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TRANSPORTATION - PowerPoint by L587rDN


 1795 Wilderness Road (trail blazed by
  Daniel Boone)
 – opened to covered wagons and
 KY to Knoxville, TN.
 4 mph
 Travel difficult, about 12 people per coach
   Usually did some walking and riding to ease pain!
      Wagon – avg. 2 mph
      Coach – avg. 6-8 mph
         Carried passengers, mail, packages, etc.
Map of Wilderness Road
- privately built
- First important turnpike
- 1st broken-stone gravel surface in
  America built to formal plans
- Opened up territory northwest of the Ohio
- Provided cheap transportation between
  the coast and the “bread basket”.
General Information
  Stimulated construction of short toll roads
  By mid 1820s connected most major cities
    About 4,000 miles of turnpikes completed by 1821
  Paved with crushed stones.
  Western traffic moved along the Frederick
   Turnpike to Cumberland, and then along the
   National Road to Wheeling on the Ohio River
   in 1818, and then to Columbus and the
   Northwest Territory and on to Vandalia, IL. By
   mid century

  States’ righters blocked the spending of
   federal money on internal improvements.
  Kept highways from crossing state lines
    This really doesn’t change until the Federal
     Highways Act of 1916.
    Places that need the roads desperately
     support government involvement, and those
     that didn’t (east coast) and had the least to
     gain don’t want government involvement.
  EXCEPTION – the National Road a/k/a Cumberland
    1806 Jefferson signed a measure for a survey and
     construction of the road.
    Paved highway
    Major route west
    MD to Ill.
    Begun 1811, completed 1850s
    By 1818 it ran from the Atlantic Coast to Ohio
    B y 1838 to Illinois
    Federal and state $
       Reduced transportation costs and opened up new markets
       600 miles, road twenty feet wide, clearing of 80 feet.
National Road
 three major stagecoach lines which
  carried passengers
 estimated there was about one tavern
  every mile
   Stagecoach taverns – for travelers with
   Wagon stand – like a truck stop!
   Both provided food, lodging, drink
 traffic was heavy throughout the day and
  into the early evening
 two most common vehicles were the
  stagecoach and the Conestoga wagon
 Stagecoach travel was designed with
  speed in mind. Stages would average 60
  to 70 miles in one day.
Conestoga Wagon

  Conestoga wagon was the "tractor-
   trailer" of the 19th Century
  designed to carry heavy freight both east
   and west over the Allegheny Mountains.
  pulled by a team of six horses, averaged
   15 miles a day.
Henry Clay’s American
   Based on protection and internal improvements – roads, canals
   and other transportation needs. Proposed a protective tariff for
   manufacturers, an improved market for farmers, and better
   transportation for agricultural and industrial goods.
        Would pay for transportation improvements with money from
   the tariff.
        Hoped it would bring prosperity to all sections of the country
   and to the nation – economic independence from the rest of the
        Problem was resistance by state’s right people who didn’t
   want the federal government to interfere in their state even by
   spending money on internal improvements!
   Erie Canal – 1825
   connected east to west
   stimulated growth and canal building
   lower food prices in the east and more settlement in
    the west
   360 miles from Albany to Buffalo, NY
   Reduced travel time from 20 days to 6
   Reduced cost of moving a ton of freight from $100 to
   By 1837 – 3000 miles of waterways
     Canals in Ohio and Indiana, from north to south, through
      much of the Ohio River Valley.
Erie Canal
  effect of the Canal was immediate and dramatic and
   settlers poured west
  Within 15 years of the Canal's opening, New York was
   the busiest port in America, moving tonnages greater
   than Boston, Baltimore and New Orleans combined.
 Early 1820s – flatboats on rivers
     Carried the bulk of goods to market
 3000 flatboats a year on the Ohio River
     Water travel was much more comfortable
   Basic and affordable
   Named b/c of flat underside
   Large deck
   Hard to steer
   Could carry heavier loads

    75 tons/day
    50 miles/day downstream
    Upstream – 10 miles/day
    1830’s – steamboats towed flatboats
      Later steamboats replaced flatboats
 1807 – Fulton’s Clermont – faster and cheaper
 1836 – 361 steamboats navigated western waters
 steamboats brought two-way traffic to the rivers – could
  go upstream against the current.
 Villages at strategic locations evolved into commercial
 1840s – shallow draft boats on river rather than in it.
        Traveled the far reaches of the Miss. River
 flatboats still used a lot
 a 150-mile trip taking 32 hours at an average
  speed of about 5 miles-per-hour.
   Later improved to 20 mph
 1811 - passenger and freight route on the
  lower Mississippi River.
 Safer, easier, relatively safe
   Whole families could travel together, rather than
    send father ahead and family join him later.
 Santa Fe Trail 1820’s – 30’s
 thousand mile trail from St. Louis to Santa Fe
 begun by traders who braved deserts, mountains, and
  Indian attack
 soon had so much traffic that Mexican traders started
  leading caravans east to Missouri and the peso
  became the main medium of exchange in Missouri.
 Pioneers showed that wagons could cross the plains
  and mountains and developed a new technique of
  organized caravans for common protection.
 8 week journey
 experienced dust, mud, gnats,
  mosquitoes, and heat occasional swollen
  streams, wildfires, hailstorms, strong
  winds, or blizzards could imperil wagon
   Oregon Trail (Overland Trail)
   people bound for Oregon and California
   didn’t travel in big caravans like on the Santa Fe Trail – most traveled in family groups and
    came from all over the US
   trail went from Independence, MO. Along the North Platte River into what is now Wyoming,
    through South Pass down to Fort Bridger, then down the Snake River to the Columbia River
    and along the Columbia to the Willamette Valley in Oregon.
   2000 mile trip, 6 months, usually left in late spring (up to a year by boat until 1854 – Flying
    Cloud - 3 months)
   wagon train averaged 12-15 miles/day
   ox-drawn, canvas covered wagons, called “prairie schooners”
   about 5000 people/year went (1845)
   by 1850, about 55,000/year
        rarely attacked by Indians
        many never saw an Indian
        By 1850 more problems b/c more settlers
   Few were adequately prepared
        Sickness/death
        Chores/hard labor
        Division of labor changed – women took on more tasks associated with men – gathering buffalo dung for
         fuel, helping get wagons unstuck, making bridges, etc.

  the fare for a sea journey to Oregon was
   quite expensive--few pioneer families
   could afford it
  most Oregon-bound pioneers came from
   the central states--far from any sea port.
  the sea journey often took up to full year-
   -versus 4-6 months by wagon.
  Ferry crossings – avg. $16
  should provide himself with, at least, 200
   pounds of flour, 150 pounds of bacon; ten
   pounds of coffee; twenty pounds of sugar;
   and ten pounds of salt."
  family of four would need over a thousand
   pounds of food to sustain them on the 2000
   mile journey to Oregon. The only practical way
   to haul that much food was a wagon.
  For every person on a wagon train, an
   estimated 11 animals accompanied them
    Oxen, mules, horses, cattle, sheep
 Huge Conestoga wagons were never used by
  the pioneers--they were just too unwieldy.
 used small farm wagons
 wagon box measured only four feet by ten feet
 loaded them to the brim with food, farm
  implements and furniture--often over a ton of
 toolbox on the side, a water barrel, and most
  importantly, hardwood brakes.
Early Railroads
     Early railroads risky
        Iron straps on wooden rails, worked loose and curled
         up, pierced railroad coaches
     Wood for fuel – sparks caused fires, damaged
        Jerky, bumpy, wearying – water was the most
         comfortable way to travel.
     Railroads were economical, fast and reliable
        10 mph average
        Twice as fast a stage coach
        Four times as fast a water
   late 1820s – cheaper to build than canals (1/3 the cost)
   early safety problems
   1830s competing with canals
   1st regular service was B & O Railroad - 1828
   Quickly changed towns like Cleveland, Cincinnati, Detroit, Chicago into booming
    commercial centers
   1840s and 1850s – railroad building, especially in the Northeast
        Cheap and rapid transportation promoted western agriculture by linking Il and Io to
        Strategic advantage to civil war
   1867 NY Central Railroad – NY to Chicago
        4500 miles of track
   Baltimore, Ohio and Penn. Railroad – connected eastern ports with Chicago and
   May 10, 1869 Promontory Point, Utah – transcontinental railroad completed.
   1883 – Atchison, Topeka and Sante Fe Railroad – carried between Kansas City
    and CA.
   North Pacific – MN to Washington
Transcontinental Railroad

  Promontory, Utah, on May 10, 1869, as
   the Union Pacific tracks joined those of
   the Central Pacific Railroad.
Expense? Dangers?
  Omaha to California
    1st class $111.00
    2nd class $80.00
    3rd class $40
  Dangers: washouts, buffalo, train
   robberies, Indians
  Time? 4 days, 4 hours, 40 minutes
 early 1800s regular service weekly from NY to
 1845 – 52 transatlantic shipping lines in NYC
  with 3 sailings a week
 1845 – first clipper ship (Rainbow) – doubled
  the speed
   Built for speed, sleek construction, fast but lacked
    cargo space.
 1854 – Flying Cloud – 89 days, 8 hours from
  NY to San Francisco
Flying Cloud – Clipper Ship

  Steamship from NY to California (1862)
    300.00
    Via Panama (overland)

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