TORTORA • FUNKE • CASE Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein Chapter 18 Practical Applications of Immunology Vaccine History • Variolation: Inoculation of smallpox into skin (18th century) • Vaccination: QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress or Inoculation of cowpox QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. into skin TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress or are needed to see this picture. • Herd immunity results when most of a population is immune to a disease. • On 14th May 1796, Edward Jenner Jenner used cowpox- QuickTime™ and a infected material obtained TIFF (Un compressed) decompre ssor are neede d to see this picture. from the hand of Sarah Nemes, a milkmaid from his home village of Berkley in Gloucestershire to successfully vaccinate 8 year old James Phipps. On 1st July 1796, Jenner challenged the boy by deliberately inoculating him with material from a real QuickTime™ an d a case of smallpox.He did not TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture . become infected! How • Trigger your own immune Vaccines work response – Artificially acquired active immunity QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor are neede d to see this picture. Virus, Bacterial or Toxins •Attenuated - no longer virulent •Inactivated or Killed - formalin, phenol or heat destroyed • Attenuated whole agent vaccines: – Types of Vaccines Live, attenuated (weakened) microbes - virus or bacteria – Long term immunity – May back mutate to virulent strain (rare) Qui ckTi me™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso r • Inactivated (killed) vaccines: are ne ede d to see thi s pi cture. – Killed by formalin, phenol or heat – Toxoids – Not as long lasting – Safe • Subunit vaccine: Qui ckTi me™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso r – Uses fragments from virus or bacteria are ne ede d to see thi s pi cture. • Produced by recombinant methods Recombinvac – Safe – Clean • Conjugated vaccines: – Bind to larger particle or protein to enhance antigenicity Qui ckTi me™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso r are ne ede d to see thi s pi cture. Principal Vaccines Used in the United States to Prevent Bacterial Diseases in Humans • DTaP - Trivalent (three in one) – Diphtheria: Purified diphtheria toxoid – Pertussis: Acellular fragments of B. pertussis – Tetanus: Purified tetanus toxoid • Meningococcal meningitis: Purified polysaccharide from N. meningitidis • Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis: Polysaccharides conjugated with protein • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: S. pneumoniae antigens conjugated with protein Vaccine Schedule Principal Vaccines Used in the United States to Prevent Viral Diseases in • Humans Smallpox: Live vaccinia virus • Poliomyelitis: Inactivated virus • Rabies: Inactivated virus • Hepatitis A: Inactivated virus • Influenza: Inactivated or attenuated virus • Measles: Attenuated virus • Mumps: Attenuated virus • Rubella: Attenuated virus • Chickenpox: Attenuated virus • Hepatitis B: Antigenic fragments (recombinant vaccine) Other Diagnostic Diagnostic Immunological tests: applications: Serological patient sample) • Direct tests detect antigens (from Tests • Indirect tests detect antibodies (in patient's serum) Diagnostic Immunology: Precipitation Reactions Precipitation Reactions: • Involve soluble antigens with antibodies • Precipitin Ring test Figure 18.3 Agglutination Reactions • Involve particulate antigens and antibodies • Antigens may be: • On a cell (direct agglutination) • Attached to latex spheres (indirect or passive agglutination) Figure 18.4 Hemagglutination • Hemagglutination involves agglutination of RBCs. Figure 18.7 • Antibodies help eliminate the harmful effect of a virus or exotoxin Neutralization Reactions • Viral hemagglutination inhibition tests for the presence of antibodies in a patients serum by the antibodies' ability to prevent viruses from agglutinating RBCs. Figure 18.8b Antibody Titer • Is the concentration of antibodies against a particular antigen Figure 18.5 Complement Fixation Figure 18.9.1 Complement Fixation Figure 18.9.2 Fluorescent Antibody Techniques (Direct) Figure 18.10a Fluorescent Antibody Techniques (Indirect) Figure 18.10b Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay(Direct ELISA) Figure 18.12a Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Indirect ELISA) Figure 18.12b Serological Tests Figure 18.13 Serological Tests: Summary • Precipitation: Soluble antigens • Agglutination: Particulate antigens • Hemagglutination: Agglutination of RBCs • Neutralization (inhibition): Inactivates toxin or virus • Fluorescent-antibody technique: Antibodies linked to fluorescent dye • Complement fixation: RBCs are indicator • ELISA: Enzyme linked to antibody amplifies results for easier visibility and more sensitivity.
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