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Function in C by JS15NU


									Audio Engine Programming

                       Lecture 4

Introduction to FMOD programmers
3D Sound
   Sounds have position and velocity
   There is a listener component
   Relationship between the two
       Attenuation (with distance)
       Occlusion (low-pass filter)
       Doppler (relative velocities)
   Lots of “psycho-acoustic” options
Fmod audio development
   There are three primary components:
       The Sound Designer
       The Sandbox
       The API
   We’ll use all three
   Start with Sound Designer
Data Driven vs. Low Level API
   Low-Level API
       Everything is done using programming
           The programmer has complete control
       The benefits are lower memory overhead

   Data-Driven API
       Takes assets from FMOD Designer
           Sound Designer has control over the audio
       Integrates them into the code using the
        EventSystem object
Key Features

   The data-driven approach of the
       Support’s event logic
           Allows the Sound Designer to fine-tune or ‘tweak’ the
            final mix without the need for Programmer intervention
       Creates a logical separate of concerns for the
        Programmer and Sound Designer
Overview of event model

         FEV             FSB
      event data      audio data

                   FMOD EventSystem

                    FMOD Low Level
Assets from the sound designer

   The build process creates the following assets:
       .FEV file - contains the event meta data
       .FSB file(s) - contains the audio data
       The ‘Programmer report ‘- a human readable list of
        event names, sound definitions [Optional]
       A ‘header’ file - A source code header file [Optional]
       Cache files - Files used to speed up subsequent
        builds (These files are not required by the
Linking the library
   Include the EventSystem header file
       #include "fmod_event.hpp“
   Declare a pointer to an EventSystem
       FMOD::EventSystem *eventsystem;
   Create the object (allocate memory)
       FMOD::EventSystem_Create(&eventsystem);
   Initialize the object
       eventsystem->init(64, FMOD_INIT_NORMAL, 0,
Loading files

   Set the media path (location of files)
       eventsystem->setMediaPath((char *)MEDIA_PATH);
   Load the .FEV file
       eventsystem->load("examples.fev", 0, 0);
   Load an event group
       eventsystem->getGroup("examples/examples", FMOD_EVENT_DEFAULT,

   Load an individual event
       eventgroup->getEvent(“car", FMOD_EVENT_DEFAULT, &car);
    Loading Audio
   The required .FSB file(s) are listed in .FEV file
       Both the .FEV and .FSB files should be located in the
        directory specified with setMediaPath()
   The location of audio within the .FSB files is
    stored in the .FEV
   FMOD will load the audio data from the .FSB
    files as required for an event, automatically
    Loading Options
       Specifies default loading behaviour
       Event data for the whole group is NOT cached
       Loading will block any other task until complete.
       FMOD will use a thread to load the data
       Use Event::getState to find out when loading is
       Does not allocate instances or load data
       Creates a ‘handle’ that allows the programmer to
        get information from the event
EVENT Playback
   Each events have a number of methods and
   To start playback of an event:
       example->start();

   To stop an event:
       Example->stop();
   Updating the event system should be called
    once per 'game' tick (or once per frame)
       eventsystem->update();
   This allows the FMOD Engine to refresh data
    such as:
       the position of 3D sounds
       changes to volume, pitch, effects
       as well as internal mechanisms
   Simple Event
       Demonstrates the necessary code to start
        playback of an event
   Get the parameter called ‘test’
       example->getParameter(“test", &test);
       test will be a EventParameter object
   To get the range of the parameter
       test->getRange(&rangemin, &rangemax);
   To set the value of the parameter
       test->setValue(value);
   Parameter
       Demonstrates the necessary code to provide
        parameter data to an event
   If an event parameter is currently sustaining
    on a ‘sustain point’, triggering a keyoff will
    release it and allow the parameter to continue
       test->keyoff()
   Keyoff
       Demonstrating the necessary code to leave a
        sustain point
Selecting sounds at run-time

   The sound to be played can be selected at
       This is required for situations such as ‘colour
        commentary’ in sport games or other situations
        that require dynamic dialogue
   The are two methods:
       Programmer Sounds
       Programmer Selected

   Programmer Sound
       When a sound definition containing a ‘ProgrammerSound’ is to
        be played, a callback is made
       The code must then provide a sound object at runtime just
        before it's played

   Demonstrates the necessary code to select a
    sound to play at runtime, using the
    ‘ProgrammerSound’ method

   Programmer Selected
       When a sound definition with the playmode
        ‘ProgrammerSelected’ is to be played, a callback is made
       The code must then provide the index number at runtime just
        before it's played
       The index number identifies which file within the sound definition
        is to be played

   Demonstrates the necessary code to select a
    sound to play at runtime, using the
    ‘ProgrammerSelected’ method
Closing the Event System
   Unload event data
       eventsystem->unload();
   Release audio data in memory
       fsb->release();
   Release memory and close eventsystem
       eventsystem->release();
Setting up a Project
   Take the advice of the video tutorials

       Have a separate folder
       Copy sounds into a “sounds” directory
           Keeps the safe
           Can have sub-directories
       Create an “output” directory
Designer Interface

             Can delete this if you want, but need to have at
             least one group
   Used to define sound properties for an event
   Can be comprised of
       One sound
       Several sounds randomly chosen
       Monophonic vs Polyphonic
       Can randomize pitch and attenuation
   Events can be
       Simple
       Multi-track
A Simple Event
Granular Sounds
   These sounds aren’t
   Allows for a sounds to
    occur between time
   Allows for polyphony
Event Options
   Can vary attenuation
    (dropoff with distance)
   Can vary pitch
   Creates a sound
    considerably smaller
    than a “soundtrack”
   Plays forever and is
    always random!
Sound Definitions
   Required for multi-track events
Multi-track Events
   Comprised of sound defs in layers
Multi-track Events
   Careful when adding sounds
       Choose sound def
       Ambient noise is looping
       Other sounds are granular,
        so choose “Oneshot”
   Have parameters
   Not based on time!
Multi-track Events
   Can cross-fade and set fade out time
Parameter Properties
   Can define range and velocity (to simulate
Engine Designer
   fmod can specifically work with engine
       Need for Speed 2
   Based on the “load” of the engine
   Right-click on a
    sound instance->properties
       Auto-pitch
   Window->fmod Engine Designer
The Build Process
   Know which platform you’re targeting
       Changes are applied only to that platform
   Project->Clean, Project->Build
Interactive Music
   Comprised of several short segments of
       Intro music
       Darkening or discovery
       Fighting/intense fighting
       Release
   Before you begin, you must know
       Tempo of music (beats per minute – bpm)
       Beats per measure (time signature)
Themes and Auditioning
Transitioning via Parameters
Other Things
   Supports deployment of multiple languages
   Can deploy different builds based on
       Platform
       Language
A Look at the API
   Basic API
   Designer API
       Built on basic API
       Can read .fev files
   Written for C/C++
       #include <fmod.h> // C
       #include <fmod.hpp>      // C++
   Read the documentation fmodex.chm
API Parts
   A System is the fmod engine
   A Sound is the raw resource
       2D uses FMOD_2D
       3D uses FMOD_3D
result = system->createSound(“music.wav", FMOD_2D, 0, &sound);
API Parts
   A Channel is an instance of a Sound
       Each time you play a sound, you get a new
       Channels can start out paused
       You can set the
           Volume (0.0f – 1.0f)
           Pan (-1.0f – 1.0f)
           Frequency (in Hz as a float)
       Always use FMOD_CHANNEL_FREE to pick for you
#include <iostream>
#include <fmod.hpp>
#include <fmod_errors.h>

using namespace std;
using namespace FMOD;

void main () {
          FMOD_RESULT result;
          System* system;
          // Create the fmod system. We only need one of these
          result = System_Create(&system);
          // Specify a max number of simultaneous channels
          result = system->init(100, FMOD_INIT_NORMAL, 0);

         Sound* sound;
         // Decompress the entire mp3 into 16-bit PCM in memory
         result = system->createSound("winning.mp3", FMOD_DEFAULT, 0, &sound);

         if (result != FMOD_OK) {
                   cout << "Couldn't open it! " <<   FMOD_ErrorString(result) << endl;

         Channel* channel;   // Used for setting volume, pan, pausing...
         // You have the option of passing that channel as the last parameter
         result = system->playSound(FMOD_CHANNEL_FREE, sound, false, &channel);
         channel->setFrequency (44100.0f);

         if (result != FMOD_OK) {
                   cout << "Couldn't play it! " << FMOD_ErrorString(result) << endl;
         while (true) {
                   cout << "1"; system->update(); // Now required in fmod
    Virtual Voices
   Supports “virtual voices” when hardware is
       Set from System::init()
       System::getCPUUsage()
       Try to keep < 1000
   May need to set the
    priority of a channel
    if it’s important
   channel->isVirtual()
3D Sound in fmod
   Sound attenuation
       Logarithmic
       Set the mindistance of a sound channel to start
           Bee = 0.1f
           Jet = 50.0f
       Leave max distance alone (default is 10,000)
   Set 3D settings with System::set3DSettings()
       Doppler
       Distance factor (in cm, m, feet)
       Rolloff scale (attenuation models)
3D Sound
 fmod uses a left-handed coordinate system

   With velocity, you must pass it as metres per
velx = (posx-lastposx) * 1000 / timedelta;
vel = 0.1 * 1000 / 16.67 = 6 meters per second
vel = 0.2 * 1000 / 33.33 = 6 meters per second
void main () {
                 FMOD_RESULT result;
                 FMOD_VECTOR soundPos, soundVel;
                 FMOD_VECTOR listenerPos, listenerVel, listenerForward, listenerUp;
                 System* system;
                 result = System_Create(&system);
                 result = system->init(100, (FMOD_MODE)(FMOD_3D), 0);
                 int numHC = 0;
                 result = system->getHardwareChannels(&numHC);
                 cout << "Hardware channels: " << numHC << endl;
                 Sound* sound;
                 result = system->createSound(“train.mp3", FMOD_3D, 0, &sound);
                 if (result != FMOD_OK) {
                                 cout << "Couldn't open it! " << FMOD_ErrorString(result) << endl;
                 Channel* channel;
                 result = system->playSound(FMOD_CHANNEL_FREE, sound, false, &channel);
                 if (result != FMOD_OK) {
                                 cout << "Couldn't play it! " << FMOD_ErrorString(result) << endl;
                 float dsp, stream, geometry, update, total;
                 soundPos.y = soundVel.x = soundVel.y = 0.0f;
                 soundPos.z = -100.0f; soundPos.x = 5.0f;
                 soundVel.z = 6.0f;
                 channel->set3DMinMaxDistance(10, 10000);
                 listenerPos.x = listenerPos.y = listenerPos.z = 0.0f;
                 listenerVel.x = listenerVel.y = listenerVel.z = 0.0f;
                 listenerForward.x = listenerForward.y = listenerUp.x = listenerUp.z = 0.0f;
                 listenerForward.z = listenerUp.y = 1.0f;
                 system->set3DListenerAttributes(0, &listenerPos, &listenerVel, &listenerForward, &listenerUp);
                 while (true) {
                                  system->getCPUUsage(&dsp, &stream, &geometry, &update, &total);
                                  cout << total << endl;
                                  channel->set3DAttributes(&soundPos, &soundVel);
Interfacing with Sound
   You should have created
       .fev file (Designer file – event data)
       .fsb file (raw audio data)
       .txt file (describes the events and parameters)
   May want to start by creating a helper function
void checkErrors(FMOD_RESULT result) {
  if (result != FMOD_OK) {
    cout << "fmod error: " << FMOD_ErrorString(result) << endl;
Imagine That This is our
#include <iostream>
#include <fmod.hpp>
#include <fmod_event.hpp>
#include <fmod_errors.h>
using namespace std;
using namespace FMOD;

void main () {
  EventSystem* eventSystem = NULL;
  EventGroup* eventGroup = NULL;
  Event* myEvent = NULL;
  EventParameter* eventPar;

    FMOD_RESULT result = EventSystem_Create(&eventSystem);
    result = eventSystem->init(64, FMOD_INIT_NORMAL, 0, FMOD_EVENT_INIT_NORMAL);
    result = eventSystem->load("fmodTest.fev", 0, 0);
    result = eventSystem->getGroup("fmodTest/beeps", false, &eventGroup);
    result = eventGroup->getEvent("PossessedComputer", FMOD_EVENT_DEFAULT, &myEvent);
    result = myEvent->getParameter("proximityToComputer", &eventPar);

    float dir = 0.0001f;
    float currentParVal = -1.0f;
    while (true){
                  cout << currentParVal << endl;
                  if ((currentParVal >= 1.0)||(currentParVal <= 0.0)) {
                                  dir = -dir;
Interactive Music
void main () {
         EventSystem* eventSystem = NULL;
         MusicSystem* musicSystem = NULL;
         MusicPrompt* introPrompt, *fightPrompt, *fight2Prompt, *releasePrompt;
         FMOD_MUSIC_ITERATOR cueIter;
         FMOD_MUSIC_ITERATOR paramIter;
         FMOD_MUSIC_ID intensityParID = -1.0f;

        FMOD_RESULT result = EventSystem_Create(&eventSystem);
        result = eventSystem->init(64, FMOD_INIT_NORMAL, 0,
        result = eventSystem->load("acid_test.fev", 0, 0);
        result = eventSystem->getMusicSystem(&musicSystem);
        result = musicSystem->getCues(&cueIter);
        cout << "Iter ID: " << cueIter.value->id << endl;
        result = musicSystem->prepareCue(cueIter.value->id, &fightPrompt);
        result = musicSystem->getNextCue(&cueIter);
        cout << "Iter ID: " << cueIter.value->id << endl;
        result = musicSystem->prepareCue(cueIter.value->id, &fight2Prompt);
        result = musicSystem->getNextCue(&cueIter);
        result = musicSystem->prepareCue(cueIter.value->id, &introPrompt);
        result = musicSystem->getNextCue(&cueIter);
        result = musicSystem->prepareCue(cueIter.value->id, &releasePrompt);
        intensityParID = paramIter.value->id;
        cout << "paramIter.value->name is " << paramIter.value->name << endl;
        musicSystem->setParameterValue(intensityParID, 7.5f);
        result = introPrompt->begin();
        while (true){
Other Things You Should Look
   The 3D Reverb API
   Asynchronously loading data (by default)
   Memory management for non-PC platforms
       FMOD::Memory_Initialize() // fix size of fmod
       Using compressed samples
   Built-in DSP
Configuration Notes
   You’ll be working with
       Header files
           C/C++ -> General->Additional Include Directories
       Lib files
           Linker->General->Additional Library Directories
           Linker->General->Additional Dependencies
       DLLs (which you should put into
   There’s also a FMOD.NET site…
Configuration Notes
   You have the option of 64-bit and 32-bit
       You might have to create a new platform

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