Ch08 Outline by D6K9rJ4B

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									                                  Chapter 8: Violent Crimes
                                      Chapter Outline


   •     History of Violence in the United States
   •     Legal Aspects
   •     Homicide and Assault Statistics
   •     Patterns and Trends in Violent Crime
   •     Sexual Assault
   •     Robbery
   •     Domestic Violence
   •     Criminal Careers of Violent Offenders
   •     Societal Reaction
   •     Theory and Crime

History of Violence in the United States

Six sources of violence in U.S. history
(Davis & Gurr)
    1. Revolutionary doctrine.
    2. A frontier experience that legitimized violence and vigilante justice.
    3. A competitive hierarchy of immigrants.
    4. A pervasive fear of governmental power.
    5. The Industrial Revolution and the great internal migration.
    6. High levels of relative deprivation.

Murder

   Multiple murders are sensationalized but rare.
   – Serial Murder: The killing of several victims in three or more separate incidents
     separated by weeks or more.
     • Sexual in Nature
     • Organized vs. Disorganized
     • “The Terrible Triad”

   – Mass Murder: The killing of four or more victims at one location on a single occasion.

   – Spree Murder: Killing at two or more locations with almost no time break between
     murders.
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Murder (cont’d)

   Minorities are as likely to be serial murderers as whites.

   Typology of Serial Murders
      (Holmes & DeBurger):
      – 1. Visionaries
      – 2. Mission-oriented
      – 3. Hedonist
      – 4. Power/control

Victims

   •   Victimology: The study of victims of crime.
   •   Victim Precipitation: The victim’s contribution to his/her own harm by being the first
       to use or threaten violence .
       – Common in murder and assault.

Violent Offenders

   •   Typology of Violent Offenders
       – Culturally Violent Offenders
          • “Subculture of Violence”
       – Criminally Violent Offenders
          • Violence as a Means to an End
       – Pathologically Violent Offenders
          • Mentally Ill and Those with Brain Damage
       – Situationally Violent Offenders
          • “Crimes of Passion”
Legal Aspects

   •   Violent crimes were at one time treated under tort law.
   •   Were considered a matter of private wrong to be settled by the parties involved .
   •   Today the state has authority and jurisdiction.


Trends in Violence


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   •    Nearly all murders arise from some form of aggravated assault.
   •    Murder Rate:
        – Highest rate of detection, and clearance by arrest.
        – Influenced by medical advancements.
        – Dipped after 1933; resurged in 1960s; declined in 1990s.
        – Rise in young, black male murder rate in 1980s.

Trends in Violence (cont’d)

   •    Rape and intrafamily violence are less easily detected.
   •    You are most likely to be stabbed, shot, beaten, or abused in your own home or in the
        home of one of your friends, relatives, or acquaintances.

Trends in Violence (cont’d)

   •    Workplace violence
        – Common cause of on-the-job deaths.
   •    School Violence
        – Highest in U.S.
        – Has declined in the 1990s.
   •    Gun Debate
        – Gun Availability and Murder
        – Kansas City Gun Experiment
        – Sexual Assault

Rape:

        – Historically under-reported.
        – Acquaintance Rape = Majority of Rapes
        – Rape = Usually a Violent Crime (not sexual)
        – Groth & Birnbaum:
          • Anger Rape
          • Power Rape
        – Glaser:
          • Naive Graspers
          • Meaning Stretchers
          • Sadistic Rape
          • Sex Looters
          • Group Conformers

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Sexual Assault (cont’d)

   •   Sexual Predators
       – “Megan’s Law” requires states to inform local communities when known high-risk
           sex offenders are being released.
   •   Stalking
       – Stalking: Deliberately and without justification following and/or surveilling another
           person. It also includes threatening another person with immediate or future harm.

Robbery

   •   Robbery: Theft through violence or the threat of violence.

   •   Conklin’s Typology of Robbers:
          1. The professional robbers
          2. The opportunist robbers
          3. The addict robbers
          4. The alcoholic robbers

Domestic Violence

   •   Child Abuse: Excessive mistreatment, either physical or emotional, of children beyond
       any reasonable explanation.
       – Individuals abused/neglected as children have a higher risk of future offending.

   •   Spouse Abuse
       – 85% of intimate abuse victims are female.

   Characteristics of Abusers
      – alcohol abuse
      – having been a battered child
      – dependence on their wives
      – excessive brooding over trivial events
      – belief in societal approval of battering
      – economic problems
      – a sudden burst of anger
      – present military service
      – hostility

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Domestic Violence (cont’d)

   •   Elder Abuse
       – Likely increasing due to growing population of elderly.
       – Little is known about this problem.

   •   Kidnapping: The holding of individuals hostage for ransom purposes.
       – Very rare in the United States.

Criminal Careers of Violent Offenders

   •   Cultures of Violence
   •   Subcultures of Violence
       – South
       – Machismo: A code of conduct requiring that males defend their sense of honor.
   •   Career Criminals/Violent Predators

Societal Reaction

   •   Ideas for Reducing Violence
       – Early crisis intervention
       – Social Programs
           • Substance Abuse
           • Family Crisis Intervention
       – Gun Policies

Theory and Crime

   •   Theoretical explanations offer ways to explain criminality in individuals as well as in
       society.
   •   Biological and psychological theories of crime have the greatest explanatory power when
       applied to individual cases .
   •   Policy implications include programs related to substance abuse and family conflict
       resolution skills.


Chapter Summary


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   •   History of Violence in the United States
   •   Legal Aspects
   •   Homicide and Assault Statistics
   •   Patterns and Trends in Violent Crime
   •   Sexual Assault
   •   Robbery
   •   Domestic Violence
   •   Criminal Careers of Violent Offenders
   •   Societal Reaction
   •   Theory and Crime


Key Concepts

Assault
Battery
Child Abuse
Culture of Violence
Factors in Rape
Forcible Rape
Gun Control
Manslaughter
Mass Murder
Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment
Patterns/Trends in Violent Crime
Post Hoc Error
Rape as Violent Act
Serial Murder
Spouse Abuse
Spree Murder
Subculture of Violence
Types of Career Criminals
Types of Robbers
Types of Violent Offenders
Victim Precipitation
Workplace Violence




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