Infrared Presentation by ozo304

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									Flameless Catalytic Infrared Technology:
    An Organic Pest Management Tool


Anna Getchell, Rizana Mahroof, and Bhadriraju Subramanyam


            Department of Grain Science and Industry
                    Kansas State University
                     Manhattan, KS 66506
                       aiversen@ksu.edu
                    Infrared Technology
 On the energy spectrum, infrared radiation lies between visible and
  microwave radiation
 Electromagnetic energy with wavelengths 0.078 to 1000
  μm long can be transferred to any material that can
  absorb it, resulting in that material’s increased temperature
 Water absorbs infrared energy at 3, 4.5, and 6 μm
      Infrared as an Alternative to Chemicals

 There is a lack of current stored pest management options that
  are effective on adults, inexpensive, and available for use

 Domestic and foreign buyers want residue-free products

 Infrared is a “green” technology, there are no regulated emissions

 Kills internal feeders

 Has the potential to kill microbes associated with hard red winter
  wheat

 Selective rapid heating of insects
    Past Infrared Use on Cereal Commodities

 Infrared has been used for rapid drying of wheat and rice

 First suggested by Blazer in 1942 as a tool to control stored
  product insects: insects have much more water than grain, thus
  will heat up faster than the grain

 Originally tested with infrared heaters that used natural gas or
  propane gas combusted over ceramic panels with temperatures
  close to 926°C. Exposure for less than one minute at 2-6 μm
  resulted in effective killing of both external and internal feeding
  insects in soft red winter wheat and paddy rice

 The age structure of the test insects, temperature during heating
  (as opposed to final temperature), and the use of real-time
  temperature tools were not addressed
              Catalytic Drying Industries

 Company based in Independence, KS: www.catalyticdrying.com

 Designed commercial-scale flameless catalytic heater and bench
  top model

 Designed for drying paddy rice
          Commercial Heater Specifications
 Dimensions: length 6.1 m (20 ft); width, 61 cm (24 inches)

 Heater dimensions: 5.5 m long and 25.4 cm wide. There are a total
  of 4 pairs of heaters above the conveyer

 Distance between heater surface and conveyer surface: 4.4 cm
  (lowest point), 8.9 cm (highest point)

 7,200 BTU/sq ft; 216,000 BTU/h

 Grain flow rate: 1,308 kg/h (2,880 lb/h) [65 kg/3 min]

 Natural gas pressure: 9 cm water column (28 cm water column =
  0.4 psi)

 Grain treated in a single layer (0.3 mm thick)

 Residence time of grain in the heating zone: 43 sec
Commercial Tests
             Mortality of Adult Insects:
             Commercial Scale Tests

   Species           Temp       Total no.   % Mortality
                   range (oC)    adults
Red flour beetle     64-82        200         100.0
                     57-71       1554          99.6
  Rice weevil        41-77        200         100.0
Merchant grain       40-82       2002         100.0
    beetle
 Lesser grain        57-71       2034          98.9
    borer            63-76       2707         100.0
      Mortality of Lesser Grain Borer Larvae:
              Commercial Scale Tests

            Larval age at                               % Reduction
          treatment (days Emergence Emergence in             in
              since egg   in untreated grain exposed to emergence
Commodity   introduction)  grain (50g)   infrared (50g)  of adults
  Wheat         18-22         17.20           0.00        100.00
  Wheat         13-17         84.07           1.00         98.81
  Wheat          7-11         60.27           0.00        100.00
  Wheat           2-6         42.13           0.10         99.76
  Rice          8&9           18.83           1.18         93.75
  Rice          7&6           16.67           0.21         98.76
  Rice          4&5           5.67            0.24         95.85
  Rice          3&2           2.33            0.03         98.74
            Bench Top Model Tests




Bench top model of infrared heater showing the propane bottle
and pan with hard red winter wheat. The non-contact infrared
thermometer (Raytek®, Model MX4) is used for continuous
measurement of temperatures during exposure to infrared
via RS-232 cable connected to a laptop computer
                                                30 Seconds                                                          30 Seconds      12.7 cm distance
                                                                12.7 cm distance
                                           90                                                                 100
                                                                25.4 cm distance                                                    25.4 cm distance
                                                                                                               90
Tests with                                 80
                                                                                                               80
                                           70
red flour                                  60
                                                                                                               70
                                                                                                               60
beetle                                     50                                                                  50
                                           40                                                                  40
adults                                     30                                                                  30
                                           20                                                                  20
                                           10                                                                  10
             Temperature, oC (Mean + SE)
                                            0                                                                   0




                                                                                   Mortality, % (Mean + SE)
                                                45 Seconds                                                          45 Seconds
                                           90
                                                                                                              100
                                                                                                               90
                                           80                                                                  80
                                           70                                                                  70
                                           60                                                                  60
                                           50                                                                  50
                                           40                                                                  40
                                           30                                                                  30
                                           20                                                                  20
                                           10                                                                  10
                                            0                                                                   0
                                                                                                                    60 Seconds
                                                60 Seconds                                                    100
                                           90                                                                  90
                                           80                                                                  80
                                           70                                                                  70
                                           60                                                                  60
                                           50                                                                  50
                                           40                                                                  40
                                           30                                                                  30
                                           20                                                                  20
                                           10                                                                  10
                                            0                                                                   0
                                                    113.5    227.0   340.5 454.0                                         113.5   227.0   340.5 454.0

                                                      Grain quantity (g)                                                   Grain quantity (g)
                      Microbial Tests
 While infrared has potential to be an excellent organic pest
  management tool, it also may have benefits in reducing numbers
  of microbes on grain
                  Microbial Tests - Molds

                            Mold infected     Mold
                 % Wheat kernels (%),       infected
                                                         Mold count
  Treatment      moisture        not      kernels (%),
                                                          (cfu/g)
                (wet basis) disinfected      chlorx
                            with chlorox disinfected
     Control     12.7 + 0.01     100       95.7 + 2.3 14767 + 9418
Infrared-Treated 12.1 + 0.07     100       70.7 + 5.2   197 + 41




Effect of infrared on naturally-occurring molds in wheat.
113.5 g of wheat was exposed for 60 seconds, 12.7 cm from
the heater. Temperature range: 32-83°C.
  Microbial Tests - Escherichia coli O157:H7


                    E. coli
   Treatment        (cfu/g)
     Control       7.4 x 105
Infrared-Treated   1.3 x 104




Effect of infrared on E. coli O157:H7. 113.5 g of wheat was
exposed for 60 seconds, 12.7 cm from the heater.
Temperature range: 32-83°C.
                         Future Work

 Conduct quality tests: test weight, % moisture, protein, ash, and
rheological tests on flour (farinograph and mixograph), and bread
baking tests
                     Acknowledgments

 Catalytic Drying Industries

 Dr. Ludek Zurek, Dr. Stella Doyungan, Dr. Michael Toews

 Daniel Hopper and Carmelita Goossen

								
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