Theory and Measurement
Marxist: Discrimination a Smoke Screen
– Capitalists want to divide proletariat
– Do so by Race, Sex, Ethnicity
• Could be anything (earlobes?)
– Keeps workers at each others’ throats
• And away from their own
Psychological: A mistake
– People don’t know truth about others
– Just have to educate them
Basis of what we shall do
What’s your favorite flavor of ice cream?
Can we make you change your mind?
Prejudice is a taste
– Discrimination is indulging that taste
– Comes at a cost
Suppose I am Prejudiced
I don’t like blondes!
– Employing them brings
a psychic cost
– As if paying them more wB
– D’ feels like D D’
Let’s act this out
Impact on Market
How do blondes respond?
Offer to work for less
– Wage falls
What do employers do?
Restrict choice of employees
– Productivity of favored workers may fall
• Forced to employ less productive workers
– Wages of favored workers driven up
• Supply of qualified workers artificially restricted
Who Gains and Who Loses?
Blonde workers lose
– Fewer employed
– Wages lower
Other workers win
– More employed
• Perhaps less qualified
– Wages higher
What About Employers?
Trade off profit & distaste p
– Indifference Curve
p higher if hire blondes
– Lower pay
– Better Workers
Sacrifice profit to indulge
taste for discrimination
Non/Less discriminatory employers
Hire more qualified employees for less
What happens as more of them enter?
Wage of blondes driven up
Perfect competition eliminates
Application to Sports
What of 1964 Alabama football team?
Very good – and very white
But ‘Bama started losing to integrated teams
– Sam “Bam” Cunningham of USC scores 5 TD’s
against them on national TV
Cost became too great
– Sports became most integrated part of UA
Bob Gibson and his (black) landlady
– Spring housing segregated in early 1960s
– Hated her for charging high rent
Why does discrimination persist?
Baseball has legal cartel
– Policed by commissioner
– Teams tried to cheat: Cubans & Indians
– Bill Veeck foiled in 1943
– Jackie Robinson reintegrated baseball
• Moses “Fleetwood” Walker in A.A. in 1880s
Integrated teams tended to dominate
– Dodgers, Giants, Indians, & Braves
– Red Sox & Phillies last to integrate
– Great Celtic teams built on integration
Workers don’t like to work with blondes
– Feel psychic cost: w = (1-d)w0
– Demand higher pay to work with blondes
What would employer do?
Segregation vs Discrimination
Dodgers protested Robinson’s presence
– Got Al Gionfriddo partly to take next locker
Separates discrimination from prejudice
Employer punished for tolerance
George Preston Marshall & NFL’s Redskins
– Last NFL team to integrate: 1962
• “Burgundy, Gold, and Caucasian”
– Forced by U.S. government
• Facility on government land
One key to intransigence: Southern audience
Also separates from prejudice
– Reminiscent of psychological approach
May feel that blondes less productive
– Why different from saying dropouts worse?
“Flashy Frenchmen” in the NHL
– Felt that Francophones not tough
– Europeans & Flyers
– How can blacks in NBA be victims when
• 80% of NBA black
• Make 20% more
All else not equal
How to hold all else equal?
Key technique: Multiple regression
S=b0 + b1X1 + b2X2 + …+ bnXn +e
Regression and Discrimination
Coefficient: impact of Xi with all other
Corresponds to economic definition of
– Holds all else equal
What would X’s be for NBA?
How to explain that blacks make more?
True impact of race unclear
Harder to measure
– Men & Women seldom in same venue
– Often don’t play same sport
– Even same sport may vary
• Tennis, figure skating, & “women’s basketball”
Direct competition?: Jockeys & auto racing
Women not always victims
– Gymnasts and figure skaters
Part of 1972 Education Amendments
Mandated equal access & opportunities
for women in federally funded education
3 ways to comply
– Funding proportional to enrollment
– Show history of expansion
– Interests of students accommodated
Few programs in compliance
– But NCAA certifies all
Impacts of Title IX
– Spurred rapid growth in women’s sports
• Though most of growth early on
– Gave grounds to seek remediation (TU!)
– What happened to women coaches?
• Was ~80% of women’s programs - now ~ 44%
– Women’s programs lose money
– Can meet in many ways –
• Cut men’s programs rather than expanding women’s
– Star player for Yankees
What is he?
Hometown: San Juan
How to classify?
– Ask player?
– Ask owner?
– Ask fans?
Puzzling Numbers From Track
Asians ~ 57% of world’s population
– Only impact in marathon
Blacks ~ 12% of world’s population
– 95% of best 100m times of West African ancestry
• ~8% of world’s population
• All 32 finalists in last 4 Olympics
– North Africa dominates middle distance
– East Africa dominates distance
More than half of top 100 5K & 10K times
Top 60 times in steeplechase
Won every World Cross Country
Championship since 1986
38 Olympic track medals since 1964
– 13 golds in men’s races
– Only U.S. (with 10X as many people) has more
More on Kenya
75% of Kenya’s runners from Kalenjin
– Highlands near Lake Victoria
50% of these from Nandi district
– 1.8% of Kenya’s population
– 20% of winners of major distance runs
Not due to better facilities
Other nations also have altitude
Discomfort with Genetics
Intelligence as subtext
– “Natural” black v. “hardworking” white
Demeans blacks in other fields?
– “Naturally” better in some areas
=> worse in others?
– Some get brains – others brawn
An Alternative Explanation
Hoberman: Darwin’s Athletes
Blacks once considered ill-suited for athletics
– Analog to women?
– Opposite stereotype of today
• Considered physically fragile & weak-willed
Now see athletics the best route to success
– Survey: More black youths optimistic about
chances at athletics than in professions
– Only ethnic group to think so