See also definition of
    ‘Control Area’.”
HIGH-HAZARD
OCCUPANCY SUBCLASSIFICATION
   High-Hazard (H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4, H-5)
HIGH-HAZARD
OCCUPANCY CONCERNS
   Amount of combustible materials

   Amount of toxic or explosive materials
INSTITUTIONAL OCCUPANCIES
   “Institutional Group 1 occupancy includes,
    among others, the use of a building or
    structure, or portion thereof, in which
    people having physical limitation because
    of health or age are harbored for medical
    treatment or other care or treatment, or in
    which people are detained for penal or
    correctional purposes or in which the
    liberty of the occupants is restricted.”
INSTITUTIONAL
OCCUPANCY SUBCLASSIFICATIONS
   (I-1) 17 or more persons for 24 hours or more in
    a supervised residential environment

   (I-2) 6 or more persons for 24 hours or more
    receiving medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing
    or custodial care

   (I-3) 6 or more persons under restrain or security

   (I-4) 6 or more persons receiving custodial care
    for less than 24 hours away from their home
INSTITUTIONAL
OCCUPANCY CONCERNS
   Lack of familiarity with the building

   Occupants sleep there

   Many occupants require some assistance
    in self preservation
MERCANTILE OCCUPANCIES
   “Mercantile Group M occupancy includes,
    among others, the use of a building or
    structure, or portion thereof, for the
    display and sale of merchandise, and
    involves stocks of goods, wares or
    merchandise incidental to such purposes
    and accessible to the public.”
MERCANTILE
OCCUPANCY CONCERNS
   Amount of combustible materials

   Amount of toxic or explosive materials

   Number of square feet per occupant

   Lack of familiarity with the building
RESIDENTIAL OCCUPANCIES
   “Residential Group R occupancy includes,
    among others, the use of a building or
    structure, or portion thereof, for sleeping
    accommodations when not classed as an
    Institutional when not classed as an
    Institutional Group 1.”
RESIDENTIAL
OCCUPANCY SUBCLASSIFICATIONS
   (R-1) Multi-family where the occupants
    are primarily transient in nature (stay less
    than 30 days)
   (R-2) Multi-family of 3 or more units
    where the occupants are primarily
    permanent in nature (stay 30 days or
    more)
   (R-3) One and two family dwellings
   (R-4) Residential Care/Assisted Living
    Facilities for 6 to 16 persons
RESIDENTIAL
OCCUPANCY CONCERNS
 Lack   of familiarity with the building

 Occupants    sleep there
STORAGE OCCUPANCIES
   “Storage Group S occupancy includes,
    among others, the use of building or
    structure, or portion thereof, for storage
    that is not classed as a hazardous
    occupancy.”
STORAGE
OCCUPANCY SUBCLASSIFICATIONS
   (S-1) Storage of products other than those in
    Group S-2

   (S-2) “Includes, among others, buildings used for
    the storage of noncombustible materials such as
    products on wood pallets or in paper cartons with
    or without single thickness divisions; or in paper
    wrappings. Such products may have a negligible
    amount of plastic trim such as knobs, handles or
    film wrapping.”
STORAGE OCCUPANCY
 Amount   of combustible materials

 Amount of toxic or explosive
 materials
UTILITY AND
MISCELLANEOUS GROUP U
   “Buildings and structures of an accessory
    character and miscellaneous structures
    not classified in any specific occupancy
    shall be constructed, equipped and
    maintained to the requirements of this
    code commensurate with the fire and life
    hazard incidental to their occupancy.”
CHANGING OCCUPANCIES
 Fire   Requirements

 Structural   Requirements
HEIGHTS AND AREAS
HEIGHTS AND AREAS



OCCUPANCY
CLASSIFICATION




                 TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
DETERMINING BUILDING HEIGHTS
 Critical   Height Definitions
   Grade Plane
   Building Height
   Story Height
DETERMINING BUILDING AREAS
 Critical   Area Definitions
   Net Floor Area
   Gross Floor Area
   Building Area
ALLOWABLE BUILDING
HEIGHTS AND AREAS
   General allowable heights are determined
    from Table 503

   Increase to allowable heights or areas for
    automatic sprinkler protection

   Increase to allowable area for frontage

   Maximum area allowed
GENERAL ALLOWABLE
HEIGHTS AND AREAS
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER
PROTECTION INCREASE
   200 percent increase of Table 503 areas
    for multi-story building
       IS = 200


   300 percent increase of Table 503 areas
    for single-story buildings
       IS = 300
GENERAL ALLOWABLE
HEIGHTS AND AREAS


            Single-story    Single-story    Five-story    Five-story    Six-story
            Unsprinklered   Sprinklered    Unsprinklered Sprinklered   Sprinklered
Building
               36,000        144,000       108,000 x 3    324,000       324,000
 area
Per floor
               36,000        144,000          21,600       64,800        54,000
  area
FRONTAGE INCREASE
       If = 100 [F/P – 0.25] W/30
If = Frontage increase (percent)
F = Building perimeter fronting public way or 20’
    (6096 mm) open space
P = Total building perimeter
W = Minimum width of public way or open space
   W must be 20’ (6096 mm) minimum
   W/30 not to exceed 1.0
   W/30 not to exceed 2.0 for unlimited area buildings as per
    IBC Sections 503.1.2, 507 & 508
   Open space on same lot or dedicated to public use, and
    accessed by street or approved fire lane
FRONTAGE INCREASE
                    If = 100 [F/P – 0.25] W/30
I = 100 [ 300 / 400 - .25 ] 20/30             Occupancy     B        F/P = 0.75
I = 100 [ 0.75 – 0.25 ] 0.67            Construction type   IV       F/P – 0.25 = 0.5

I = 100 [ 0.5 ] 0.67      Table 503 unsprinklered area      36,000
                             Allowable sprinklered area     144,000 Single-story
I = 33.33
                             Allowable sprinklered area     108,000 Multi-story
                                         Open Perimeter     Closed Perimeter      Total Perimeter(P)
                                                     100    0                       400
                                                     100    0

      AREAS AFTER FRONTAGE INCEASE                   100    0

Allowable unsprinklered area = 48,000                  0    100

Allowable sprinklered area = 156,000 Single-story      0    0

Allowable unsprinklered area = 120,000 Multi-story     0    0
                                                     300    100
TOTAL INCREASE
    Aa = At + [ AtIf / 100 ] + [ AtIs / 100 ]
Aa= Allowable per floor area
At = Allowable area from IBC Table 503
If = Frontage increase
Is    = Sprinkler increase

   Single basement may be area of single-story
    building maximum without affecting area of
    above grade plane floors
MAXIMUM AREA ALLOWED

               Am = AaHs
Am     = Maximum allowable per building area
Aa     = Allowable per floor area
Hs     = Height in stories

   Hs cannot exceed 3 except for unlimited
    area buildings in IBC Section 507
MODIFICATIONS TO
AREAS OF BUILDINGS
   Unlimited area and other increases
HEIGHT MODIFICATIONS DUE TO
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER PROETECTION
   All buildings protected in accordance with IBC Section
    903.1.1
       1 additional story
       An additional 20 feet (6096 mm)

   Group R occupancies protected in accordance with IBC
    Section 903.1.2
       1 additional story, but no more than 4 stories total
       An additional 20 feet (6096 mm), but no more than 60 feet
        (18,288 mm)

   Height increases in addition to the area increase for
    sprinkler protection

   No increase for I-2 of Type IIB, III, IV, or V construction

   No increase for H-1, H-2, H-3, H-5
ROOF STRUCTURES
   Exempt structures

   Penthouses limited to 1/3 area and certain
    construction type requirements

   20 foot (6096 mm) for combustible
    structures
PARKING UNDER GROUP R
   Measure allowable stories above grade
    entrance Group S-2 parking when:
       Parking is one story above grade plane
        maximum
       Parking is open or enclosed of Type I
        construction, or open of Type IV construction
       Separation between Group S and Group R in
        accordance with IBC Section 302.3.3


   Story height exception only
MEZZANIES
   Communication of spaces

   Limited area and occupancy

   Egress considerations

   Story height only
BASEMENTS
   Below LED (Level of Exit Discharge)

   Vertical egress distance

   Fire department vehicular access

   Story height only (when totally
    underground within 12’ of lowest point
    below grade – 2 exits)
OTHER MODIFICATIONS
TO HEIGHTS OF BUILDINGS
   Special provisions
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
SELECTING TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
               I   II    III    IV    V
   IBC
         NC   NC   NC   NC/C   C(H)   C
          1    2    2    3      4     5
  BOCA
         NC   NC   NC   NC/C   C(H)   C
          I   II   IV    V      III   VI
   SBC
         NC   NC   NC   NC/C   C(H)   C
               I   II    III    IV    V
   UBC
              NC   NC   NC/C   C(H)   C
          I   II   IV    V      III   VI
   FBC
         NC   NC   NC   NC/C   C(H)   C

  NFPA   I    II   II    III    IV    V
SELECTING TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION

 Materials (ASTM E-136)
 IA   IB   IIA   IIB   IIIA   IIIB    IV    VA   VB


 NC   NC   NC    NC    NC/C NC/C     C(H)   C    C
SELECTING TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
 Assemblies     (ASTM E-119)
     IBC Table 601 fire-resistance rating
      requirements for building elements
      (hours)
SELECTING TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
 Mixing   types of construction
   Horizontal
   Vertical
EXTERIOR WALL PROTECTION
 Exterior   wall ratings
   Fire-resistance rating
   5 foot (1524 mm) exposure rating
EXTERIOR WALL PROTECTION
 Protection   of exterior wall openings
   Percentage of allowable openings
   Openings protectives
EXTERIOR WALL PROTECTION
 Buildings   on same lot
FIRE WALL PROTECTION
 Rating


 Opening   Protectives
FIRE WALL SEPARATION
 Total   separation
FIRE WALL
STRUCTURAL INDEPENDANCE
 Wallmust remain in place if either
 building on either side is destroyed
     MULTIPLE
OCCUPANCY BUILDINGS
MULTIPLE OCCUPANCY BUILDINGS
 Multiple   Buildings with Fire Walls

 Single   Occupancy Classification

 Mixed    Occupancies
MIXED OCCUPANCIES
          Ap1/Aa1+Ap2/Aa2≤1
Ap1   =   Occupancy   one   planned area
Aa1   =   Occupancy   one   allowable area
Ap2   =   Occupancy   two   planned area
Aa2   =   Occupancy   two   allowable area

 Occupancies of less than 10% in area
 Other incidental uses
MEANS OF EGRESS
 DEFINITIONS
MEANS OF EGRESS
   “A continuous and unobstructed path of
    vertical and horizontal egress travel from
    any point in a building or structure to a
    public way. A means of egress consists of
    three separate and distinct parts: the exit
    access, the exit and the exit discharge.”
EXIT ACCESS
   “That portion of a means of egress system
    that leads from any occupied point in a
    building or structure to an exit.”
EXIT
   “That portion of a means of egress system which
    is separated from other interior spaces of a
    building or structure by fire-resistance-rated
    construction and opening protectives as required
    to provide a protected path of egress travel
    between the exit access and the exit discharge.
    Exits include exterior exit doors at ground level,
    exit enclosures, exit passageways, exterior exit
    stairs, exterior ramps and horizontal exits.”
EXIT DISCHARGE
   “That portion of a means of egress system
    between the termination of an exit and a
    public way.”
LEVEL OF EXIT DISCHARGE
   “The horizontal plane located at the point
    at which an exit terminates and an exit
    discharge begins.”
PUBLIC WAY
   “A street, alley or other parcel of land
    open to the outside air leading to a street,
    that has been deeded, dedicated or
    otherwise permanently appropriated to
    the public for public use and which has a
    clear width and height of not less than 10
    feet (3048 mm).”
ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS
   “A continuous and unobstructed way of
    egress travel from any point in a building
    or facility that provides an accessible
    route to an area of refuge, a horizontal
    exit or a public way.”
   MINIMUM
OCCUPANT LOAD
MINIMUM OCCUPANT DESIGN LOAD
 Compare actual load with number
 from tables

 Occupantsof spaces that egress
 through other spaces
MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA
ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT

  Assembly without fixed seats
  Concentrated (chairs only – not fixed)   7 net
  Standing space                           5 net
  Unconcentrated (tables and chairs)       15 net

  Business areas                           100 gross

  Educational
  Classroom area                           20 net
  Shops and other vocational room areas    50 net
FIXED SEATING EGRESS CAPACITY
 Areas   with fixed seats

 Fixed   seats without dividing arms
   18” general
   24” booths
    NUMBER OF
EXITS OR EXIT ACCESS
NUMBER OF EXITS OR EXIT ACCESS
 Two   required in most cases

 More   than two may be required
SINGLE MEANS OF EGRESS
 Based   on occupant load

 Based   on travel distance
   Room size
   Common path of travel
MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS
   Every floor area provided with exits based
    on occupant load

   Required number of exits maintained to
    grade or public way

   Occupied roofs treated as floors for
    determining minimum number of exits
MINIMUM NUMBER OF
EXITS FOR OCCUPANT LOAD

  Occupant Load     Minimum Number of Exits
     1 -500                   2

   501 – 1,000                3

  More than 1,000             4
EXITS FROM
OPEN PARKING STRUCTURES
   2 exits minimum from each parking
    structure

   1 exit where vehicles are mechanically
    parked

   Ramps with pedestrian facilities can be
    considered as exits
SINGLE EXIT PERMITTED
   Buildings in Table 1005.2.2 Buildings with
    one exit, if no more than one level below
    the first story

   R-3 buildings

   Single level buildings – occupied space at
    the level of exit discharge if story or space
    complies with 1004.2.1 Exit or exit access
    doorways required, as a space with one
    means of egress
BUILDINGS WITH ONE EXIT
                                Maximum
                                Occupants (or
              Maximum Height of Dwelling Units) per
              Building Above    Floor and Travel
Occupancy     Grade Plane       Distance
A,B,E,F,M,U   1 Story            50 occupants and
                                 75’ travel distance
B,F,M,S       2 Stories          30 occupants and
                                 75’ travel distance
R-2           2 Stories          4 dwelling units
                                 and 50’ travel
                                 distance
EXIT CONTINUITY
   “Exits shall be continuous from the point
    of entry into the exit to the exit
    discharge.”
ADA ENTRACNES AND EXITS
ADA ENTRANCES
   “(8) In new construction, at a minimum, the requirements
    in (a) and (b) below shall be satisfied independently:
       (a)(i) At least 50% of all public entrances (excluding
        those in (b) below) must be accessible. At least one
        must be a ground floor entrance. Public entrances are
        any entrances that are not loading or service entrance.
       (ii) Accessible entrances must be provided in a number
        at least equivalent to the number of exits required by
        the applicable building/fire codes. (This paragraph does
        not require an increase in the total number of entrances
        planned for a facility.)
       (iii) An accessible entrances must be provided to each
        tenancy in a facility (for example, individual stores in a
        strip shopping center).
       (a). Where feasible, accessible entrances shall be the
        entrances used by the majority of people visiting or
        working in the building.”
ADA ENTRANCES
   “(b)(i) In addition, if direct access is provided for pedestrians from
    and enclosed parking garage to the building, at least one direct
    entrance from the garage to the building must be accessible.

   (ii) If access is provided for pedestrians from a pedestrian tunnel
    or elevated walkway, one entrance to the building from each
    tunnel or walkway must be accessible. One entrance may be
    considered as meeting more than one of the requirements in (b).
    Because entrances also serve as emergency exits whose proximity
    to all parts of buildings and facilities is essential, it is preferable
    that all entrances be accessible

   (c) If the only entrances to a building, or tenancy in a facility, is a
    service entrance, that entrance shall be accessible.

   (d) Entrances which are not accessible shall have directional
    signage complying with 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 4.30.3, and 4.30.5, which
    indicates the location of the nearest accessible entrance.”
ADA EXITS
   “(9)* In buildings or facilities, or portions of buildings or
    facilities, required to be accessible, accessible means of
    egress shall be provided in the same number as required
    for exits by local building/life safety regulations. Where
    a required exit from an occupiable level above or below
    a level of accessible exit discharge is not accessible, an
    area of rescue assistance shall be provided on each such
    level (in a number equal to that of inaccessible required
    exits). Areas of rescue assistance shall comply with
    4.3.11. A horizontal exit meeting the requirements of
    local building/life safety regulations, shall satisfy the
    requirement for an area of rescue assistance.

   EXCEPTION: Areas of rescue assistance are not required
    in a buildings or facilities having a supervised automatic
    sprinkler system.”
EGRESS CAPACITY
MAIN ENTRANCE AT GROUP A
   50% minimum through main entrance
    where occupant load greater than 300

   50% minimum egress through peripheral
    exits where occupant load greater than
    300
EGRESS WIDTH
 Width   per person
MINIMUM WIDTH
   Doors – 32” with exceptions

   Corridors – 44” with exceptions

   Stairways – 44” with exceptions
WIDTH PER OCCUPANT
(OCCUPANCIES OTHER THAN H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4, AND I-2


 UNSPRINKLERED              SPRINKLERED
 Doors        0.2” 0.2”*    Doors       0.15” 0.2”*
 Corridors    0.2” 0.2”*    Corridors   0.15” 0.2”*
 Stairways    0.3” 0.3”*    Stairways   0.2” 0.3”*



 *Denotes comparable traditional egress capacities
MULTIPLE MEANS OF EGRESS
 Ifany means of egress lost – 50%
  capacity maintained
WIDTH IN THE
DIRECTION OF EGRESS TRAVEL
 Maintain egress capacity to
  termination of egress

 Exception   for assembly
DOOR ENCROACHMENT
 Reduction   of required width – ½
 maximum

 Project   no more than 7” when fully
 open

 R-2   and R-3 dwelling units exempt
CONTINUITY
 No   interruption of egress path

 No   obstructions

 Capacity   maintained
MULTI-LEVEL EGRESS CAPACITY
 Exits   serving more than one level
MULIT-LEVEL EGRESS CAPACITY
 Converging   exits
MULTI-LEVEL EGRESS CAPACITY
 Egress   from mezzanines
OUTDOOR AREA EGRESS CAPACITY
   Means of egress required
   Occupant load determined by building
    official
   Outdoor areas that egress through
    buildings
   Exceptions
       Exception for service areas
       Exception R-2 and R-3
MAXIMUM OCCUPANT CONTENT
 Increasein minimum occupant load
 permitted

5   square feet per occupant maximum

 Seating   diagram may be required
POSTING
   Maximum occupant content must be
    posted in assembly spaces (legible,
    conspicuous, and near main entrance)

   Posting of seating diagram may be
    required
ARRANGEMENT OF EXITS
EGRESS IN MULTIPLE OCCUPANCIES
   Provisions relate to actual occupancy

   Use most stringent when different
    occupancies share egress portions
ARRANGEMENT OF EXIT AND EXIT
ACCESS DOORWAYS – 2 DOORWAYS
½  diagonal of building or area to be
 served

 Related   corridors

 Automatic   sprinkler protection
ARRANGEMENT OF EXIT AND EXIT
ACCESS DOORWAYS – 3 DOORWAYS
½  diagonal of building or area to be
 served

 Minimize   possibility of blockage
INTERVENING ROOMS OR AREAS
       not allowed through adjoining
 Egress
 rooms or areas unless they are:
   Accessory areas
   Not high-hazard occupancy unless of
    same occupancy group
   Provide discernable path of travel to exit
INTERVENING ROOM EXCEPTIONS
   Intervening rooms do not include foyers,
    lobbies or reception rooms constructed as
    required for corridors

   In B buildings with automatic sprinkler
    protection, corridor can lead through
    enclosed elevator lobbies if all areas of
    building have at least one required exit
    that does not lead through the elevator
    lobby
PROHIBITED EGRESS SPACE
 Egress   not allowed through:
   Closets
   Kitchens (unless serving adjoining
    rooms which constitute same dwelling
    unit or guestroom)
   Storerooms
   Or other similar rooms
DWELLING UNITS
AND SLEEPING AREAS
 Egress   not allowed through:
   Other sleeping areas
   Toilet rooms
   Bathrooms
MULTIPLE TENANTS
 Egressnot allowed through adjacent
 tenants, dwelling units and
 guestrooms
TRAVEL DISTANCE
   Distance to an exit from the most remote
    point

   Unenclosed stairs and ramps

   Open stairs in parking garages
EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE

    Occupancy         Without Sprinkler System   Sprinkler System
A,E,F-1,I-1,M,R,S-1            200’                   250’
        B                      200’                   300’
TRAVEL DISTANCE INCREASE
 Roof   vent increase in F-1 or S-1,
 400’

 Egress   balcony increase, 100’
COMMON PATH OF TRAVEL
    for H-1, H-2, and H-3
 25’
 occupancies

 75’   for all other occupancies
COMMON PATH
OF TRAVEL INCREASES
 100’ for B, F and S provided with
  approved automatic sprinkler
  protection

 11’ for tenant spaces in B, S and U
  with occupant load of 30 or less

 100’   for I-3
DEAD ENDS
   No dead ends in corridors in excess of 20’
    (6096 mm) where more than one exit or
    exit access required
       50’ (15,240 mm) exception for I-3 of
        Occupancy Conditions 2, 3, or 4
       50’ (15,240 mm) exception for B and F with
        automatic sprinkler protection
       No limit where length is less than 2 ½ times
        the width
EXIT COMPONENTS
EXIT COMPONENTS
 Exterior   exit doors at ground level
 Exit   enclosures
 Exit   passageways
 Exterior   exit stairs
 Exterior   exit ramps
 Horizontal   exits
VERTICAL EXIT ENCLOSURES
   Interior exit stairways must be separated

   Vertical exit enclosures to comply with
    706 Fire Barriers

   Exterior walls to comply with 704 Exterior
    Walls
VERTICAL EXIT ENCLOSURES
   If nonrated exterior walls adjacent to and
    at an angle of 180 degrees or less from
    other walls, then other walls protected
    within 10 feet (3045 mm) with:
       1-hour fire-resistance rating
       ¾ hour opening protectives
       Rating and protection from ground to 10 feet
        (3045 mm) above topmost landing or to the
        roof line, whichever is lower
VERTICAL EXIT
ENCLOSURE EXCEPTIONS
   Except in H and I, stairways serving less
    than 10 occupants and 1 story maximum
    above the level of exit discharge
   In A-5 where all portions of egress open to
    the outside
   Stairways serving and within dwelling unit
    in R-2 or R-3
   Stairways serving and within guestrooms
    and individual suites in R-1
VERTICAL EXIT
ENCLOSURE EXCEPTIONS
   Stairways not part of required egress and
    in accordance with IBC 707.2 Shaft
    Enclosure Required

   Stairways in open parking structures
    serving only the open parking
VERTICAL EXIT
ENCLOSURES EXCEPTIONS
   In I-3 as provided for in IBC 408.3.6 Vertical Exit
    Enclosures

   Means of egress stairs required by IBC 410 5.4
    Stage exits

   Except in H and I, maximum of 50% of egress
    stairs serving and adjacent floor if:
       Two means of egress available for both floors connected
        by unenclosed stairs
       “Any two such interconnected floors shall not be open to
        other floors”
EXIT PASSAGEWAYS
 Construction


 Openings


 Ratings
EXIT DISCHARGE
 General   rules

 Exit   courts

 Exit   lobbies

 Exit   vestibules
EXIT COURTS
 Courts less than 10 feet (3048 mm)
  in width

 Minimal   protection
EXIT LOBBIES
 50%    of load

 Exit   way obvious

 Basement    protection

 Automatic   sprinkler protection
EXIT VESTIBULES
 Basement   protection

 Depth   10 feet (3048 mm) maximum

 Length   30 feet (6096 mm) maximum

¾   hour separation
HORIZONTAL EXITS
 Construction


 Openings


 Ratings


 Areas   of refuge
FRONTAGE INCREASE
       If = 100 [ F/P – 0.25 ] W/30
If = Frontage increase (percent)
F = Building perimeter fronting public way or 20’ (6096 mm)
   open space
P = Total building perimeter
W= Minimum width of public way or open space

   W must be 20’ (6096 mm) minimum
   W/30 not to exceed 1.0
   W/30 not to exceed 2.0 for unlimited area buildings as per
    IBC Sections 503.1.2, 507 & 508
   Open space on same lot or dedicated to public use, and
    accessed by street or approved fire lane
PROBLEM 1
Grade School
IBC Type II A
Unsprinklered
2 Stories
15’ from property lines
60’ or more from street
PROBLEM 2
Office Building
IBC Type III A
Unsprinklered
5 Stories
10’ from property lines
60’ or more from street
PROBLEM 3
Office Building
IBC Type III A
Sprinklered
5 Stories
10’ from property lines
60’ or more from street
FRONTAGE INCREASE
                         If = 100 [ F/P – 0.25 ] W/30
                        I=     100 [ 372/904 – 0.25 ] 30/30
                                                                     Actual area: 29,760
                        I=     100 [ 0.41 – 0.25 ] 1.00
                        I=     100 [ 0.16 ] 1.00                     Actual height in stories: 2
                        I=     16.15
                 Occupancy     E             F/P = 0.41
          Construction type    II A          F/P – 0.25 = 0.16
Table 503 unsprinklered area   26,500
  Allowable sprinklered area   106,000              Single-story
                                                                   Total Perimeter (P): 904
  Allowable sprinklered area   79,500               Multi-story
            Open Perimeter     Closed Perimeter
                        372    372
                          0    80                  AREAS AFTER FRONTAGE INCREASE
                          0    80
                          0    0
                                         Allowable unsprinklered area = 30,780
                          0    0         Allowable sprinklered area = 110,280 Single-story
                          0    0
                        372    532
                                         Allowable sprinklered area = 83,780         Multi-story
TOTAL INCREASE
      Aa = At + [ AtIf/100 ] + [ AtIs/100 ]
 Aa = Allowable per floor area
 At = Allowable area from IBC Table 503
 If = Frontage increase
 Is = Sprinkler increase

 •Single basement may be area of single-story building maximum without
 affecting area of above grade plane floors

             Aa = 26,500 + [ 26,500 X 16.15 ] + [ 26,500 X 0 ]
                                  100                 100

             Aa = 26,500 + [ 4,280 ] + [ 0 ]

             Aa = 30,780
MAXIMUM AREA ALLOWED
                       Am = AaHs
Am = Maximum allowable building area
Aa = Allowable per floor area
Hs = Height in stories

   Hs cannot exceed 3 except for unlimited area buildings in
    IBC Section 507
                                   Hs = 2
                                   Aa = 30,780
                                   Am = 61,560
           Actual total area of building = 59,520
FRONTAGE INCREASE
  If = 100 [ F/P – 0.25 ] W/30                                   I   = 100 [ 380/760 – 0.25 ]
                                                                       30/30
                                                                 I   = 100 [ 0.5 – 0.25] 1.00
                                                                 I   = 100 [ 0.25 ] 1.00
                                                                 I   = 25.00
   Actual area: 35,200                                 Occupancy       B         F/P = 0.5
   Actual height in stories: 5                  Construction type      III A    F/P – 0.25 = 0.25
                                          Table 503 unsprinklered      28,500
                                                             area
                                        Allowable sprinklered area     114,000     Single-story
 Total Perimeter (P): 760
                                        Allowable sprinklered area     85,500      Multi-story
                                                  Open Perimeter       Closed Perimeter
                                                              160      160
                                                              220      220
  AREAS AFTER FRONTAGE INCREASE
                                                                0      0
Allowable unsprinklered area = 35,625                           0      0
Allowable sprinklered area = 121,125 Single-story
                                                                0      0
Allowable sprinklered area = 92,625 Multi-story
                                                                0      0
                                                              380      380
TOTAL INCREASE
             Aa = At + [ AtIf/100 ] + [ AtIs/100 ]
Aa   = Allowable per floor area
At   = Allowable area from IBC Table 503
If   = Frontage increase
Is   = Sprinkler increase

    Single basement may be area of single-story building
     maximum without affecting area above grade plane floors
    Aa   =    28,500   +[ 28,500    X     25.00   ]+[   28,500   X     0 ]
                                    100                          100

    Aa   =    28,500   +[   7,125   ]+[    0      ]

    Aa   =    35,635
MAXIMUM AREA ALLOWED
          Am = AaHs
Am = Maximum allowable building area
Aa = Allowable per floor area
Hs = Height in stories

   Hs cannot exceed 3 except for unlimited area
    buildings in IBC Section 507
                               Hs = 3
                               Aa = 35,625
                               Am = 106,875
       Actual total area of building = 176,000
FRONTAGE INCREASE
 If = 100 [ F/P – 0.25 ] W/30                             I
                                                          I
                                                              =
                                                              =
                                                                  100 [ 530/1060 – 0.25 ] 30/30
                                                                  100 [ 0.5 – 0.25] 1.00
                                                          I   =   100 [ 0.25 ] 1.00
                                                          I   =   25.00
                                                Occupancy         B
 Actual area: 46,200
                                         Construction type        III A
 Actual height in stories: 5
                               Table 503 unsprinklered area       28,500
                                 Allowable sprinklered area       114,000   Single-story
                                 Allowable sprinklered area       85,500    Multi-story
 Total Perimeter (P): 1060
                                           Open Perimeter         Closed Perimeter
                                                       110        110
                                                       420        420
   AREAS AFTER FRONTAGE INCREASE
                                                         0        0
Allowable unsprinklered area = 35,625                    0        0
Allowable sprinklered area = 121,125 Single-story
                                                         0        0
Allowable sprinklered area = 92,625 Multi-story
                                                         0        0
                                                       530        530
TOTAL INCREASE
     Aa = At + [ AtIf/100 ] + [ AtIs/100 ]
Aa   = Allowable per floor area
At   = Allowable area from IBC Table 503
If   = Frontage increase
Is   = Sprinkler increase

    Single basement may be area of single-story building
     maximum without affecting area of above grade plane
     floors
       Aa   = 28,500   +[   28,500   X     25.00    ]+[   28,500   X     200   ]
                                     100                           100
       Aa   = 28,500   +[   7,125    ]+[   57,000
       Aa   = 92,625
MAXIMUM AREA ALLOWED
                  Am = AaHs
Am = Maximum allowable building area
Aa = Allowable per floor area
Hs = Height in stories
 Hs cannot exceed 3 except for unlimited area
  buildings in IBC Section 507
                            Hs = 3
                            Aa = 92,625
                            Am = 277,875
    Actual total area of building = 231,000
DETERMINING
OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION
   Determine the
    occupancy
    classification of this
    55,000 square foot
    grocery store with
    7,000 square foot
    back area
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
What is the type of construction of
the noncombustible building to the
right?

Eight story portion
Columns – 3 hours
Beams, girders, trusses – 3 hours
No bearing walls
Floor construction – 2 hours
Roof construction – 1 ½ hours


Three story portion
Columns – 3 hours
Beams, girders, trusses – 3 hours
Bearing walls – 2 hours
Floor construction – 2 hours
Roof construction – 1 hour
ALLOWABLE PERCENT
OF OPENINGS IN EXTERIOR WALLS
The four, Type 1B buildings to the right are 9’
from their respective property lines to the South.
Each of these S-1 occupancy buildings has 1000
square feet of bearing wall on the South
elevation. Determine the required fire ratings of
the walls and determine if they are in compliance
for allowable percentage of openings.

Building A
108 square feet of openings
All openings unprotected


Building B
90 square feet of unprotected openings
108 square feet of protected openings


Building C
180 square feet of protected openings


Building D
10’ x 70’ wall meeting ASTM E-119, 2-hour fire
rating with a temperature rise of no more than
250 degrees on the unexposed surfaces at two
hours
10’ x 30’ wall meeting ASTM E-119, 2-hour fire
rating with a temperature rise of 460 degrees on
the unexposed surface at two hours
200 square feet of protected opening
NONCOMPLIANT EXISTING FACILITY




This 40 year old, Type IIB shopping center was 384,000 square feet
in area, one-story in height and unsprinklered. The shopping center
is at least 60’ from all property lines. The two-story store is 48,000
square foot, unsprinklered store was demolished to make way for the
new tenant. Can this shopping center be built under the present
code? If not, what solution would you generate that may satisfy the
code official enough to allow your client to build the new store?
FIRE AREAS
A restaurant owner is planning to add three new
theme restaurants to his existing theme
restaurant. The addition will include new lobbies
and circulation space. The existing restaurant is
unsprinklered and would be impossible to sprinkle
because of existing circumstances. The new
areas can be sprinklered. Can this project meet
code without the use of fire walls?

New Restaurant A
9,000 square feet
700 occupants


New Restaurant B
4,000 square feet
250 occupants


New Restaurant C
4,000 square feet
250 occupants


Existing Restaurant D
4,000 square feet
250 occupants


New circulation and Lobby Areas
4,000 square feet
EXERCISE –
Determine Minimum Occupant Load
EXERCISE –
Determine the number of accessible entrances and exits
DESIGN AN EGRESS SCHEME
Design an egress
scheme for the 30’ by
120’, 4th floor office
suite to the right.
The building is fully
sprinklered and the
window wall cannot
be used for egress
This information has been provided by:


                Codeaccess

      International Building Code Workshop
                     CS616A
            (Building Uses and Types)
                     CS616B
                   (Life Safety)

								
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