18079 Demonstrate knowledge of heavy combination vehicle dynamics by Up1H11j

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									NZQA registered unit standard                                                     18079 version 3
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Title             Demonstrate knowledge of heavy combination vehicle dynamics and
                  handling for safe driving

Level             3                             Credits           4


Purpose                        People credited with this unit standard are able to: describe
                               heavy combination vehicle dynamics; describe heavy
                               combination vehicle stability and handling characteristics;
                               explain the effects of loads on heavy combination vehicle
                               dynamics and handling, and describe loading techniques to
                               manage these effects; and describe safe practices for driving
                               heavy combination vehicles.


Classification                 Commercial Road Transport > Commercial Road Transport
                               Skills


Available grade                Achieved


Explanatory notes

1       Legal requirements relevant to this unit standard include:
        Land Transport Act 1998;
        Land Transport (Road User) Rule 2004;
        Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Dimensions and Mass 2002;
        Land Transport Rule: Heavy Vehicle Brakes 2006;
        Land Transport Rule: Heavy Vehicles 2004.

2       Any new, amended or replacement Acts, regulations, Rules, standards, codes of
        practice, or NZ Transport Agency requirements or conditions affecting this unit
        standard will take precedence for assessment purposes, pending review of this unit
        standard.

3       Definitions
        ABS means anti-lock braking system;
        EBS means electronic braking system;
        handling characteristics are how a vehicle behaves as a result of its design and the
        dynamics present at the time;
        heavy combination vehicle dynamics means the motion of the vehicle, and the
        interaction of the various physical forces that affect that motion;
        high productivity motor vehicles (HPMVs) are those heavy combination vehicles that
        carry divisible loads, exceed maximum mass and/or length dimensions allowed for
        standard vehicles and operate on a route specific permit issued by a Road
        Controlling Authority;
        industry best practice means an industry accepted method of achieving a high
        standard outcome that meets industry needs and represents value for money;
        industry data means national and industry crash statistics, and company records;
NZ Motor Industry Training Organisation                    New Zealand Qualifications Authority 2012
(Incorporated) (NZMITO)
SSB Code 101778
NZQA registered unit standard                                                    18079 version 3
                                                                                     Page 2 of 5

      standard vehicle combinations are those that are not HPMVs and fit within the Land
      Transport (Vehicle Dimensions and Mass) Rule;
      load sensing is a means (mechanical, electronic and/or pneumatic) of proportioning
      air pressure to heavy vehicle braking systems to reflect load mass over individual
      axles or axle groups;
      stability control relates to the ability of an electronic braking system to sense
      excessive lateral acceleration and automatically apply brakes to counter that
      acceleration;
      static roll threshold (SRT) is the measure of the likelihood of the vehicle rolling over
      sideways. Vehicles with a low static roll threshold are more likely to roll over when
      going round sharp bends and in sudden emergency manoeuvres;
      the system of vehicle control means placing the vehicle in the correct place on the
      road, at the right speed and in the right gear in all driving situations but particularly
      when approaching and negotiating hazards.

4     References
      Professional Skills for Driving Trucks, Wellington, NZ Motor Industry Training
      Organisation (Incorporated) (NZMITO), 2009. Available from NZ Motor Industry
      Training Organisation (Incorporated) (NZMITO) and public libraries.

Outcomes and evidence requirements
Outcome 1

Describe heavy combination vehicle dynamics.

Evidence requirements

1.1         The effects of speed on vehicle stability are explained.

            Range          when travelling in a straight line, cornering, and negotiating
                           intersections.

1.2         The effects of vehicle mass and inertia are described in terms of acceleration,
            deceleration, and braking.

1.3         Momentum and kinetic energy are explained in terms of the relationship
            between vehicle mass and speed.

1.4         Heavy combination vehicles and light motor vehicles are compared in terms of
            kinetic energy and its effects.

            Range          includes effects of kinetic energy on braking, cornering, and the
                           consequences of an impact.

1.5         The effects of gravity and the location of a vehicle’s centre of gravity are
            explained in terms of performance and handling.

1.6         Friction is explained in terms of how it assists vehicle control.

            Range          includes at least two friction examples.

NZ Motor Industry Training Organisation                   New Zealand Qualifications Authority 2012
(Incorporated) (NZMITO)
SSB Code 101778
NZQA registered unit standard                                                     18079 version 3
                                                                                      Page 3 of 5


1.7         The concept of centrifugal force is explained in terms of the interaction between
            vehicle mass, speed, friction, and centre of gravity.

1.8         Causes of heavy combination vehicle road crashes related to poorly managed
            dynamics are identified in accordance with industry data.

            Range          evidence of three causes is required.

Outcome 2

Describe heavy combination vehicle stability and handling characteristics.

Evidence requirements

2.1         The inherent instability of heavy combination vehicles is described in terms of
            load type and placement, type of trailer connections, roll coupling, and vehicle
            dimensions and mass.

            Range          two heavy combination vehicle types from – standard rigid truck
                           and trailer, standard prime mover and semi-trailer, standard B-
                           Train, HPMV.

2.2         The effects on driving of vehicle wheelbase and the position and number of
            trailer hitch points are described.

            Range          swept path (low speed and high speed), trailer yaw, steering
                           amplification.

2.3         The influences of road camber, road surface, and lateral wind are described in
            terms of vehicle handling and driver responses.

2.4         Loss of control situations are described in terms of potential causes.

            Range          over-steer, under-steer, jack-knife, trailer swing, roll-over.

Outcome 3

Explain the effects of loads on heavy combination vehicle dynamics and handling, and
describe loading techniques to manage these effects.

Evidence requirements

3.1         The practical application of SRT is described using the information displayed on
            a heavy trailer Certificate of Loading and on an SRT Certificate of Compliance.

3.2         The effects of load placement and the location of the centre of gravity are
            described in terms of vehicle dynamics and handling.

            Range          includes but not limited to – effects of varying the location of the
                           centre of gravity within the length, width, and height of a standard
                           combination;
NZ Motor Industry Training Organisation                    New Zealand Qualifications Authority 2012
(Incorporated) (NZMITO)
SSB Code 101778
NZQA registered unit standard                                                    18079 version 3
                                                                                     Page 4 of 5

                           may include – effects on an HPMV.

3.3         Techniques used to minimise the height of the centre of gravity are described in
            accordance with industry best practice.

3.4         The effects and management of unrestrained or live loads are described in
            terms of vehicle stability.

            Range          one of – general freight, bulk dry goods, bulk liquids, logs,
                           livestock, containers.

3.5         Load restraint measures to minimise the influence of load shift on vehicle
            stability and handling are described in accordance with industry best practice.

Outcome 4

Describe safe practices for driving heavy combination vehicles.

Evidence requirements

4.1         Techniques for reducing the likelihood of loss of control situations are described
            in terms of their application and effectiveness.


            Range          the 4-second rule, 12-second rule (including the use of mirrors),
                           vehicle inspections (including on-road checks), the system of
                           vehicle control.

4.2         Safe cornering techniques, including observance of recommended cornering
            speeds, are described in terms how they can reduce the likelihood of a roll-over.

4.3         Techniques for descending steep grades are described in terms of how they
            can reduce the likelihood of a runaway vehicle.

4.4         Heavy combination vehicle technology is described in terms of operation,
            limitations, and its influence on vehicle stability and safe handling.

            Range          ABS, EBS, traction control, load sensing, stability control, auxiliary
                           braking systems.



Planned review date                31 December 2015




NZ Motor Industry Training Organisation                   New Zealand Qualifications Authority 2012
(Incorporated) (NZMITO)
SSB Code 101778
NZQA registered unit standard                                                 18079 version 3
                                                                                  Page 5 of 5

Status information and last date for assessment for superseded versions
Process          Version Date                           Last Date for Assessment
Registration         1             12 February 2001            N/A
Review               2             22 March 2005               N/A
Review               3             22 October 2010             N/A
Republished          3             31 August 2012              N/A

Accreditation and Moderation Action Plan (AMAP) reference         0092
This AMAP can be accessed at http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/framework/search/index.do.

Please note
Providers must be granted consent to assess against standards (accredited) by NZQA, or
an inter-institutional body with delegated authority for quality assurance, before they can
report credits from assessment against unit standards or deliver courses of study leading
to that assessment.

Industry Training Organisations must be granted consent to assess against standards by
NZQA before they can register credits from assessment against unit standards.

Providers and Industry Training Organisations, which have been granted consent and
which are assessing against unit standards must engage with the moderation system that
applies to those standards.

Consent requirements and an outline of the moderation system that applies to this
standard are outlined in the Accreditation and Moderation Action Plan (AMAP). The
AMAP also includes useful information about special requirements for organisations
wishing to develop education and training programmes, such as minimum qualifications for
tutors and assessors, and special resource requirements.

Comments on this unit standard

Please contact NZ Motor Industry Training Organisation (Incorporated) (NZMITO)
info@mito.org.nz if you wish to suggest changes to the content of this unit standard.




NZ Motor Industry Training Organisation                New Zealand Qualifications Authority 2012
(Incorporated) (NZMITO)
SSB Code 101778

								
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