AKS 31 � Ancient India & Ancient China by Up1H11j

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									                       AKS 33 – The Byzantine & Mongol Empires - KEY
                    CHAPTERS 11.1, 11.2, 12.2, & 12.3 – PAGES 301-313 & 330-338
AKS 33 - analyze the importance of the Byzantine and Mongol empires between 450 CE and 1500 CE (GPS)
(SSWH_D2007-33)

33a - analyze the relationship of the Byzantine Empire to the Roman Empire

            RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ROMAN & BYZANTINE EMPIRES
           Roman Empire divided into      Capital moved from Rome
              western & eastern                  to Byzantium
             empires by Diocletian      (Later became Constantinople)
33b - describe the significance of Justinian's law code, Theodora and the role of women, and Byzantine art and
architecture

       Justinian            Byzantine Nobleman
                             Creation of Justinian Code
                             Built Hagia Sophia
                             Head of both church & state

                                                                                               Opinions of
 5,000 laws still
                                                                                             Rome's greatest
     useful
                                                                                              legal thinkers


                           The Code                                     The Digest


                                                 Justinian's
                                                   Code


                         The Institutes                               The Novellae

                                                  Served
        For                                      Byzantine
                                                 Empire for                                    New Laws
     students
                                                 900 years
     Theodora
                 Justinian’s mistress
                 Later his wife


                Political
                Influence           Met with foreign diplomats
                                    Passed laws
                                    Nika Rebellion – convinced Justinian to put
                                         the revolt down
                Women’s Rights
                                    Published edicts which allowed daughters to
                                         have equal rights
                                    Abolished entire commerce of prostitution

Byzantine Art
                 frescoes
                 mosaics



Byzantine
                 Rebuild Constantinople’s crumbling fortifications
Architecture
                 Church-building  Ex: Hagia Sophia
                 baths
                 aqueducts
                 law courts
                 schools
                 hospitals
                 expanded his palace
33d - analyze the role of Constantinople as a trading and religious center

                                               CONSTANTINOPLE
         Trade
                              Mese
   Entertainment
                              Hippodrome
        Religion
                              Numerous churches  Ex: Hagia Sophia
          1453
                              Constantinople falls to Ottoman Turks
                              Renamed Istanbul

33c - analyze the establishment of Christianity as the official religion of the Byzantine Empire

                                          BYZANTINE CHRISTIANITY
           312
                              Constantine legalized Christianity
           380
                              Theodosius made Christianity the official religion
Difference between
                     Emperor was near divinity
Latin and Byzantine
    Christianity     Led to eventual problems between East and West churches



33f - define the role of Orthodox Christianity and the Schism

                              ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY AND THE SCHISM
Church Divides               Why?
                                         Distance
                                                 Lack of contact between the two regions
The Schism                   730
                                                 Emperor Leo III banned icons
                                                 Western pope supported the use of icons
                             1054
                                                 Pope & Patriarch excommunicated each other
                                CHRISTIANITY OFFICIALLY SPLIT!




     Missionaries
                              Orthodox Christianity took their form to the Slavs
                              Saint Methodius & Saint Cyril  invented the Cyrillic alphabet



33e - explain the influence of the Byzantine Empire and Vikings on Russia with particular attention to its impact
on Tsar Ivan III and Kiev

                                       BYZANTINE EMPIRE & RUSSIA
          800s
                              Vikings built forts along the Dnieper, Don, and Volga Rivers


                              Settled among the Slavs

           862
                              Viking chief Rurik settled in Novgorod (1st important city)

           880
                              Oleg moved to Kiev
                              Could sail by river and sea to Constantinople
                              Intermarried with Slavic subjects

           957
                              Princess Olga visited Constantinople
                              Publicly converted to Christianity
          980
                             Vladimir sent teams to observe the major religions of the time
                             Report convinced Vladimir to convert to Byzantine Christianity

          989
                             Vladimir held a baptism in Dnieper River

          1019
                            Yaroslav the Wise
                             Created trade connections
                             Created a legal code
                             Built libraries & churches

          1240
                             Mongols attacked & demolished Kiev  took over
                            Influences:
                             Isolated Russia
                             Encouraged rise of Moscow

          1480
                             Ivan III openly challenged Mongol rule – refused to pay tribute



33g - evaluate the impact of the Mongols on the Eurasian Continent

                                          RISE OF THE MONGOLS
  Problems Between Steppe
     Nomads & Settled                          Genghis Khan             Characteristics of Genghis
        Communities                                                         Khan’s Success
 Steppe nomads raided                AKA Temujin                     Brilliant organizer
   towns and villages                 Defeated rivals one by one      Gifted strategist
                                      1206 – accepted title           Used cruelty as a weapon
                                          Genghis Khan – “universal
                                          ruler”
                                           KHANATES

          Four Khanates                    Mongol Rule                  Cultural Differences
 Ilkhanate                      Ruled ruthlessly at first      Eventually led to it
 Khanate of the Golden          Imposed stability, law, and         splitting up
   Horde                           order
 Chagatai Khanate
 Khanate of the Great Khan

                                       PAX MONGOLICA
                    What?                                       Trade & Travel
A period of peace from the mid-1200s to the
mid-1300s                                         Made it safer & promoted the exchange of
                                                    goods and ideas
                                        KUBLAI KHAN
Profile
                      Known as The Great Khan
                      United China for the 1st time in 300 years
                      Called Yuan Dynasty
Rule
                      Kept Mongol identity
                      Tolerated Chinese culture
                      High positions in government to foreigners
Marco
Polo                  Served Kublai for 17 years
                      Traveled to China & visited Kublai Khan’s court
Expanded Trade
                      Greatly improved trade
                                       YUAN DYNASTY
                    Legacy                                      Reasons for Fall
 United China                                    Civil discontent
 Expanded foreign contacts                       Economic problems & official corruption
 Few changes to Chinese culture and system  Power struggles
   of government                                  Rebellions of Chinese

								
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