Flint Flashes September2010

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					                              Flint Flashes
                                 News Bulletin No. 507
                                    Of the
        Licking County Rock and Mineral Society, Inc. of Newark, Ohio
          Midwest Federation of Mineralogical & Geological Societies
                             September 18, 2010
                      Officers for the LCRMS for 2010
    -    President – James St. John stjohn.2@osu.edu
    -    Treasurer – Joe Higginbotham 740-344-4242 higginbotham@alink.com
    -    1st Vice President –Vicky Atkins 740-349-8048 vmatkins@alink.com
    -    2nd Vice President – Cliff Rose, Terry Hinds, and Wayne Snyder
    -    Secretary -Tamara Snyder imabeachbum@roadrunner.com
    -    Trustees – Jim Giffin, 740-397-5937, Paul Green 740-323-2119, and Mary Frances Rauch -
    -    Program Chairman – Del Gutridge – dgutridge@windstream.net
    -    Temporary Flint Flash Editor – Paul Green, 5000 Cotterman Rd. SE, Newark, Ohio 43056
    -    Send articles for next “Flint Flashes” to me at above address or email pgre@windstream.net

                     2010 Membership Dues are due now!
Membership dues – Family $10 per year, Single Membership $8 , Student Membership $ 4
Send dues to Joe Higginbotham, 690 Tall Oaks Drive, Newark, Ohio 43055

            ******Note Meeting change in location and date******
Next Meeting- Friday, September 24 at 7 PM at the Newark Campus of OSU/COTC
in Founders Hall on Country Club Drive. It will be in room 2168 on the 2nd floor of
the building (Geology Lab).
Program: One of Ohio State’s geology students, Nicole Anderson, will give the main
presentation at the September meeting, “Geology and Ore Deposits of Butte,

                    LCRMS President’s Report by James St. John

Summer break is almost over (sad, sad) (sniff, sniff). Classes start up again for me & lots of other
folks at Ohio State during the second-to-last week of September. I’ve squeezed quite a few geology
trips out of summer 2010. In fact, I’ve got one more to go - starting tomorrow (as I write this). I’ll

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be taking several geology majors to northern Michigan for a week to look at the spectacular geology
that the UP (“Upper Peninsula”) has to offer. We hope to look at and collect BIFs (banded iron
formations) and copper, among other things.
Ahhhhh summer 2010 - how I miss you already! You went by way too quickly. Wonderful
memories, photos, and specimens from all over, including Chicago, Bahamas, Colorado, Utah,
Nevada, California, Kansas, Mammoth Cave, South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana. (No - I didn’t
collect anything at Mammoth Cave - I know it’s a park!)
As was discussed at the last meeting, the club’s schedule for fall 2010 will be different than what
we’re used to. Because of my teaching schedule, the September meeting will be 7 PM on FRIDAY
evening, September 24. And, we’ll be meeting at Ohio State-Newark campus, not Zerger Hall.
Please congregate in Founders Hall room 2168 at OSU-Newark campus (off Country Club Drive in
Newark) for this meeting.
For the October and November 2010 meetings, we will be back in Zerger Hall, but on the 3 rd
FRIDAY of each month. I’ve cleared this with the Zerger Hall folks. So, the October meeting will be
7 PM on Friday, October 15 and the next one will be 7 PM on Friday, November 19. The December
2010 and 2011 meeting times and place will be back to normal.
The mineral of the month for September 2010 will be COVELLITE, a scarce and gorgeous, metallic,
intensely blue-colored mineral. Any LCRMS members who have covellite samples in their
collections are invited to bring them in to show off for everyone. I will bring in some covellite from
my teaching collection and briefly explain the basics of this mineral.
One of Ohio State’s geology students, Nicole Anderson, will give the main presentation at the
September meeting, “Geology and Ore Deposits of Butte, Montana”. Nicole has done a study on the
bedrock geology, mining geology, and environmental cleanup efforts of the Butte, Montana area.
She will present her findings. Butte has been called the “Richest Hill on Earth”, and is a world-class
locality for various metallic minerals, including covellite. If any club members happen to have Butte,
Montana mineral specimens, please bring them in!
Guests are always welcome at our meetings! Show-and-tell specimens are always welcome!

          Treasurer’s Report of the LCRMS by Joe Higginbotham

                                       August 23, 2010
         Balances 7/28/10

         Checking                                   $ 4693.24
         Petty Cash                                     20.00

         Total 6/23/10                              $ 4723.24

         Membership - Santos                        $   10.00

          Total Income                              $   10.00
         Ck #3015 – James St. John for July
         program                                    $   25.00
         Ck # 3016 - Tamera Snyder – Meeting
         expenses                                       11.94
         Ck # 3017 – Newark Postmaster for
         stamps for Flint Flashes                       44.00
         Ck # 3018 – A Printed Impression for
         printing of Flint Flashes                      19.25

September edition of the “Flint Flashes” of the Licking Co. Rock and Mineral Soc.                   2
         Total Expenses                               $   100.19

         New Balances 08/25/10

         Checking                                    $ 4593.05
         Petty Cash                                      40.00

         Total 08/25/10                              $ 46.33.05

NC farm produces emerald shaped into
massive gem

AP – This undated handout photo provided by gemologist C.R. 'Cap' Beesley shows the
Carolina Emperor emerald …

                     Slideshow:'Carolina Emperor' Emerald

By EMERY P. DALESIO, Associated Press Writer Emery P. Dalesio, Associated Press
Writer – Mon Aug 30, 7:07 pm ET

RALEIGH, N.C. – An emerald so large it's being compared with the crown jewels of Russian
empress Catherine the Great was pulled from a pit near corn rows at a North Carolina farm.

The nearly 65-carat emerald its finders are marketing by the name Carolina Emperor was pulled
from a farm once so well known among treasure hunters that the owners charged $3 a day to shovel
for small samples of the green stones. After the gem was cut and re-cut, the finished product was
about one-fifth the weight of the original find, making it slightly larger than a U.S. quarter and about
as heavy as a AA battery.

The emerald compares in size and quality to one surrounded by diamonds in a brooch once owned by
Catherine the Great, who was empress in the 18th century, that Christie's auction house in New
York sold in April for $1.65 million, said C.R. "Cap" Beesley, a New York gemologist who examined
the stone.

While big, uncut crystals and even notable gem-quality emeralds have come from the community 50
miles northwest of Charlotte called Hiddenite, there has never been one so big it's worthy of an
imperial treasury, Beesley said.

"It is the largest cut emerald ever to be found in North America," Beesley said in a telephone
interview from Myanmar, an Asian country rich in precious gems.

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The discovery is a rarity for emeralds found not in the rich veins of South America and Asia but in
North America, said Robert Simon, owner of Windsor Jewelers in Winston-Salem.

"Most of the stones that have come out have not been gem-quality that I would mount in jewelry,"
said Simon, who was part owner of a 7.85-carat, dime-sized emerald found in the same community in
1998 that has since been set in jewelry and sold to a private owner.

Terry Ledford, 53, found the roughly 2-inch-square chunk rimmed with spots of iron a year ago on a
200-acre farm owned by business partner Renn Adams, 90, and his siblings. The rural community of
Hiddenite is named for a paler stone that resembles emerald.

"It was so dark in color that holding it up to the sun you couldn't even get the light to come through
it," a quality that ensured an intense green hue once the stone was cut with facets that allowed light
into the gem's core, Ledford said.

The North Carolina stone was cut to imitate the royal emerald, Ledford said. A museum and some
private collectors interested in buying the emerald have been in contact, Ledford said.

Modeling an empress's emerald is likely to have less influence on the North Carolina stone's sale
price than its clarity, color and cut, said Douglas Hucker, CEO of the American Gem Trade
Association, a Dallas, Texas-based trade association for dealers in colored gems.

"A 65-carat cut emerald from North Carolina is a big, big stone," he said. But "once an emerald is
cut, it's subject to the same type of market conditions that any emerald would be."

Emeralds are part of North Carolina's mineral claim to fame, though other places in the U.S. also are
rich in gems. Maine mines have yielded aquamarine and amethyst, Montana bears sapphires, Idaho
is known for star garnets, and Arkansas has diamonds.

It's not fully known why small, subterranean cavities containing emeralds formed in central North
Carolina, said geologist Michael Wise of the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History,
who has studied the underground world around Hiddenite for years.

Emeralds are produced where a superheated fluid carrying the element beryllium migrated through
rocks that contain chromium, Wise said.

"This doesn't happen frequently," Wise said. "The conditions have to be just right to make an
emerald. ... It happens to be the case at this particular place."

Adams said decades ago when his parents owned the farm, they allowed anyone with a shovel to dig
for emeralds on the property for $3 a day. Virtually all of it was too full of flaws to be cut into
precious stones and was mostly sold to mineral collectors, Adams said.

Ledford said they don't plan to quit after pocketing the profits from their big find, Ledford said.

"We'll definitely keep on mining," he said. "It would be good to know you don't have to go and could
do it for pleasure. You feel like you've got to find something to survive but since we found this
emerald, once we get it sold, there will be less stress."

September edition of the “Flint Flashes” of the Licking Co. Rock and Mineral Soc.                        4
Geology: Ohio mineral report rocks geologist's world Sunday, May 16,

2010 2:59 AM By Dale Gnidovec

Something was recently published that I look forward to every year -
the annual report on Ohio industrial mineral production.

The report lists all the mines and quarries that produced the rocks and
minerals that are the foundation of our economy. Despite modern
technology, we are still in the stone age - in 2008, Ohio produced more
than 125 million tons of sand, gravel, sandstone, limestone, coal,
clay, shale and salt.

The report is a treasure-trove of interesting facts. By far the most
valuable commodity was coal. More than 26 million tons, with a market
value of just more than $1 billion, were produced by 31 companies
operating 86 mines in the state.

Although those mines included 75 surface mines and 11 underground
mines, the tonnage produced by the underground mines was almost twice
as much. Our top five counties for coal were Belmont, Monroe, Harrison,
Jefferson and Perry. Nearly 90 percent of the coal came from just five
seams: Pittsburgh, Middle Kittanning, Upper Freeport, Lower Freeport
and Meigs Creek.

Of the 26 coal-producing states, Ohio ranked 14th in production, but
third among all states in consumption. That means we had to import a
lot of coal. The top five coal-producing states were Wyoming, West
Virginia, Kentucky, Pennsylvania and Montana.

Although all of the coal mined in Ohio comes from the eastern part of
the state, other industrial minerals were produced far more widely,
from 85 of our 88 counties. More than 58 million tons of limestone and
dolomite, worth more than $437 million, were produced by 105 operations
in 47 counties. The top five are Ottawa, Erie, Franklin, Wyandot and

Ohio ranks fourth nationally in the production of lime and sixth in the
production of crushed stone.

Ohio produced just more than 33 million tons of sand and gravel in
2008, rankling us ninth nationally. We ranked third in the production
of all aggregate - the sand, gravel and crushed stone added to cement
to make concrete. Ohio's top five counties for production of sand and
gravel were Hamilton, Butler, Portage, Stark and Franklin.

Approximately 1.5 million tons of sandstone and conglomerate were
produced in Ohio in 2008, mostly from Geauga, Perry, Mahoning, Knox and
Pike Counties. Ohio ranks 12 {+t}{+h} nationally in the production of

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stone used as blocks for building, rather than crushed for aggregate,
and third in the production of sandstone used for building.

In all, 707,523 tons of clay was mined in 19 Ohio counties in 2008,
most of which was used for bricks, landfill lining and in cement. An
additional 861,312 tons of shale were mined in 15 counties. Ohio ranks
sixth nationally in the production of clay and shale.

More than 5.5 million tons of salt were mined in Ohio in 2008, ranking
the state fourth behind Louisiana, Texas, and New York, and just ahead
of Kansas. Most Ohio salt comes from two mines beneath Lake Erie, with
small amounts produced from brining operations in Licking, Summit and
Wayne counties. Most Ohio salt is used on roads, with minor amounts
going to cattle feed and water softeners.

A little more than 1,000 wells were drilled for oil and gas in 44 of
Ohio's 88 counties. Of the 823 that were completed, 768 were
productive, and 55 were dry, a success rate of 93 percent. The value of
oil and gas produced in our state in 2008 was $1.3 billion.

With all its maps, charts and tables, I've only scratched the surface
of this interesting publication. The full report can be seen at
www.odnr.com/geosurvey, or you can order the CD by calling 614-265-

Dale Gnidovec is curator of the Orton Geological Museum at Ohio State



From The Mineral Gallery web site www.galleries.com

Chemistry: CuS, Copper Sulfide

        Class: Sulfides and Sulfosalts
        Uses: minor ore of copper and as mineral specimens.
        Specimens

     Covellite is not a well known or widely distributed mineral. But its iridescent charms can captivate the
admiration of anyone that looks at the indigo blue crystals. Although good crystals are rare, it is the luster

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and color of this mineral that make it noteworthy. The structure of covellite is somewhat analogous to the
structures of the phyllosilicate minerals. In covellite some of the copper ions are at the center of sulfur
tetrahedrons that are linked on their bases to form sheets. The other copper ions are combined with three
sulfur ions in flat triangular groups similar to the triangular groups of the typical carbonates These
triangular groups lie in a plane between the tetragonal sheets. The perfect cleavage of covellite into sheets
is easily explained by this structure.


        Color is a deep metallic indigo blue (tarnished to purple or black) with iridescent yellow and red
        Luster is metallic
        Transparency crystals are opaque to translucent in very thin cleavage sheets.
        Crystal System is hexagonal; 6/m2/m2/m
        Crystal Habits: thin platy hexagonal crystals dominated by pinacoidal faces, usually on edge.
         Also massive and in small grains in sulfide ore bodies.
        Cleavage is perfect in one direction forming thin sheets.
        Fracture is flaky.
        Hardness is 1.5 - 2.
        Specific Gravity is 4.6 to 4.8
        Streak gray to black.
        Associated Minerals include pyrite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, cuprite, bornite and other copper
        Other Characteristics: thin cleavage sheets are flexible.
        Notable Occurances Butte, Montana; Bor, Serbia; Germany; Austria and Sardinia.
        Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, cleavage, density, iridescence and color.

Mars site may hold 'buried life'
Friday, 30 July 2010 16:53

Is Nili Fossae the site where life on ancient Mars was buried and preserved? Image: NASA

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Researchers have identified rocks that they say could contain the fossilised remains of life on early Mars.

The team made their discovery in the ancient rocks of Nili Fossae.

Their work has revealed that this trench on Mars is a "dead ringer" for a region in Australia where some of
the earliest evidence of life on Earth has been buried and preserved in mineral form.

They report the findings in the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters.

The team, led by a scientist from the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute (Seti) in California,
believes that the same "hydrothermal" processes that preserved these markers of life on Earth could have
taken place on Mars at Nili Fossae.

The rocks there are up to four billion years old, which means they have been around for three-quarters of
the history of Mars.

When, in 2008, scientists first discovered carbonate in those rocks the Mars science community reacted with
great excitement; carbonate had long been sought as definitive evidence that the Red planet was habitable -
that life could have existed there.

Carbonate is what life turns into, in many cases, when it is buried - if it does not turn in to oil. The white cliffs
of Dover, for example, are white because they contain limestone, or calcium carbonate.

The mineral comes from the fossilised remains shells and bones and provides a way to investigate the
ancient life that existed on early Earth.

In this new research, scientists have taken the identification of carbonate on Mars a step further.

Adrian Brown from the Seti Institute, who led the research, used an instrument aboard Nasa's Mars
Reconnaissance Orbiter called Crism to study the Nilae Fossae rocks with infrared light.

Then he and his team used exactly the same technique to study rocks in an area in north-west Australia
called the Pilbara.

"The Pilbara is very cool," Dr Brown told BBC News. "It's part of the Earth that has managed to stay at the
surface for around 3.5 billion years - so about three quarters of the history of the Earth."

"It allows us a little window into what was happening on the Earth at its very early stages."

And all those billions of years ago, scientists believe that microbes formed some distinctive features in the
Pilbara rocks - features called "stromatolites" that can be seen and studied today.

"Life made these features. We can tell that by the fact that only life could make those shapes; no geological

September edition of the “Flint Flashes” of the Licking Co. Rock and Mineral Soc.                                   8
process could."

This latest study has revealed that the rocks at Nili Fossae are very similar to the Pilbara rocks - in terms of
the minerals they contain.

And Dr Brown and his colleagues believe that this shows that the remnants of life on early Mars could be
buried at this site.

"If there was enough life to make layers, to make corals or some sort of microbial homes, and if it was buried
on Mars, the same physics that took place on Earth could have happened there," he said. That, he
suggests, is why the two sites are such a close match.

Read More

By Victoria Gill Science reporter, BBC News

                                              Rock Shows

Oct. 1--COLUMBUS, OHIO: Show, "Rings & Things BeadTour"; Rings & Things; Crowne Plaza -
Columbus North, 6500 Doubletree Ave.; Fri. 2-6; free admission; gemstones, bead strands, wholesale
prices, findings, stringing supplies; contact Dave Robertson, (800) 366-2156: e-mail:
drobertson@rings-things.com; Web site: www.rings-things.com

Oct. 1-3--INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA: 12th annual show; Treasures Of The Earth Gem & Jewelry
Shows; Indiana State Fairgrounds, Ag/Horticulture Bldg., 1202 E. 38th St.; Fri. 10-6, Sat. 10-6, Sun.
11-5; adults $5 (3-day ticket), children under 16 free; jewelry makers, goldsmiths and silversmiths
size, reconstruct, repair, design or make original jewelry from customer-selected gems, stones, opals
and crystals, wire wrap, wire sculpture, stone beads, pearls, stone setting, dealers, amber, opal,
fossils, minerals, door prizes, grand prize, 500 Earth Science Club display, silversmithing
demonstrations and classes, lampwork bead demonstrations, wire wrapping classes; contact Van
Wimmer Sr., 5273 Bradshaw Rd., Salem, VA 24153, (540) 384-6047; e-mail: vawimmer@verizon.net;
Web site: www.toteshows.com

Oct. 2--CINCINNATI, OHIO: Show, "Rings & Things BeadTour"; Rings & Things; Holiday Inn - I-
275 North (Ballroom), 3855 Hauck Rd.; Sat. 1-5; free admission; gemstones, bead strands, wholesale
prices, findings, stringing supplies; contact Dave Robertson, (800) 366-2156; e-mail:
drobertson@rings-things.com; Web site: www.rings-things.com

Oct. 8-10--WARREN, MICHIGAN: Show, "Greater Detroit Gem, Mineral, Fossil & Jewelry Show";
Michigan Mineralogical Society; Macomb Community College Expo Center, Bldg. P, 14500 E. 12
Mile Rd., at Hayes; Fri. 9-7, Sat. 10-7, Sun. 11-5; adults $8, seniors (62+) $5, children (5-17) $4;
museum and university exhibits, private collector displays, educational displays, more than 50
dealers, minerals, gems, jewelry, carvings, fossils, lapidary supplies, beads, fossil dig, gold panning,
gemstone hunt, silent auction, lectures, demonstrations, free mineral identification; contact Carol
Werner, 3401 Briar Hill, Hartland, MI 48353, (248) 887-3906; e-mail: briarhillwerner@comcast.net;
Web site: www.michmin.org

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September edition of the “Flint Flashes” of the Licking Co. Rock and Mineral Soc.   10

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