Slide 1 by o9S16v4


									Election of 1824
John Quincy Adams

       The Election of 1824
  Four candidates ran for president. All
had been members of the Democratic-
Republican Party.
  None of them won a majority of the
votes, although Jackson had the most
popular and Electoral College votes.
  The decision went to the House of
Representatives where Henry Clay
                                                           electorial votes
encouraged members to vote for Adams.      100       99
   They selected Adams as president,       80

which angered Jackson’s supporters who     60
                                           40                                       37
called the selection a “corrupt bargain”
after Adams appointed Clay as his           0
Secretary of State.                              Jackson   Adams     Crawford
                                                               popular vote

                                            160000    153544
                                            120000             108740
                                             60000                        46618    47136
                                                     Jackson   Adams    Crawford   Clay
                           John Quincy Adams
   First son of a president to be elected
president himself
   Important Secretary of State under
Monroe: negotiated joint occupation of the
Oregon country with Britain, helped make
Florida a state, and co-authored the Monroe
   Controversial election led to a lack of
support from Congress
    Tried to push through more American
System modernization reforms, but was
largely unsuccessful
    He was defeated by Jackson in the election
of 1828 but was elected to Congress where he
was an influential member until his death in

Going Whole Hog for Jackson
Presidential Election of 1828
 Campaign lasted for four
  years. Dirty nasty campaign.
  Jackson won both popular
  and electoral vote
 President John Adams and
  his son served only one term
  as Presidents 2 /6.
 After his presidency John Q.
  Adams served in the House of
  Representatives. He was an
  outspoken abolitionist. He
  was known as Old Man
Andrew Jackson as President
 Enters the Presidency as the first
   Slave owner
   Planter aristocrat at his mansion
    The Hermitage
   Nicknamed “Old Hickory”….
    Hero to his troops
   General at Battle of Horseshoe
    Bend and Battle of New Orleans
   Ushers in Era of Common Man
   Kitchen Cabinet
   Spoils System
   State’s Righter and a
More on President Jackson
 Nicknamed King Andrew
  by political opponents
 “Andy veto”…used veto
  power often
 Inaugural Brawl scared
  many bureaucrats
 Spoils system…given
  political friends
  credited and blamed with
  starting this practice on a
  large scale
       The Tariff of Abominations
               1828 tariff
 1824 tariff was set at 37%.
  Southerners hated the tariff
  while northerners favored the
  tariff. Tariffs drove up the
  price of goods for the
  importing South but
  protected New England’s
  emerging industries.
 1828 was raised to 45%.
 Southerners outraged, led by
  Vice President John C.
  Calhoun. Tariff also called
  Yankee Tariff.
  John C. Calhoun’s South Carolina
       Exposition and Protest
The South Carolina Exposition and
             Protest                        Tariff of 1832
 John C. Calhoun wrote that         Congress passed new lower
  the tariff was unfair and           tariff down to 35%, but
  should be nullified in states       Southerners still upset
  (compact theory of                 By 1832 South Carolina
  government)                         Nullies called a special
 “Nullies” of South Carolina         convention and nullified
  blocked by Unionists in             Tariff of 1832…..what would
  South Carolina from                 President Jackson do?
  declaring tariff null and void
   The Nullification Crisis with the
    “Cradle of Secession” South
 President Jackson declares      John C. Calhoun
  nullification will not stand.
  Governor Hayne of South
  Carolina says nullification
  will stand. (Jackson is
  ready to lead an army).
 The Great Compromiser
  Henry Clay proposes Tariff
  of 1833, which after 10 years
  would bring Tariff down to
  about 25%. Narrowly
  passes Congress
 Nullification Crisis
•Congress also passed
Force Bill or Bloody Bill
authorizing President to
use force to enforce
tariff collection.
•After repealing
Ordinances of
Nullification, South
Carolina nullifies Force
• President Jackson
increased power of
Denmark Vesey’s
   Rebellion       Denmark Vesey was executed on 2 July 1822 after being accused of
                    planning a slave rebellion against slave owners and other whites in
                    Charleston, South Carolina. Vesey was a well-respected carpenter and
                    minister who in his teens had been sold into slavery from the West
                    Indies island of St. Thomas. For years he was the household servant to
                    Captain Joseph Vesey, who settled in Charleston in 1783. Denmark
                    Vesey won $1,500 in a lottery in the year 1800. He used the money to
                    buy his freedom and set up a carpentry shop, where he prospered.
                    Educated and financially successful, he also co-founded a separate
                    black Methodist church in Charleston in 1816 (though it was closed by
                    white authorities four years later). In 1822 he was accused of being the
                    leader of a secret plot to rebel against whites, a plot that supposedly
                    involved 9,000 slaves and more than two years of preparation. The
                    alleged plan was for the slaves to murder as many whites as they could,
                    then set sail for Africa or Haiti. In the wake of rumors of the plot,
                    Charleston authorities charged 131 people with conspiracy, convicted
                    67 and executed at least 35, including Denmark Vesey. Though the
                    story of Vesey and the rebellion has long been taken for fact, a few
                    historians have argued that no such rebellion ever was planned, and
                    that Vesey and others were victims of false rumors that spread among
                    nervous slaveholders.
                   Vesey's birthplace and birth date are uncertain, as are most of the
                    details of his life before he was sold to Joseph Vesey in 1781.
                   Southerners saw slave rebellions, coupled w.ith tariff issues, as a threat
                    to the Southern way of life .
                 The Trail of Tears
 The Five Civilized Tribes had
  sued in the case of Cherokee
  Nation v. State of Georgia for the
  right to their land in Georgia.
 Cherokees won case to which
  President Jackson responded
  “John Marshall has made his
  decision; now let him enforce it”
 1830 Indian Removal Act forced
  tribes West of Mississippi River
  to “Indian territory forever”
 Result was Trail of Tears
          Sauk and Fox War
      Osceola and Seminole War
 In early 1830s Sauk and
  Fox tribes destroyed in
  Great Lakes area
 From 1835-1842 the
  Seminole War waged in
  the Florida area.
 Eventually Osceola and
  some Seminoles hid in
  Everglades, others
  moved to Oklahoma.
The Bank
The Bank of the United
States was led by Czar
Nicholas Biddle. The
bank served as the
National Treasury ,
coined hard money, and
granted credit.
Farmers out West
wanted soft paper
money and viewed the
BUS as eastern
establishment bent on
keeping west down.
        Henry Clay plays politics
Re-chartering the Bank              Jackson hated the BUS
 In an effort to embarrass
  President Jackson politically
  Henry Clay proposes re-
  chartering the Bank of the
  United States four years early.
  Jackson vetoes bill which
  aligns West (South) against
 Sectionalism starting to show
1832 Presidential Election
 First time nominating
  conventions were held to
  pick political party
  candidates for President
 National Republican or
  Whig, Henry Clay v.
  Democrat Jackson v.
  Anti-Masonic Party
  (Third Party) William
  Wirt….winner was
  President Jackson
  Burying Biddle’s
• To destroy the  Bank of the
United States President
Jackson began to withdraw
federal funds and place
federal money in “pet
• Czar Biddle retaliated by
calling in loans.
• Created loss of credit
markets and hard times in
the West
• In 1836 BUS was gone…no
new federal monetary
system until 1900s under
President Wilson
Birth of the Whig
Political Party
                              The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of
Generally the Whigs            Jacksonian democracy. Considered integral to the Second Party System and
                               operating from 1833 to 1856,[2] the party was formed in opposition to the
despised King Andrew and       policies of President Andrew Jackson and the Democratic Party. In
                               particular, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the
favored Henry Clay’s           executive branch and favored a program of modernization and economic
                               protectionism. This name was chosen to echo the American Whigs of 1776,
American system.               who fought for independence, and because "Whig" was then a widely
                               recognized label of choice for people who saw themselves as opposing
                               autocratic rule.[3] The Whig Party counted among its members such national
                               political luminaries as Daniel Webster, William Henry Harrison, and their
                               preeminent leader, Henry Clay of Kentucky. In addition to Harrison, the
                               Whig Party also counted four war heroes among its ranks, including
                               Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. Abraham Lincoln was a Whig
                               leader in frontier Illinois.
                              In its over two decades of existence, the Whig Party saw two of its
                               candidates, Harrison and Taylor, elected president. Both, however, died in
                               office. John Tyler became president after Harrison's death, but was expelled
                               from the party. Millard Fillmore, who became president after Taylor's death,
                               was the last Whig to hold the nation's highest office.
                              The party was ultimately destroyed by the question of whether to allow the
                               expansion of slavery to the territories. With deep fissures in the party on this
                               question, the anti-slavery faction successfully prevented the nomination of
                               its own incumbent President Fillmore in the 1852 presidential election;
                               instead, the party nominated General Winfield Scott, who was soundly
                               defeated. Its leaders quit politics (as Lincoln did temporarily) or changed
                               parties. The voter base defected to the Republican Party, various coalition
                               parties in some states, and to the Democratic Party. By the 1856 presidential
                               election, the party had lost its ability to maintain a national coalition of
                               effective state parties and endorsed Millard Fillmore, now of the American
                               Party, at its last national convention
1836 Presidential Election
 Democrat Andrew Jackson
  hand picked Martin Van
  Buren to run. The Whig
  party ran different favorite
  son candidates in an effort
  to put Presidential election
  into the House of
 Martin Van Buren became
  the 8th President.
Diplomatic woes for the Little
 Magician Martin Van Buren
             The Caroline Affair was a series of events beginning in 1837 that
              strained relations between the United States and Britain.
             A group of Canadian rebels, led by William Lyon Mackenzie,
              seeking a more democratic Canada, had been forced to flee to the
              United States after leading the failed Upper Canada Rebellion in
              Upper Canada (now Ontario).
             They took refuge on Navy Island on the Canadian side of the
              Niagara River, which separates the two countries (between
              Ontario and New York) and declared themselves the Republic of
              Canada under MacKenzie's "general" Rensselaer Van Rensselaer
              (nephew of General Stephen Van Rensselaer). American
              sympathizers supplied them with money, provisions, and arms via
              the steamboat SS Caroline.
             On December 29, Canadian loyalist Colonel Sir Allan MacNab and
              Captain Andrew Drew of the Royal Navy commanding a party of
              militia, crossed the international boundary and seized the
              Caroline, towed her into the current, set her afire, and cast her
              adrift over Niagara Falls, after killing one black American named
              Amos Durfee in the process. His body was later exhibited in front
              of a recruiting tavern in Buffalo, New York. US illustrations in the
              press showed the burning ship going over the falls with men
              falling headlong into the chasm. In reality, the ship did not
              immediately go over the falls. She grounded and later broke up
              and the pieces went over the falls later on.
             It was falsely reported that dozens of Americans were killed as
              they were trapped on board; in fact the ship had been abandoned
              before being set adrift. Public opinion across the United States was
              outraged against the British. President Martin Van Buren
              protested strongly to London, but was ignored.
             On May 29, 1838, American forces retaliated by burning a British
              steamer SS Sir Robert Peel while it was in US waters.
      Depression Doldrums and the
         Independent Treasury
 The Panic of 1837 was caused by
    pet bank loans , and the Specie
    Circular which stated that debts
    should be paid back in gold.
   Hundreds of Banks failed.
   Many crop failures.
   British bank failures.
   President Van Buren’s solution
    was the Divorce Bill (no federal
    bank system) and Independent
    Treasury system which placed
    government funds in vaults in
    larger cities.
Gone to Texas
 After Mexico had won
 independence from Spain
 the Mexican government
 invited Americans to the
 area that is now Texas as
 colonist. The stipulations
 were that Americans must
 become Mexican citizens,
 could not bring slaves and
 should be Catholic.
 Ignoring the stipulations
 Stephen Austin led about
 300 families into Texas.
 Don’t Mess With
Gone to Texas (GTT)
By 1835 the Texas
were clamoring for
independence from
Mexico. Mexican
Dictator Santa Ana
de Lopez de Santa
Anna briefly jailed
Stephen Austin and
raised and army to
show the Texicans
just who ruled
             Texas Revolution
 In 1836 Texas declared
  independence from
 The Lone Star Flag was
  unveiled and Sam
  Houston was named
 Santa Anna defeated
  Americans at the Alamo
  and at Goliad
Remember The Alamo
Remember the Alamo               Davy Crockett
 Americans were butchered to
  a man at the Alamo, included
  Western heroes Davy
  Crockett and James Bowie
 War cries of Remember the
  Alamo, Death to Santa Anna
  and Remember Goliad were
  raised in Texas and America
Texans win their independence
  Supported by
   American men,
   money and
   munitions Sam
   Houston retreated to
   San Jacinto Junction.
  At the Battle of San
   Jacinto, Santa Anna
   was crushed and
   forced to sign Treaty
   of Valesco which
   ended hostilities
   and created the
   Republic of Texas
Northerners say no to Texas
 Fearing a conspiracy
  by those that wanted
  to expand slavery
  northerners refuse to
  allow Texas
  admittance to the
 The issue of a new
  state below the 36-30
  line was alarming to
 Texas would be its
  own nation for about
  ten years.
Presidential Election of 1840
   “Little Van the Used Up
    Man” had little chance
    to be re-elected.
   The Whigs ran the
    popular William Henry
    Harrison and John Tyler
    as Vice President
   “Tippecanoe and Tyler
   The Whigs ran a Log
    Cabin Campaign
  William Henry
Harrison elected 9th
The Emergence of the
two party system
 glorified the
 individual, the
 •Clung to state’s
 rights and federal
 •Generally from
 South and West
The Emergence of the two party
 Whigs generally favored
  a renewed national bank,
  tariffs, internal
  improvements, moral
  reforms and public
 Generally from the East
 Generally more
  aristocratic and

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