George Washington by 1XuPRpwp

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									                 1. Voting
• Only white, male property owners could vote
  in the early Republic.
           (2) The 1st Political Parties
   (formed in opposition to Hamilton’s Financial
                              Plan)
Federalists = a strong national
  government, Hamilton’s
  economic plan, a loose
  interpretation of the
  Constitution

Democratic-Republicans =
  strong state governments,
  objected to government
  interference, a strict
  interpretation of the
  Constitution
      3. George Washington
•Farewell Address – warned against
 foreign entanglements (alliances)
*Pinckney’s Treaty – gave the US the
  Port of New Orleans which gave them
  control of the Mississippi River
•Jay’s Treaty – US negotiated this
  treaty with Great Britain in order
  to avoid going to war against
  Great Britain
            4. Alexander Hamilton
•believed only the educated & wealthy people
 should govern
•Economic/Financial Plan included
 assumption of states’ debts, a Bank of the
 US, a protective tariff & an excise tax
•The Bank of the US was a constitutional
  issue – Hamilton & Jefferson used the
  “elastic clause” or necessary but proper
  clause (Implied Powers) to support their
  position on the Bank
            5. John Adams
•XYZ Affair – “Millions for Defense,
  Not one cent for tribute”
•Alien & Sedition Acts – violated 1st
 Amendment rights of speech & press –
 led to passage of KY & VA Resolutions
 which established the doctrines of
 nullification & states’ rights
•Midnight appointments (Judiciary Act
 1801)
•Convention of 1800 – peace with
 France
          6. Thomas Jefferson
•Marbury v. Madison – established judicial
 review
•Louisiana Purchase –compromised
 his political view as a strict constructionist
•Lewis & Clark Expedition -
 mapped/explored the LA Territory
•Embargo Act – Federalists opposed it
 because it hurt the NE economy (northern
 merchants) – hurt Jefferson’s
 popularity
•Believed the Bank of the US was
 unconstitutional
      7.


•Main cause = violation of Neutrality – which was the main
foreign policy problem before the war
•Major obstacles: weak army & navy
•War Hawks – westerners & southerners who supported the
war
•Federalists were against the war
•Hartford Convention – an example of sectionalism &
 states’ rights
•Treaty of Ghent – meant a return to prewar conditions
•Led to the rise of nationalism at the war’s end
         8. Nationalism
– portrayed in art & literature, in
landscapes, portraits & stories with
American settings such as
(The Last of the Mohicans by James
Fennimore Cooper)
    9. THE WESTWARD MOVEMENT
The #1 reason for moving WEST was ECONOMIC
  OPPORTUNITY!
 10.Texas: Independence and Annexation
•Stephen Austin led the first group of US settlers into Texas
•Settlers were looking for cheap land.
•Sam Houston led the fight for the independence of Texas
• Important battle - the Alamo
•Annexation of TX was delayed because of SLAVERY!
     Stephen                    Sam
      Austin                   Houston
                  The Alamo
                  11. Oregon Country

                   * THE US & Great Britain
                     jointly occupied the
                     Oregon Territory.

•Polk approached Britain, arguing that the US had
rightful claim to the territory up to 54 40” (slogan:
“54-40 or fight!”
•Compromised at the 49th parallel as the official
boundary & in 1846 Oregon became a US territory.
12. How did the Industrial
   Revolution portray nationalism?
• New inventions
   - steam engine
  - Samuel Slater – “father of the factory system”
  - Frances Lowell – textile mills – hired single,
    young girls
  - Eli Whitney – interchangeable parts, cotton gin
  - transportation – steamboats – Robert Fulton
  - canals
  - roads – the National Road (Cumberland Road)
  - railroads
       13. 1st Industrial Revolution
• Slavery appeared to be dying out until
   the invention of the cotton gin.
• The cotton gin made it profitable &
   desirable to expand slavery South &
   West.
• Erie Canal
 – built & paid for by the state of NY
 - started a canal building revolution
 - made NYC a commercial center,
   a major eastern port
 - linked NY to the Great Lakes &
   the West to the Northeast
 - Canals opened the Midwest to
   world markets
      14. Education Reform

 •Horace Mann – Education Reformer
   Noah Webster – standardized the
           English language
•Public Education paid by taxes
•Taught Republican virtues =
  character education & citizenship
  needed for a democratic society
     15. The 2nd Great Awakening
•A series of religious revivals
•Charles G. Finney – famous
 preacher
•Religion inspired reform movements
 among the middle class.
 16. The American System
• Henry Clay’s (the Great
  Compromiser) plan to increase
  federal involvement in the
  economy.
• 3 parts to the plan – 2nd Bank of
  the US, a Protective Tariff (1816) &
  internal improvements
  (transportation)
• The Tariff caused the most division        STATE FUNDED
  between the North & South.
• Internal Improvements caused
  division between federal & state
  governments – Who was going to
  pay for roads, canals, etc?

                                         FEDERALLY FUNDED
          17. NORTH vs. SOUTH
The TARIFF divided the 2
  sections.
The SOUTH hated the
  tariff; the NORTH
  depended on the tariff.
     18. Nationalism in Domestic Issues

• McCulloch v. Maryland – John Marshall ruled that the
  BANK was constitutional (IMPLIED POWERS) but to
  TAX the Bank was unconstitutional.




                                    BANK OF THE US
19. Monroe Doctrine


A foreign policy
• Implied “Hands off the Western Hemisphere”
• Meant no more colonization by Europeans in the
  Americas
• Any European effort to take over a nation in the
  Western Hemisphere would be considered an act of
  war by the US
             20. Andrew Jackson
• The common man’s President
• Started universal male suffrage – no longer had to
  own land to vote
• Spoils system/patronage/rotation in office
• Upheld the federal government but supported states’
  rights (ex: Maysville Road Veto)
• Tariff Crisis led to Nullification Crisis led to Force Bill
• Bank War – Jackson thought banks were “monster”
  institutions
• Indian Policy = Forced Removal = relocation
• Worchester v. Georgia led to Trail of Tears
       21. Alexis de Tocqueville
• A French writer who visited the US & wrote
  about Democracy & Reform movements
     22. Transcendentalism
•were reformers, writers, philosophers
•beliefs: self-reliance, individualism
•leader – Ralph Waldo Emerson
•Henry David Thoreau – wrote “Civil
Disobedience” which later influenced
Gandhi & Martin Luther King Jr. –
“passive resistance”
          23. Temperance
•Wanted the moderate use of alcohol
•Effects of drinking: absenteeism,
 domestic violence, loss of self-control,
 a threat to the family
•led to Prohibition in the 1920s
•Women participated in & supported
 this movement
24. Prison & Mental Health Reform
   •Reformer – Dorothea Dix
   •Resulted in prisons for the
    criminals; hospitals for the mentally
    ill
   •Prisons focused on rehabilitation,
    not punishment
      25. Utopian Communities
• Goal – to create a perfect society socially &
  politically
• Most well known – the Shakers
• Others included New Harmony, where people
  would share everything & live in harmony;
  Oneida & Brook Farm
• Failed due to fighting within the communities,
  laziness, selfishness
     26. Antislavery/Abolition Movement
•started by free slaves & Northern whites, middle class,
Quakers
•women participated in & supported this movement
•(American) Colonization Movement – created Liberia – goal:
get rid of the slaves but slaves didn’t want to go
•William Lloyd Garrison – author of the “Liberator” a
newspaper which increased sectionalism - he condemned
slavery on moral grounds; Garrison demanded immediate
emancipation – was a radical abolitionist
•Grimke sisters – from SC, won
 national acclaim for their
 passionate anti-slavery speeches
          27. Antislavery/Abolition continued…

•Frederick Douglass – the nation’s most
influential African American abolitionist;
publisher of the North Star
* David Walker – Appeal to the Colored Citizens
of the World; even more famous than Douglass,
became the most prominent African-American
speaker for the abolition of slavery
•Harriet Beecher Stowe – abolitionist; Uncle
Tom’s Cabin
                   28. Other Facts…
•Division over slavery led to the Liberty
 Party formed in 1840
•Resistance: from Northern factory
 workers who opposed abolition because
 it would result in competition for jobs in
 the North
•Gag Rule – passed by Southerners in
 Congress which prohibited antislavery petitions from being
read or acted upon in the House of Representatives; violated
First Amendment Rights
29. Women’s Rights Movement
•influenced by the temperance & abolition movements
• leaders = Lucretia Mott & Elizabeth Cady Stanton =
  suffrage – Seneca Falls, NY – modeled after the Declaration
  of Independence
•Sojourner Truth – supported women’s rights & abolition
•Susan B. Anthony - suffrage
• Education didn’t lead to a career.
•Traditional role for women – the law denied them the
 right to vote or own property
         30. MANIFEST DESTINY
•A phrase coined by magazine
editor, Louis O’Sullivan
•The idea that God had
 given the entire continent to
 Americans & wanted them
 to settle western land.
•A driving force for President
James K. Polk (Mexican
Cession & Oregon Country)
           31. The Mexican War
                1846-1848
Causes:
Manifest Destiny
Annexation of TX
Border Dispute
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Mexico gave up its
claim to TX, Rio Grande became the border, gained
land (Mexican Cession)
The outcome of the war was increased sectional
tensions. Why: expansion led to debates over
slavery.
          32. The Wilmot Proviso
•Slavery was even more of an issue after the Mexican
War.
•How would slavery be decided in the territory
acquired from Mexico (the Mexican Cession)?
•This proviso or condition proposed banning slavery
from any land purchased from Mexico.
•Accepted by Northerners, denounced
 by Southerners.
•Never became law.
33. The Gadsden Purchase
              (1853)
   President Franklin Pierce purchased
   this strip of land from Mexico for a
   southern transcontinental railroad.
                  34. THE REPUBLICAN
                         PARTY


• A result of the K-N Act
• Did not call for the immediate abolition of
  slavery
• OPPOSED THE EXTENSION OF SLAVERY INTO
  NEW US TERRITORIES
         35. Dred Scott Decision
•Supreme Court, under Chief Justice Roger Taney,
ruled Scott had no right to “sue,” – as a slave he was
not a citizen.
•The ruling also declared that a slave owner could
not be deprived of his “property.
•The ruling cancelled the Missouri Compromise
because it violated the 5th Amendment (due process
of law)
•The decision outraged abolitionists & those who
favored popular sovereignty.
36. California Becomes a State
       •1848 – gold was discovered
       •1849 – Gold Rush – 49ers
       •Became a FREE state as a result
               of the Compromise of
               1850
        37.Legislation Regarding Slavery
           1. Compromise of 1820
        2. Compromise of 1850 – slavery would
   be decided by popular sovereignty
3. Fugitive Slave Law – unpopular in the North
4. Kansas-Nebraska Act – slavery to be decided
   by popular sovereignty – repealed the
   Missouri Compromise
       38. Effects of Legislation Regarding Slavery

“Bleeding Kansas”
•Armed clashes between pro-slavery forces &
abolitionist settlers
Debate in Washington
* Charles Sumner denounced slavery & the K-N Act in
a speech – was attacked – “the Caning of Charles
Sumner” by Preston Brooks – an example of how
inflamed passions had become over slavery
              39. KEY BATTLES IN
                  THE CIVIL WAR
1st Battle of Bull Run
Also known as Battle of Manassas
1st battle of the Civil War
This battle proved the war would be longer than
   expected
Antietam (MD)
Lee decided to invade the North.
Lee’s battle plans were discovered by Union troops.
Was the bloodiest single day of the War.
           40. More Battles…
VICKSBURG (MS)
• Union victory would mean control of the
  Mississippi River
• A siege (Anaconda Plan)
• A turning point battle
SHERMAN’S MARCH
The capture of Atlanta
Helped Lincoln to win re-election
          41. Still more battles…
GETTYSBURG (PA)
A 3-day battle, July 1863
A turning point battle
Ended the South’s hope of successfully invading the
  North
Ended the South’s chance of getting help from the
  British
The bloodiest battle of the war
Led to the Gettysburg Address
    42. The Gettysburg Address

A reminder of why the Civil War was
being fought – to preserve the Union
& a commitment to the principles of
freedom, equality & self-
government.
43. Emancipation Proclamation
-Freed only the slaves in the states of
 rebellion
-Lincoln opposed slavery but did not
  believe he had the legal authority to
  abolish it.
          44. Key People in the Civil War
Abraham Lincoln
 - “Preserve the Union
 - Never recognized the secession of the South
 - suspended the writ of Habeas Corpus & instituted
   martial law to maintain control over the border
   states (MD, KY, DE, MO)
 - Reelected in 1864 which proved people supported
   his war policy & his stand against slavery
45 George McClellan
    – Union leader known for being
      too cautious; ran against Lincoln
      but lost in 1864
    William Tecumseh Sherman
    - known for the military strategies
      of Total War & the Anaconda
     Plan
46.
Copperheads
• Antiwar Northern Democrats

APPOMATTOX COURT HOUSE
* Location of the surrender of Lee & the
  Confederate troops to Ulysses S. Grant
           47. Reconstruction
Lincoln’s Plan
 Republican Response: Wade Davis Bill
Johnson’s Plan
 Southern Response: Black Codes
Congressional Plan
 Military Reconstruction Plan
Compromise of 1877 (between Democrats &
Republicans) ended Reconstruction.
 48. Reconstruction cont.
Andrew Johnson
•Impeached for violating the Tenure in
 Office Act, but survived removal from office
by one vote
•Freedmen’s Bureau – helped former slaves
 adjust to freedom, provided education
•Thaddeus Stevens – leader of the Radical
 Republicans
             49. Moving West
•The major motivating factor for moving out
West was economic opportunity.
•Settlement of the West occurred after the Civil
War.
•The Homestead Act, Morrill Land Grant Act &
the Pacific Railway Acts encouraged settlement
of the West; all were ways to obtain land.
            50. Native Americans
•The primary conflict between Native Americans & settlers
 was over LAND!
• Dawes Severalty Act – forced Indians to give up
 nomadic hunting to farm on government allocated land
• Building a rail system connecting the West to the East
 resulted in the restriction of American Indian hunting
 grounds.
• Early 1800s – were forced to give up land
• Late 1800s – were forced onto reservations
  51. OKLAHOMA LAND RUSH
•Indian lands opened for settlements
•Sooners
•boomers
               52. THE WEST

•Women who settled west often had greater
freedom & flexibility
•Women could own land
•Chinese & Irish immigrants built the railroads.
The Chinese faced the harshest discrimination.
•African Americans – were cowboys & became
Buffalo Soldiers (part of the US Army)
                 53. RANCHING
• Refrigerated car by Swift & Armour made meatpacking safer &
  more efficient – cut transportation/shipping costs in half
• Invention of BARBED WIRE by Joseph Glidden ended the
  open range
• Windmill powered by water, allowed vast farming & ranching
  and expansion of rail transport systems
• The Mexicans taught white settlers cattle ranching which led
  to the slaughter of buffalo & more land being taken from the
  Native Americans.
               54. FARMING
Steel Plow – John Deere – used to break up the
tough sod of the Midwest
Windmills allowed farmers to pump water for
their crops.
Barbed wire made it possible to cheaply &
efficiently fence in land & livestock.
Railroads created a way for farmers to import
needed equipment from the East while
shipping their product to different parts of the
country.
             55. The Populists
•The People’s Party (farmers)
•Privately owned RRs used monopolistic practices between
1870 & 1900. How did farmers respond? By organizing the
Populist Party & the Grange.
•The goals of Populism were later applied to the urban &
industrial problems in the Progressive Movement.
• Were former members of the Farmers’ Alliances
•Supported the Democratic candidate, William Jennings
Bryan, in the 1896 Presidential election
            56. Immigration
•RRs were built mainly by the Chinese & the
Irish
•From 1877-1900, immigrants came from
southern & eastern Europe
•The Chinese faced harsh discrimination
building the Central Pacific RR
•Impact of immigration during the late 1800s –
factories had a steady supply of labor
                57. Reforms
Settlement Movement
• Jane Addams – Hull House
• Tried to improve living conditions for
  immigrants
• Was community-centered – offered social
  services
• Retain your culture while learning how to live
  in America
         58. Purity Crusaders
• Fought against vice – crime, immoral or
  corrupt behavior such as gambling
• Comstock Law (Anthony Comstock) prohibited
  sending obscene materials (info about birth
  control, abortion) through the mail
            59. Prohibition
• Women’s Christian Temperance Union formed
  to deal with the problem of drinking
• Carrie A. Nation – famous prohibitionist
  known for smashing illegal saloons with a
  hatchet
• Reformers saw a link between saloons,
  immigrants, & political bosses
    59. Social Gospel Movement
• Also tried to improve living conditions
• Applied the teachings of Christ to society
• Churches provided social services
       60. Big Business
•Andrew Carnegie – built a large
steel-making empire; believed a rich
man who dies rich, dies a failure
•John D. Rockefeller – built Standard
Oil Co., the 1st Trust
•JP Morgan – investment banker who
created US Steel
•Vanderbilt family – built a RR empire
       61. Business Practices

– Trust – ex: Standard Oil
– Monopoly
– Vertical Integration – own all steps of an industry
  (Carnegie)
– Horizontal Integration – own all businesses of that
  type – how Rockefeller gained his wealth
         62. LABOR UNIONS
– National Trades Union – the 1st labor union
– Knights of Labor – skilled & unskilled workers;
  leader was Terrence Powderly; preferred not to
  strike; died out because of failed strikes
– AFL – a craft union, skilled workers only; leader
  was Samuel Gompers; used collective bargaining
  to negotiate with employers; believed women
  brought down wages
– Eugene V. Debs – was a supporter of labor unions
                63. The Gilded Age
          Post-Reconstruction 1877-1900

  • A time of corruption in business & in government
  • Pendleton Act – Civil Service System – ended the
    Spoils System or Patronage
  • Credit Mobilier – led to distrust of government
  • Government policy was laissez-faire
• Jacob Coxey led a march on Washington
  demanding that the government create jobs
  due to the Depression/Panic of 1893 – was
  met by federal troops
           64. 2nd Industrial Revolution

• Edwin L. Drake – the 1st to drill for & strike oil
• Thomas A. Edison – phonograph, light bulb; “Wizard of
  Menlo Park”
• George Westinghouse – developed a transformer that could
  transmit electrical current over long distances
• Bessemer Process – a cheaper & more effective method of
  making steel
• Elevator – allowed skyscrapers to be built
• Skyscraper – a multistory building
• Electric Trolleys – transportation that allowed people to live
  away from their jobs in the cities
    65. Politics during the Gilded Age
• Government favored businesses.
• A period of unfair business practices such as RRs
  giving rebates to certain customers.
• The rise of political machines (both Democratic &
  Republican) that controlled city governments by
  making promises (to immigrants) in exchange for
  their votes.
• Most well-known political machine – Tammany Hall
  (D) – led by Boss Tweed
• Cartoonist Thomas Nast exposed Tweed’s methods
                   66. STRIKES
1. the Great RR Strike, 1877 – President Hayes sent in
   federal troops
2. Haymarket Riot – anarchists joined in; turned the
   public against labor unions
3. Homestead – Carnegie’s plant; Pinkertons were
   called in
4. Pullman Strike – interfered with the mail; leader was
   Socialist Eugene V. Debs; a court injunction was
   issued ordering the strikers back to work; President
   Cleveland sent in federal troops; led to government
   involvement in labor issues
           67. African Americans &
               Higher Education
Booker T. Washington
• A former slave
• Founded the Tuskegee Institute to train African
  Americans in a trade so they could achieve ECONOMIC
  freedom
• Taught his students that if they excelled in blue collar
  fields (trades/manual labor) they would eventually be
  treated as equal citizens
• He saw no problem with segregation which he stated
  in a famous speech given in Atlanta
               68. W.E.B. Du Bois
• The first black Ph.D. graduate from Harvard
• Disagreed with Washington & called his Atlanta
  speech, the “Atlanta Compromise”
• Argued blacks should earn a liberal arts education
  and become leaders
• Believed blacks must be politically, legally, & socially
  active in order to obtain true equality – should never
  accept inferiority or bow to oppression
• Helped organize the Niagara Movement
• Helped found the NAACP
                69. NAACP
Published its own magazine, The Crisis
Its purpose was to abolish segregation &
 discrimination, oppose racism and gain
 civil rights for African Americans
Used the courts to gain success
1st success was getting the grandfather
  clause declared unconstitutional
                70. Segregation
De facto
Occurred in the North
Not legal segregation – just happens
African Americans rather live in the North because
 segregation wasn’t by law
De jure
 Occurred in the South
 Made segregation legal = Jim Crow Laws
 Segregation in public facilities
             71. SEGREGATION
•   Led to violence
•   Lynching
•   Race riots
•   Competition for jobs in the North
     72. Jim Crow Laws
 ways to prevent African Americans
  from voting (disenfranchisement)
  such as:
The literacy test
Grandfather clause
Poll tax
Own property
         73. Plessy v. Ferguson
• 1896 – the Supreme Court decided separate
  but equal was constitutional
• Applied to public facilities included schools
• Segregation was firmly in place by 1900.
        74. What is Imperialism?
•When stronger nations attempt to
 create empires by dominating weaker
 nations
•Means to expand & colonize (take by
 force) ex: Philippines, Hawaii
•Also meant possible war (Spanish-
 American War)
•Would enable the US to become a
 world power
          75. Reasons for
            Imperialism
#1 reason = markets!
Nationalism – being the strongest nation
Spread Christianity, democracy
the need for refueling & repair stations for
 naval vessels (Pacific – Midway & Hawaii)
The need for a strong US navy - Alfred T. Mahan
 supported adding colonies & naval bases
Keeping the frontier spirit alive
The belief in Social Darwinism
76. What did the US government’s reasons for
expansion here (Manifest Destiny) and abroad
(Imperialism) have in common?

Both believed in cultural superiority
              77. Imperialism


Which action did the US take in the late 19th
 century after it had developed steam powered
 transoceanic ships?

Acquired more islands to use as coaling stations
  for ships
78. Imperialism

Roosevelt Corollary – an addition to the Monroe
Doctrine; the US would act as “international
police” – purpose was to protect US economic
interests in Latin America; angered many Latin
Americans.
Open Door Policy – motivated by the fear that other nations
would undermine or obstruct US trade in China
Which action explains US involvement in Asian affairs during the
late 1800s? OPEN DOOR POLICY!
              79. Misc. info

Anti-Imperialists argued expansion violates
democracy.

TR – gunboat diplomacy – Roosevelt
Corollary – “big stick” diplomacy (strong
navy)

President Taft – Dollar diplomacy – to
promote US interests
            80. The Progressive Movement
•17th Amendment – direct election of senators
•Muckraker who exposed the oil industry – Ida Tarbell
•Impact of Progressive Reforms – the power of
  voters expanded
•Journalism (muckrakers) uncovered scandals for the first
 time
•Meant government involvement in the economy & in the lives
  of the people
•The movement was a response to poor working conditions &
  poverty.
      81. Progressive Legislation
• Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, 1911 – led to
  government reform in the work place
• 16th Amendment – federal income tax
• 18th Amendment – Prohibition
• 19th Amendment – Women’s suffrage
• Direct primary, the initiative, referendum &
  recall – all empowered the voter (ways voters
  could participate in government)
        82. Progressive Reforms
• Clayton Antitrust Act – legalized labor unions
• Federal Reserve Act – banking system
• Underwood Tariff – resulted in the 16th
  Amendment
• Municipalities gained control of public
  utilities.
• The beginning of social welfare programs to
  ensure a minimum standard of living.
 83. Limits of Progressivism
•Little assistance to tenant &
 migrant farmers
•Allowed Jim Crow Laws to
 continue
                         84. WWI
• Which term describes the reason for neutrality prior to the
  war?
• The war started when Germany invaded Belgium.
• Unrestricted warfare led to US involvement in the war in
  1917.
• Wilson’s pro-war argument: “The world must be made safe
  for democracy.”
• Sedition Act – you couldn’t interfere with the sale of Liberty
  Bonds which violated 1st Amendment rights
• President Wilson’s Peace Program – Fourteen Points which
  created a League of Nations
• Women’s involvement in WWI led to the passage of the 19th
  Amendment.
         85. Trench Warfare
• Goal: break through the enemy’s
  trenches
• Used artillery, bayonets, machine guns,
  tanks, poison gases
• Meant you had to cross “No Man’s Land”
• War of attrition
• “Live & Let Live” system
  86. How did trench warfare lead to a
              stalemate?


• Neither side was able to push the other out
  of the “trenches” causing the war to drag out
  4 long years, with neither side winning or
  losing.
      85. Managing the Economy
             during WWI
• War Industries Board – led to industries
  producing war goods rather than commercial
  goods
• Herbert Hoover – Food Administrator –
  worked to increase farm output and reduce
  waste; called for voluntary action
• The Great Migration began during WWI –
  movement of African Americans from the
  South to the North (jobs).
              86. Wilson’s Fourteen Points
  • A plan for peace
  • Included an end to alliances
  • A League of Nations – purpose: global security;
    Article 10 – “An attack on one is an attack on all.”
  • US never joined the League of Nations.
  • The Allies wanted to punish the Central Powers – led
    to reparations for the Germans which would become
    a cause for WWII
Wilson & Mexico – refused to recognize their leader & temporarily supported
Pancho Villa - then became preoccupied with WWI & withdrew his support–
Pancho Villa responded by leading raids, killing Americans - Wilson’s efforts to
control events in Mexico led to the brink of war – policies resulted in distrust of the US in
Mexico
       87. The Versailles Treaty
• Accepted by the Allies but not by the US
   Senate because of the League of Nations
• The Senate was divided:
Irreconcilables – opposed the treaty
Reservationists – (Henry Cabot Lodge) accept
   the treaty with some changes but Wilson
   would not compromise!
             88. After WWI
• Postwar adjustments: the US was now the
  world’s largest creditor nation
• Americans were “disillusioned.”
• US returned to isolationism.
    89. Social Changes in the 1920s
• Flapper – reflected a new social freedom for
  women
• Election of 1920 – few women voted; those
  who did voted like the men
• ERA – introduced in 1923 – never passed
• After WWI – immigration restrictions
  especially for the countries of southern &
  eastern Europe
• Heroes represented the traditional values of
  the past
    90. Cultural Changes in the 1920s
• Mass Media brought Americans together, creating common
  cultural experiences.
• 1st “Talkie” – The Jazz Singer
• The Great Migration & the radio helped create Jazz music.
• Sinclair Lewis – a novelist who attacked/criticized American
  society; the first American to receive the Nobel prize for
  literature
• The Lost Generation – writers such as Gertrude Stein, Ernest
  Hemingway & F. Scott Fitzgerald who were disillusioned after
  WWI and rejected the materialism of the 1920s – were
  expatriates
• The Harlem Renaissance – an African American literary
  awakening; ex: Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes
  91. The Marcus Garvey Movement
• “back to Africa” movement
• Garvey promoted racial pride & independence
  and separation of the races
• Garvey inspired future “black pride”
  movements.
      92. Racial Tensions in the 1920s
•   Riots
•   Lynchings
•   Jim Crow Laws
•   KKK – used advertising to gain members; was
    no longer just a “southern” organization; were
    anti-black, anti-Catholic, anti-Jew, anti-
    immigrant
    93. Issues of Religion in the 1920s
• Fundamentalism - a set of religious beliefs that included a
  literal interpretation of the Bible
• The most famous fundamentalist preacher – Billy Sunday (also
  a Prohibitionist)
• The radio enabled religious messages to reach a wide office.
  Aimee Semple McPherson took advantage of this technology
  to build up her ministry.
• Conflict between Fundamentalists & Evolutionists led to the
  Scopes Trial (or Monkey Trial). (religion v. science)
• Being denied the right to teach evolution violated personal &
  religious freedom (1st Amendment)
• William Jennings Bryan (Fundamentalist), prosecutor v.
  Clarence Darrow, defense attorney.
• Bryan became a martyr for Fundamentalism.
              94. Prohibition
* Volstead Act was passed to enforce the 18th
    Amendment
* Effects of Prohibition:
   * bootlegging
    * speakeasies
    * organized crime
*FBI – headed by J. Edgar Hoover, became a
    dedicated independent force against
    organized crime
            95. The Red Scare
•    Fear of communism spreading to the US
•    Causes:
1.   Bolshevik (Russian Revolution) 1917
2.   Increase in labor strikes in the US
3.   The rise of Nativism
     96. Effects of the Red Scare
• Palmer Raids – a response to an attempted
  assassination of Attorney General, A. Mitchell
  Palmer – suspected communists (mostly
  immigrants) were arrested, jailed, or
  deported.
• Sacco & Vanzetti – one of the most
  controversial trials in US history – both were
  Italian immigrants, radicals (anarchists),
  convicted & executed
  97. 1920s Republican Presidents
Warren G. Harding – promised a “return to
normalcy”
Calvin Coolidge – “The business of America is
business.”
Herbert Hoover – believed voluntary action
would end the Great Depression
*All Republican Presidents supported laissez-
faire, pro-business, nativist, (anti-immigrant),
pro-isolationist, pro-trade/pro-tariff
        98. Warren G. Harding
• Teapot Dome Scandal
      99. Calvin Coolidge
Kellogg-Briand Pact – outlawed war;
couldn’t be enforced
     100. The Great Depression
• Causes: installment buying, personal debt;
  buying on margin, the stock market crash
• Effects: had world-wide effects; poverty,
  Hoovervilles, an increase in discrimination
  (Scottsboro Boys)
• 21st Amendment – repealed Prohibition
           101. Herbert Hoover
• His plan to end the Great Depression was one of
  VOLUNTARY ACTION which failed.
• Did not believe in direct relief to the individual. Why?
  Americans were hard working people and a
  government handout would be offensive to them.
• Bonus Army – Hoover called in the army. General
  Douglas MacArthur used force to drive out the
  marchers. This, along with Hoover’s failure to end
  the Great Depression, would prevent Hoover from
  being reelected.
          102. Election of 1932
• A turning point for American politics because
  it was the beginning of the government taking
  responsibility for the people. (the beginning of
  social welfare programs)
       103. FDR’s New Deal
Characteristics:
•Government involvement in the
 economy & in the lives of the people
•Deficit spending
•Increased debt
•3 goals: Relief, recovery, reform
•Created jobs
           104. Legacy of the New Deal
•The American people now had different
 expectations of the government.
•Overall impact: increased the size of the federal
 government
•TVA – remains a model of government planning
•SEC – monitors the stock market
•Farmers still plant according to federal crop
 allotments
•Social Security
•FDIC – protects people’s money
•Its greatest achievement: provided hope
     105. Critics of the New Deal
• Women, minorities (domestic workers) and farmers
  were left out of the Social Security Act.
• Lynching continued.
• The New Deal was socialistic.
• Meant higher taxes.
• Limited individual freedom.
• Demagogues, such as Father Coughlin & Huey Long,
  were critics. Long had a “Share-our-Wealth” plan.
   106. FDR’s court-packing scheme
• The NIRA & AAA had been declared
  unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
• To prevent more programs from being
  declared unconstitutional, FDR wanted to
  increase the number of Supreme Court judges
  to 15 by appointing supporters of FDR & his
  New Deal programs.
• This “scheme” hurt FDR’s popularity.
                 107. The US & WWII
•Foreign Policy – Isolationism, NEUTRALITY!
•The New Deal kept FDR focused on domestic issues so the
 focus was on the Great Depression & not on foreign affairs.
•Neutrality Acts – prohibited the selling of weapons to
 “warring” nations
•1937 – FDR gave his “Quarantine Speech” calling for
 economic & diplomatic sanctions against any “aggressor”
 nations.
•Ultimately, economic sanctions by the US would play a major
 role in leading Japan to declare war on the US.
                 108. Causes of WWII
•The rise of totalitarian governments
•The Great Depression
•No means to enforce the Kellogg-Briand Pact
•The Treaty of Versailles – reparations – the War Guilt
 Clause
•The annexation of the Rhineland
•The annexation of Austria
•Annexation of the Sudetenland (the Munich Agreement) =
 no further land claims by Hitler
•Allied policy of appeasement
•Non-Aggression Pact
                109. Mobilization
• “We must be the great arsenal of democracy.” (FDR) – Prepare
  for war; make war materials rather than consumer goods.
• Selective Training and Service Act – the first peacetime draft
  in the nation’s history
• FDR’s Four Freedoms speech (why we would be fighting) –
  freedom of speech & expression, freedom of religion,
  freedom from want (from not having physical needs met) and
  freedom from fear.
• “Rosie the Riveter” – represented women factory workers
• War funded through deficit spending.
• Rationing, victory gardens
        110. The War in Europe
• D-Day = Operation Overlord = invasion of
  Normandy = liberation of France
• Allied troops were led by Dwight D.
  Eisenhower
      111. Important Meetings
• Yalta – Meeting of the Big 3 – Stalin, FDR &
  Churchill to discuss Europe’s reorganization
  after the war (postwar plans) – led to San
  Francisco Conference that established the UN
• Potsdam – Truman was present – Japan was
  asked to surrender unconditionally before an
  atomic bomb would be dropped
      112. The War in the Pacific
• Strategy = island hopping
• The significance of the Battle of Midway – it
  stopped the Japanese – they were unable to
  launch any more offensive operations in the
  Pacific
• Turning point battles: Coral Sea & Midway
          113. The Cold War
• Competition between the US & the Soviet
  Union that began during WWII and ended in
  1991.
     114. Origins of the Cold War
• Soviet Union became communist – Russian
  Revolution, 1917
• US did not recognize the Soviet Union until
  1933
• US angered over the Non-aggression Pact
• Soviets angry over the Allies’ delay in opening
  a second front in Europe
• Yalta Conference – differences over Poland
   115. Peace Keeping Attempts after
                WWII
• UN – its goal is to maintain world peace
     - replaced the League of Nations
* Containment – prevent the spread of communism
• Truman Doctrine – containment policy – prevent
  Turkey & Greece from falling to communism
• Marshall Plan – containment policy – prevent Europe
  from falling to communism
• NATO – “an attack on one is an attack on all” – a
  military alliance; its goal: collective security – made
  the US actively involved in European affairs
           116. McCarthyism
• Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed to have a
  list of people within the State Department
  who were communists.
• McCarthy contributed to the 2nd Red Scare of
  the 1950s.
• McCarthy lost any support he had when he
  accused the US Army of having communists.
 117. President Dwight D. Eisenhower
• Modern Republicanism – be conservative with
  money, liberal towards people
• Farewell Address – warned that the existence of a
  military-industrial complex (armament industries
  during peacetime) could become a threat to peace
• Eisenhower saw businesses as seeking war for
  economic reasons
• Federal Aid Highway Act – funded an interstate
  highway system which would allow for the
  evacuation of major cities in the event of a nuclear
  attack
 118. Containment under Eisenhower
• His Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, wanted to
  end communism where it existed, not just contain it.
  A policy known as “brinkmanship” – to risk nuclear
  war to protect US national interests
• Deterrence – making the military power of the US &
  its Allies so powerful that no enemy would attack
• Eisenhower Doctrine – economic aid to countries in
  the Middle East
            119. The Space Race
• Started in 1957 when the Soviets launched the
   Sputnik – the 1st artificial satellite to orbit the earth.
   This created fear among the American people
   because they realized that now the Soviets could
   launch a hydrogen bomb at the US.
• US response to the Sputnik – NASA and the National
   Defense Education Act which emphasized more math
   & science courses in schools
• U2 incident – an American spy
  plane that was shot down by the Soviets
          120. The Arms Race
• Between the US and the Soviet Union
• Refers to the struggle to gain weapons
  superiority
           121. 1950s Society
• Television – brought families together
• More white collar workers – the rise of the
  service industry
• Rise of suburbia
• The affluent society
• A decade of conformity
 122. Challenges to the Conformity of
              the 1950s
• Betty Friedan wrote The Feminine Mystique –
  lashed out at the culture that made it difficult
  for women to choose alternative roles
• Rock and roll
• The Beat Generation or beatniks – promoted
  spontaneity
       123. Europe after WWII
• The US & the Soviet Union had different ideas
  for Poland.
• The Soviet Union wanted satellite nations (a
  buffer zone).
• Poland became a communist country.
• Germany was divided between the Allies and
  the Soviet Union.
         124. The Iron Curtain
• A speech given by Winston Churchill that
  Europe was now divided between a
  communist East and a democratic/capitalist
  West.
                125. 1949
• US found out that the Soviet Union had
  atomic weapons.
• The beginning of the arms race.
• China fell to communism.
          126. President Truman
• Civil Rights - Integrated the troops
• Korean War – first war were troops were integrated
• GI Bill – created a new middle class – provided
  housing & education benefits
• Taft-Hartley Act – vetoed by Truman, overridden by
  Congress – would allow an 80-day cooling-off period
  to avoid strikes
• Berlin Airlift - Truman’s response to Stalin blocking
  the road into West Berlin.
           127. 2nd Red Scare
• Loyalty Program – Truman’s plan to ensure
  federal employees were not communists;
  included background checks
• HUAC – investigated Hollywood – led to the
  Hollywood Ten who were blacklisted
• Spies – Alger Hiss – found guilty of perjury
  the Rosenbergs – convicted & executed for
  passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union
       128. The 1960s Civil Rights Movement
Purpose: equality for African-Americans & the
end of de jure segregation

NAACP – used the courts to fight discrimination.
EX: Brown v. Board of Education – Under Chief Justice
Earl Warren, the Supreme Court overturned Plessy v.
Ferguson and established that separate but equal was
UNCONSTITUTIONAL! Brown’s Attorney was Thurgood
Marshall who became the 1st African American Supreme
Court Judge
       129. Civil Rights Events
•Little Rock Nine (Arkansas) – President
Eisenhower (did not necessarily support
desegregation) placed the National Guard
under federal command to protect the 9
students who wanted to attend the area high
school.
•“Ole Miss” - James Meredith - JFK sent in
federal marshals to escort Meredith to the
University of Mississippi
                         130. JFK
•   Moved slowly on Civil Rights’ issues
•   “Ole Miss” – James Meredith
•   Bay of Pigs
•   Berlin Crisis
•   Cuban Missile Crisis
•   Alliance for Progress – Latin America
•   New Frontier – most successful in the Space Program
•   Lacked a mandate; lacked support from Congress
•   1st televised presidential debate w/Nixon
          131. JFK on Civil Rights
•Kennedy moved slowly on civil rights issues – did
not want to anger southern Democratic senators
•Unsuccessful in get civil rights legislation passed
because he lacked the support of Congress.
•Helped get MLK Jr. released from jail.
132. The Civil Rights Movement turns radical

•Malcolm X – just the opposite of MLK Jr. – advocated using “any
means necessary” to secure their rights; later had less militant
views & called for whites & blacks to work together
•A more militant approach to civil rights
•SNCC began to reject nonviolent protest under Stokely
Carmichael who called for BLACK POWER, meaning pride in
African heritage & separate black economic & political
institutions
•Late 1960s – SNCC & CORE supported Black Power
•1966 – Black Panthers – sought to end de facto & de jure
segregation – had some violent encounters with police but also
set up community programs to aid poor, urban blacks.
      133. Voting Rights for African
               Americans
• Had to fight to gain voting rights
• Freedom Summer – voter registration drives
  were held in Mississippi
• Selma March (AL) – marched because they
  were not being allowed to register to vote –
  were attacked by state troopers - televised
         134. Martin Luther King, Jr.
• The Montgomery Bus Boycott (Rosa Parks)
  began the Civil Rights Movement
• Led by MLK, Jr. – made him a national figure
  and leader of the Civil Rights Movement
• Used non-violent protests and civil
  disobedience – influenced by Gandhi
             135. Non-Violent Protests
Sit-ins – lunch counter in Greensboro, NC – led to the formation
of SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)
Freedom Riders – 1960, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation
was illegal in bus stations open to interstate travel – 1961 CORE
organized Freedom Rides to test the Court’s decision. Resulted in
the desegregation of some bus stations but helped draw national
attention to the cause of civil rights
March on Washington – to keep pressure on JFK & Congress to
pass civil rights legislation; led to MLK Jr.’s famous “ I Have a
Dream” speech
                     136. LBJ
• Supported Civil Rights – urged Congress to pass laws
  in honor of JFK
• Voting Rights Act 1965 – led to a huge increase in
  African-American voter registration & an increase in
  the number of African American candidates elected
• Supported affirmative action, a policy by which
  minorities are given preferential consideration for
  jobs & admittance to universities
      137. Johnson’s Great Society
•   “I declare war on poverty!”
•   Created Medicare & Medicaid
•   Created Head Start
•   VISTA – use volunteers to help poor people
    living in the US
            138. LBJ on Civil Rights
• Got Kennedy’s bills passed as a way to heal the country and
  honor JFK
• Voting Rights Act
• Civil Rights Act 1964 – banned discrimination in public
  facilities
• Voting Rights Act 1965 – eliminated literacy tests as a voting
  requirement; allowed federal registrars to enable African
  Americans to register to vote
• 24th Amendment – eliminated the poll tax
• Both the Civil Rights Act & Voting Rights Act created a new
  voting population in the South resulting in more African
  Americans being elected.
    139. LBJ’s Containment/Cold War
                 Policies
• Vietnam
• Tet Offensive – a turning point in the war – hurt
  Johnson’s populatiry – caused Americans to turn
  against the war – realized the war could not be won
• Escalation
• Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – gave the President
  expanded powers to conduct the war in Vietnam –
  deepened US involvement in Vietnam
 140. Vietnam War – Student Protests
• Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) – began with students
  who had taken part in the Civil Rights Movement & protested
  the Vietnam War on college campuses – led to a new political
  movement called the NEW LEFT who called for change
• Kent State – occurred after the invasion of Cambodia under
  Nixon – resulted in violence (4 dead, 9 injured)
• Teach-ins – held by professors
• Drafts resistors – conscientious objectors
• Division over Vietnam – those upset with the government for
  limiting the military’s ability to win the war and those who
  saw US actions as “criminal”
  141. Legislative Changes Due to the
                   War
• 26th Amendment – lowered the voting age
  from 21 to 18
• War Powers Act, 1973 – limits the president’s
  war making powers
    142. The Women’s Movement
• 1950s – traditional role of women
• 1960s – role of women was challenged – The Feminine
  Mystique by Betty Friedan helped launch the “Women’s
  Movement”
• 1970s – often referred to as “Women’s Liberation” or
  “Women’s Lib”
• Rejected traditional gender roles & advocated equality
  between men & women
• NOW – founded by Friedan
• Gloria Steinem – Ms. Magazine
• Phyllis Schlafly – campaigned against the Women’s Movement
• ERA – passed Congress in 1972 but wasn’t ratified by enough
  states and never was added to the US Constitution
             143. Cesar Chavez
•   Founded the United Farm Workers Union
•   Supported the rights of migrant farm workers
•   Worked to improved working conditions
•   Used non-violent tactics such as boycotting
    which led to a 1970 labor agreement between
    growers & workers
     144. Environmental/Consumer
              Movements
• EPA created in 1970 – sets & enforces national
  pollution-control agencies. Ex: Clean Air Act,
  Clean Water Act
• Rachel Carson – wrote Silent Spring – exposed
  the harmful effects of pesticides (DDT)
• Consumer Movement – Ralph Nader – safer
  cars
                              145. Nixon

•   Conservative
•   Blamed the protest/violence in society on the young people
•   Didn’t see any sense in the arms race – began negotiations – SALT I
•   Greatest achievement – foreign policy – “détente” – lessened tensions with
    China & the Soviet Union
•   Vietnam policy – Vietnamization
•   Watergate – led to Nixon being impeached – resigned to avoid impeachment
•   Swann v. Charlotte-Mechlenburg – issue: school busing – Nixon refused to
    enforce
•   “Southern Strategy” – move slowly on desegregation to win support of
    southern Democrats
•   Silent Majority – didn’t like student radicals, antiwar protesters & the
    counterculture and who blamed them for the rising crime & drug use
•   New Federalism or “revenue sharing” – states would assume more
    responsibility for social programs using federal money
              146. Gerald Ford
• Pardoned Nixon
• Became VP and then President without being elected
• Economy – “stagflation” – His plan: WIN (Whip
  Inflation Now – similar to Hoover’s voluntary
  program)
• First president to visit Japan
• 1973 War Powers Act – limited the president’s ability
  to involve the US in foreign affairs
• Helsinki Accords – a series of agreements on
  European security – a pledge to cooperate
  economically, respect boundaries and promote
  human rights
               147. Jimmy Carter
• Informal style
• A Washington outsider
• Foreign policy – humans rights diplomacy
• ***Camp David Accords – his greatest achievement –
  temporary peace between Egypt & Israel
• Iranian hostage crisis – his biggest problem
• SALT II – never ratified because the Soviet Union invaded
  Afghanistan – the US responded with an embargo on grain
  exports to the Soviet Union & by boycotting the 1980
  Olympics – the end of détente
• Carter blamed domestic problems on a “moral & spiritual
  crisis”
              148. Ronald Reagan
• Deregulation
• Credited with the release of the Americans in the Iranian
  Hostage Crisis
• The New Right
• Moral Majority – Rev. Jerry Falwell
• Supply-side economics or Reaganomics
• New Federalism
• A Cold Warrior – called the Soviet the Evil Empire
• Reelected in 1984 – “Are you better off than you were 4 years
  ago?”
• Ran against Walter Mondale and Geraldine Ferraro
        149. George H.W. Bush
• Promised no new taxes but was forced to tax
  the people – cost him reelection
• Called for a “new world order” – a stable &
  peaceful world in which the strong respect the
  rights of the weak
• Persian Gulf War – US objective was to
  preserve the oil reserves – UN involved
               150. Bill Clinton
• NAFTA – removed trade restrictions between the US,
  Canada & Mexico – created controversy that the US
  would move its businesses to Mexico
• Presented himself as a “NEW DEMOCRAT – moderate
• Tried to get universal healthcare passed
• “Contract with America – Republican pledge to
  reduce the role of government, cut taxes & balance
  the budget
• Foreign policy – committed troops to Bosnia
• Worst foreign crisis – Kosovo – sent troops – after 2
  months a NATO peacekeeping force was in place
Republican Party
              EOC REVIEW
George Washington

 What advice did he give to the American
 people in his Farewell Address?

AVOID POLITICAL PARTIES & ENTANGLING
  ALLIANCES!
       ALEXANDER HAMILTON
According to Hamilton, what kind of people
  should govern our nation?

ONLY THE EDUCATED & WEALTHY!
      Hamilton’s Economic Plan
Which part of Hamilton’s plan did Thomas
 Jefferson have the most problem with and
 why?

THE BANK OF THE US – HE CONSIDERED IT TO BE
  UNCONSTITUTIONAL!
   HAMILTON’S FINANCIAL PLAN
Which part of Hamilton’s plan led to the
 Whiskey Rebellion?

THE EXCISE TAX!
JEFFERSON & THE BANK OF THE US
If Jefferson considered the Bank to be
   unconstitutional, what does that say about
   how he interpreted the US Constitution?

HE TOOK A STRICT INTERPRETATION OF THE
 CONSTITUTION!
THOMAS JEFFERSON, THE PRESIDENT
What action taken by Jefferson showed how he
 compromised his constitutional principles?

THE PURCHASE OF THE LOUISIANA TERRITORY!
             LEWIS & CLARK
What was the significance of the teaming up of
 Lewis & Clark?

THEY EXPLORED THE LOUISIANA TERRITORY &
  FOUND IT TO BE RICH IN RESOURCES!
                   VOTING
In the early republic, what was required in order
  to vote?

BEING A WHITE MALE PROPERTY OWNER!
            POLITICAL PARTIES
What led to the rise of political parties?

HAMILTON’S ECONOMIC PLAN
           POLITICAL PARTIES
Which “early” political party objected to the
 interference of government in the economy
 and in the lives of the people?

DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS
               JAY’S TREATY
What was the underlying reason for the US
 negotiating Jay’s Treaty with Great Britain?

TO AVOID GOING TO WAR AGAINST BRITAIN!
          PINCKNEY’S TREATY
How did this treaty benefit the US?

IT GAVE THE US CONTROL OF THE MISSISSIPPI &
  THE PORT OF NEW ORLEANS.
             JOHN ADAMS
Why were the American people upset by the
 Alien & Sedition Acts?

THEIR 1st AMENDMENT RIGHTS WERE BEING
  VIOLATED!
       ALIEN & SEDITION ACTS
How did the Democratic-Republicans respond to
 these acts?

BY PASSING THE KENTUCKY & VIRGINIA
  RESOLUTIONS!
               JOHN ADAMS
What final action taken by this president led to
 the court case, Marbury v. Madison?

HIS MIDNIGHT APPOINTMENTS!
              JOHN ADAMS
What does the Convention of 1800 refer to?

PEACE BETWEEN THE US & FRANCE!
THOMAS JEFFERSON, THE PRESIDENT
Which act was intended to hurt Great Britain’s
 economy but ended up hurting the economy
 of the New England states?

THE EMBARGO ACT
       MARBURY V. MADISON
What power did the Supreme Court receive as a
 result of this court case?

JUDICIAL REVIEW
             FOREIGN ISSUES
What was the main foreign policy issue prior to
 the War of 1812?

VIOLATION OF NEUTRALITY
              WAR OF 1812
What major obstacles did the US face in this war
 against Great Britain?

WEAK ARMY & NAVY
             WAR OF 1812
Westerners & southerners who supported the
 war were called?

WAR HAWKS!
              WAR OF 1812
Were the Federalists for or against the war?
 What action on their part is considered an
 example of sectionalism?

THE HARTFORD CONVENTION
              WAR OF 1812
Which treaty ended this war and what were it
 terms?

Treaty of Ghent – a return to prewar conditions
               WAR OF 1812
What evidence supports this statement:
“The War of 1812 led to the rise of
  nationalism?”

In literature and in art, the focus was on
  American themes, settings, events, and
  people, landscapes, etc.
            MOVING WEST
What was the #1 reason for moving out West?

ECONOMIC REASONS!
   THE INDEPENDENCE OF TEXAS
Why was the annexation of Texas delayed?

BECAUSE OF SLAVERY!
      PRESIDENT JAMES K. POLK
“54 40’ or fight” refers to what part of the US?

OREGON COUNTRY/TERRITORY
                THE TARIFF
Which part of the US resented the tariff the
 most?



THE SOUTH
              REFORMERS
Name the education reformer.

HORACE MANN
               REFORMERS
Name the prison reformer.

DOROTHEA DIX
    1st INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
What appeared to be dying out until the
 invention of the cotton gin?

SLAVERY!
    1st INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
What invention made it profitable & desirable to
 expand slavery South & West?

THE COTTON GIN!
                REFORMS
What connection is there between the 2nd Great
 Awakening and the early reform movements?

RELIGION INFLUENCED REFORM
        REFORM MOVEMENTS
Regardless of the time period, which class of
  people were active in reforming society?

MIDDLE CLASS
             NORTH & SOUTH
Besides slavery, what issue caused the most
  division between the North and the South?

THE TARIFF
     MCCULLOCH V. MARYLAND
What did the Supreme Court under John
 Marshall decide in this case?

THAT THE BANK OF THE US WAS
  CONSTITUTIONAL BUT TO TAX THE BANK WAS
  UNCONSTITUTIONAL!
                   POLICIES
Which policy implied “Hands off the Western
  Hemisphere?” What type of policy was this?

MONROE DOCTRINE - FOREIGN
   A NEW FORM OF DEMOCRACY
Which president was known as the common
 man’s President?

ANDREW JACKSON
          ANDREW JACKSON
Universal male suffrage began under President
 Jackson. What is universal male suffrage?

– ALL WHITE MALES COULD VOTE – NO LONGER
  HAD TO OWN LAND TO VOTE
         NULLIFICATION CRISIS
What caused this “crisis”? How was it resolved?

TARIFF OF 1828 or the TARIFF OF
  ABOMINATIONS
COMPROMISE TARIFF OF 1833
           ANDREW JACKSON
What was President Jackson’s Indian Policy?

Forced Removal = relocation
                Court Cases
Which court case led to the Trail of Tears?

Worchester v. Georgia
          Alexis de Tocqueville
What 2 issues did this French philosopher write
 about after visiting the US?

DEMOCRACY & REFORM MOVEMENTS
    EARLY REFORM MOVEMENTS
Which early reformers believed in self-reliance &
 individualism?

Transcendentalists
        TRANSCENDENTALISM
Who was the leader of this movement?

Ralph Waldo Emerson
        TRANSCENDENTALISM

Who wrote “Civil Disobedience”? What point
 was he trying to make in this essay? Which 2
 people were later influenced by this essay?

Henry David Thoreau – passive resistance -
 Gandhi & Martin Luther King Jr.
               Temperance
What were some of the effects of drinking that
 led to the Temperance Movement?

Domestic abuse, absenteeism in the workplace,
 drinking was immoral
 Women and Reform Movements
Which 2 reform movements were women active
 in that influenced them to begin a women’s
 movement?

Abolition & Temperance
           Reform Movements
What was the goal of Utopian communities?

To create a perfect society
         Utopian Communities
What happened to most Utopian communities?

They fell apart due to fighting from within the
  community.
         Abolition Movement
Which abolition movement created the colony
 of Liberia?

The (American) Colonization Movement
        William Lloyd Garrison

How did William Lloyd Garrison want to end
 slavery?

IMMEDIATE EMANCIPATION
               Abolitionists
Who was the nation’s most influential African
 American abolitionist?

Frederick Douglass
              Abolitionists
Who was the author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin?

Harriet Beecher Stowe
                Abolitionism
Why were some Northerners against the
 antislavery movement?

it would result in competition for jobs in the
   North
         Abolition Movement
What was passed by Southerners in Congress
 that prohibited antislavery petitions from
 being read or acted upon in the House of
 Representatives?

THE GAG RULE
      The Women’s Movement
Who were the leaders of the early women’s
 rights movement?

Lucretia Mott & Elizabeth Cady Stanton
       The Women’s Movement
Where was the first women’s rights movement
 held? What right were they seeking?

Seneca Falls, NY – Suffrage
         Women Abolitionists
Which African American female supported
 women’s rights & abolition?

Sojourner Truth
             MOVING WEST
The term for the idea that God had given the
  entire continent to Americans & wanted them
 to settle western land. Which president is
  associated with this idea?

MANIFEST DESTINY – JAMES K. POLK
          THE MEXICAN WAR
Which treaty ended the Mexican War? What
 did the US gain from this war?

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Mexico gave up
  its claim to TX, Rio Grande became the border,
  gained land (Mexican Cession)
          THE MEXICAN WAR
How did the Mexican War contribute to
 sectional tensions?

The war resulted in more land which caused
  tension over SLAVERY!
           The Wilmot Proviso
According to the Wilmot Proviso, how would
  slavery be decided in the territory acquired
  from Mexico (the Mexican Cession)?

• This proviso or condition proposed banning
  slavery from any land purchased from Mexico.
        The Gadsden Purchase
What was the reason for this purchase?

A southern route for a transcontinental railroad
               CALIFORNIA
What congressional act was passed allowed
 California to become a free state?

COMPROMISE OF 1850
       THE REPUBLICAN PARTY
What led to the rise of the Republican Party?

the Kansas-Nebraska Act
         The Republican Party
What was the Republican Party’s stand on
 slavery?

• OPPOSED THE EXTENSION OF SLAVERY INTO
  NEW US TERRITORIES
        THE DRED SCOTT CASE
What did the Supreme Court decide about
 slavery in this court case? Which section of
 the US was outraged by this decision?

The ruling also declared that a slave owner
  could not be deprived of his “property.

• The decision outraged abolitionists & those
  who favored popular sovereignty
              THE CIVIL WAR
What was a turning point battle in the Civil War?

VICKSBURG
     Emancipation Proclamation
Which slaves were freed by the Emancipation
 Proclamation?

ONLY THE SLAVES IN THE STATES OF REBELLION
 (THE SOUTHERN STATES)
What issue did the Compromise of 1820 and the
 Compromise of 1850 temporary settle?

SLAVERY
             THE CIVIL WAR
How was slavery to be decided according to the
 Kansas-Nebraska Act?

BY POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
               The Civil War
What was President Lincoln’s goal at the
 beginning of the Civil War?

TO PRESERVE THE UNION!
              The Civil War
Antiwar Northern Democrats were called

COPPERHEADS
             Reconstruction
How did Congress respond to Lincoln’s
 Reconstruction Plan?

BY PASSING THE WADE-DAVIS BILL
             Reconstruction
How did Southerners respond to President
 Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction?

BY PASSING THE BLACK CODES
            Reconstruction
What ended Reconstruction?

THE COMPROMISE OF 1877
       COMPROMISE OF 1877
What was the Compromise of 1877?

A COMPROMISE BETWEEN THE DEMOCRATS &
  THE REPUBLICANS
       COMPROMISE OF 1877
What was included in the Compromise of 1877?

Military reconstruction (occupation) of the
 South would end in exchange for Republican
 Rutherford B. Hayes becoming president
           RECONSTRUCTION
What was established to help former slaves
 adjust to their new freedom?

FREEDMEN’S BUREAU
             Reconstruction
Who was the leader of the Radical Republicans
 and how did they want the South to be
 treated after the Civil War?

THADDEUS STEVENS
PUNISH THE SOUTH!
   THE WESTWARD MOVEMENT
What did the Homestead Act & the Morrill Land
 Grant Act have in common?

WAYS TO SETTLE THE WEST
              Moving West
What was the primary conflict between Native
 Americans & settlers out West?

LAND!
             MOVING WEST
Under the Dawes Severalty Act, what were
 Native Americans forced to give up?

• their nomadic hunting to farm on
  government allocated land
            Native Americans
What effect did building a rail system connecting
 the West to the East have on the Native
 Americans?

• resulted in the restriction of American Indian
  hunting grounds
                  Railroads
Which immigrants built the railroads?

Chinese & Irish
                Immigrants
Which immigrants who built the railroads faced
 the harshest discrimination?

The Chinese
               Moving West
What were African Americans “cowboys” who
 were part of the US Army called?

Buffalo Soldiers
                   Moving West
Which invention made meatpacking safer & more efficient & cut
 transportation/shipping costs in half?

THE REFRIGERATED CAR
                   Moving West
What impact did the Invention of BARBED WIRE by Joseph
 Glidden have on the West?

It ended the open range
                 The West
Which invention was used to break up the tough
 sod of the Midwest?

THE STEEL PLOW
               Moving West
What created a way for farmers to import
 needed equipment from the East while
 shipping their product to different part of the
 country?

RAILROADS
             Political Parties
Which political party was the People’s Party?
 Who were the “people?”

THE POPULIST PARTY - (farmers)
                  Railroads
Privately owned RRs used monopolistic practices
  between 1870 & 1900. How did farmers
  respond?

By organizing the Populist Party & the Grange.
                POPULISM
The goals of Populism were later applied to the
  urban & industrial problems in which
  movement?

the Progressive Movement
         THE POPULIST PARTY
Which presidential candidate did the Populists
 support in the Election of 1896?

Supported the Democratic candidate, William
  Jennings Bryan
               Immigrants
From 1877-1900, from what parts of Europe
  where did most immigrants come from?

southern & eastern Europe
              IMMIGRATION
What was the Impact of immigration during the
 late 1800s?

– factories had a steady supply of labor
          Reform Movements
What Women’s Christian Temperance Union
 formed to deal with what problem?

the problem of drinking
              BIG BUSINESS
What business practice enabled Andrew
 Carnegie to build a large steel-making empire?

VERTICAL INTEGRATION/CONSOLIDATION
               BIG BUSINESS
What was the first trust?

John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Co
               Big Business
What is wrong with forming a trust?

IT CREATES A MONOPOLY & ELIMINATES
  COMPETITION
               Big Business

JP Morgan – associated with?
Banking, created US Steel
               Big Business
The Vanderbilt family – associated with?

Railroads
            LABOR UNIONS
What led to the downfall of the Knights of Labor?

THE HAYMARKET SQUARE RIOT
             LABOR UNIONS
Which labor union was for skilled workers only?
             –



AFL
            LABOR UNIONS
What is collective bargaining and which labor union
 used this method?

A way to negotiate with employers that empowers
  the worker - AFL
            LABOR UNIONS
Which socialist was a strong supporter of labor
 unions?

– Eugene V. Debs
             BIG BUSINESS
The period in history after Reconstruction described
  as a time of corruption in business & in
  government

THE GILDED AGE
            The Gilded Age
This was passed to end the Spoils System or
  Patronage

Pendleton Act – Civil Service System
                 Scandals
The impact of the Credit Mobilier scandal

– led to distrust of government
             The Gilded Age
Why did Jacob Coxey lead a march on
 Washington?

To demand that the government create jobs due
  to the Depression/Panic of 1893 – was met by
  federal troops
         2nd Industrial Revolution
This a cheaper & more effective method of making steel

Bessemer Process
          2nd Industrial Revolution
This allowed skyscrapers to be built

The elevator
    Politics during the Gilded Age
What’s the purpose in having a political
 machine? What was the most well-known
 political machine?

To gain voters for your party by making promises
  to them (immigrants)
Tammany Hall (D) – led by Boss Tweed
               Labor Strikes
How was the Pullman Strike settled?

a court injunction was issued ordering the
  strikers back to work; President Cleveland sent
  in federal troops
              Pullman Strike
What was the overall impact of the Pullman
 Strike?

It led to government involvement in labor issues
          Booker T. Washington
What kind of education did Booker T. Washington urge
 African Americans to get?

One that would teach them a trade so they could
  achieve ECONOMIC freedom
          Atlanta Compromise
What did W.E.B. Dubois refer to as the Atlanta
 Compromise?

A speech given by Booker T. Washington urging
  African Americans to learn a skill and get a job
               W.E.B. DuBois
What 2 organizations or movements did W.E.B. Dubois
 help to create?

Helped organize the Niagara Movement
Helped found the NAACP
                    NAACP
What is the purpose of the NAACP and how to
 they go about achieving their purpose?

was to abolish segregation & discrimination,
  now is to oppose racism and gain civil rights
  for African Americans
Use the courts to gain success
                  Segregation
What is the difference between De facto & De
 jure segregation?

De facto - Not legal segregation – just happens
De jure – legal segregation – Jim Crow Laws
            DISCRIMINATION
What were 3 ways to prevent African Americans
from voting (disenfranchisement)?



The literacy test
Poll tax
Own property
What enabled white men to vote but not have
 to take the literacy test?

GRANDFATHER CLAUSE
Which court case established separate but equal
 was constitutional? Which court case
 overturned this ruling?

Plessy v. Ferguson
Brown v. Board of Education
              IMPERIALISM
What was the #1 reason for imperialism?

THE NEED FOR MARKETS
            IMPERIALISM
SUPPORTER OF A STRONG US NAVY,
  AUTHOR OF THE INFLUENCE OF
  SEAPOWER ON HISTORY.

Alfred T. Mahan
What did the US government’s reasons for expansion
 here (Manifest Destiny) and abroad (Imperialism)
 have in common?


Both believed in cultural superiority
Which action did the US take in the late 19th
 century after it had developed steam powered
 transoceanic ships?

Acquired more islands to use as coaling stations
  for ships
This foreign policy in which the US
 would act as “international
 police”

ROOSEVELT COROLLARY
The area of the world in which the
 Roosevelt Corollary applied to

Latin America
• Which action explains US involvement in Asian
  affairs during the late 1800s?

OPEN DOOR POLICY!
“Expansion violates democracy” would have been
  an argument spoken by

An Imperialist      OR anti-Imperialist?

Anti-Imperialist
What was the goal of President Taft’s “Dollar
 diplomacy”?

– to promote US interests
       The Progressive Movement
Direct election of senators – which amendment?

17th
     The Progressive Movement
The Muckraker who exposed the oil industry

– Ida Tarbell
     The Progressive Movement
The overall impact of Progressive Reforms

– the power of voters expanded
     The Progressive Movement
Journalists who uncovered scandals for the first
  time were called

Muckrakers
     The Progressive Movement
What led to the rise of the Progressive
 Movement?

The movement was a response to poor working
  conditions & poverty.
     The Progressive Movement
Remember… The Progressive Movement meant
  government involvement in the economy & in
  the lives of the people.
                  1920s
What women who reflected a new social
 freedom were called

FLAPPERS
             IMMIGRATION
After WWI, immigrants were restricted from
  coming to the US from which parts of Europe?

Southern & Eastern Europe
              1920s Culture
What was responsible for bringing Americans
 together, thus creating common cultural
 experiences?

Mass Media
                 1920s Culture
Which novelist attacked/criticized American
 society & was the first American to receive the
 Nobel prize for literature?

Sinclair Lewis
              1920s Culture
Who does the Lost Generation refer to?
– writers such as Gertrude Stein, Ernest
  Hemingway & F. Scott Fitzgerald who were
  disillusioned after WWI and rejected the
  materialism of the 1920s – were expatriates
              1920s Culture
The African American literary awakening during
  the 1920s was known as the?

Harlem Renaissance
              1920s Culture
What was the first “Talkie”?

– The Jazz Singer
             1920s Culture
Supported the “back to Africa” movement
  during the 1920s

MARCUS GARVEY
                  1920s
How did the KKK gain new members during the
 1920s?

BY ADVERTISING!
                     1920s
The term for a set of religious beliefs that
  included a literal interpretation of the Bible

FUNDAMENTALISM
                     1920s
The court case over conflict between
  Fundamentalists & Evolutionists

Scopes Trial (or Monkey Trial). (religion v.
  science)
               PROHIBITION
Which Amendment?

18th
Which act was passed to enforce this
  Amendment?

VOLSTEAD ACT
*
                    KKK
The groups who were targeted by the KKK
  during the 1920s

CATHOLICS, AFRICAN AMERICANS, JEWS,
  IMMIGRANTS
              PROHIBITION
What were some of the effects of Prohibition?
  * bootlegging
 * speakeasies
 * organized crime
                   1920s
What agency was established and headed by J.
 Edgar Hoover, as an independent force against
 organized crime?



FBI
             1st RED SCARE
What was the Red Scare?

Fear of communism spreading to the US
              1st RED SCARE
What caused the Red Scare of the 1920s?

1.Bolshevik (Russian Revolution) 1917
2.Increase in labor strikes in the US
3.The rise of Nativism
              1st RED SCARE
What were 2 examples of unjust treatment in
 response to the Red Scare?

Palmer Raids
Sacco & Vanzetti
            1920s POLITICS
What promise did Warren G. Harding make to
 the American people when he became
 President?

– promised a “return to normalcy”
  1920s REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTS
• A famous quote by Calvin Coolidge

– “The business of America is business.”
                1928-1932
What was President Hoover’s plan to end the
 Great Depression?

VOLUNTARY ACTION
  1920s REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTS
What did all 3 1920s Republican Presidents have
 in common?

All Republican Presidents supported laissez-
  faire, pro-business, nativist, (anti-immigrant),
  pro-isolationist, pro-trade/pro-tariff
                   1920s
Which President was associated with Teapot
 Dome Scandal?

WARREN G. HARDING
                   1920s
What was the main topic of concern at the
 Washington Conference?

(disarmament)
What plan was devised to help Germany pay
 reparations?

DAWES PLAN
                  1920s
What was passed after WWI that outlawed war
 but couldn’t be enforced?

KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT
       THE GREAT DEPRESSION
What were some of the causes of the Great
  Depression?
Causes: installment buying, personal debt;
  buying on margin, the stock market crash
       THE GREAT DEPRESSION
What some of the effects of the Great
 Depression?

Effects: had world-wide effects; poverty,
  Hoovervilles, an increase in discrimination
  (Scottsboro Boys)
       THE GREAT DEPRESSION
Which Amendment was passed to repeal
 Prohibition?

21st
            HERBERT HOOVER
Did not believe in direct relief to the individual.
  Why?

Americans were hard working people and a
 government handout would be offensive to
 them.
           HERBERT HOOVER
What was the Bonus Army and how did
 President Hoover treat them?

Bonus Army – Hoover called in the army.
  General Douglas MacArthur used force to
  drive out the marchers. This, along with
  Hoover’s failure to end the Great Depression,
  would prevent Hoover from being reelected.
                    1930s
Which election was a turning point for American
 politics and why?

ELECTION OF 1932 because it was the beginning
  of the government taking responsibility for the
  people. (the beginning of social welfare
  programs)
             THE NEW DEAL
How did the role of Government change
 because of FDR’s New Deal?

It led to government involvement in the
   economy & in the lives of the people
       EFFECTS OF THE NEW DEAL
•   Deficit spending
•   Increased debt
•   3 goals: Relief, recovery, reform
•   Created jobs
                  Dixiecrats
•A political party in the South, started in 1948
•Were Democrats protesting desegregation,
especially Truman’s integration of the military
•Supported segregation & nominated Strom
Thurmond as their candidate
•Later supported George Wallace in 1968
•Faded as the Republican Party began advocating
policies that won the support of dissatisfied
southern Democrats
            Margaret Sanger
• A NY nurse who believed large families led to
  poverty & limited the opportunities afforded
  women
• Led a campaign to spread information about
  birth control to women
• Opened birth control clinics
• Founder of the American Birth Control League
  which later became known as Planned
  Parenthood
   Ways to obtain land out West
•Pacific Railway Acts – government gave land
grants to railroads – 10 miles on each side of
the track
•Railroads would sell land to settlers
•Morrill Land Grant Act – government gave land
to states who could sell to settlers but mainly
sold to speculators & bankers ; money for land
was used to fund agricultural colleges
•Homestead Act
          Immigration
*After the Civil War, Irish, German,
Italian & Chinese immigrants, along
with European Jews, migrated to the
US.
African Americans & the West
 * Exodusters – moved West to escape
 the discrimination of the South
              MINING
* Comstock Lode – the richest
discovery of silver & gold in history,
1859
   Cub Run in Centreville,
Virginia (view with destroyed
            bridge).


Date           July 21, 1861
               Fairfax
               County and
               Prince
Location
               William
               County,            Battle of Manassas
               Virginia
               Confederate
                                First Battle of Bull Run
Result
               victory
 Battle of Antietam
Battle of Sharpsburg
The battle of Gettysburg, Pa.
July 3d. 1863, by Currier and
             Ives


               July 1 – July 3,
Date
               1863
               Adams
Location       County,
               Pennsylvania
               Union
Result
               victory[1]
       Siege of Vicksburg
Part of the American Civil War

 Siege of Vicksburg, by Kurz
         and Allison.


                May 18 – July
Date
                4, 1863[1]
                Warren
Location        County,
                Mississippi
Result          Union victory
Sherman’s March to the Sea
        The Missouri Compromise

•Temporarily settled the issue of slavery
•1819 Missouri wanted to enter the Union as a
slave state which would upset the balance of power
between free states & slave states which were
equally represented in the Senate
•Compromise: Missouri became a slave state,
Maine a free state; the southern boundary of
Missouri, 36 30” would become a dividing line for
new states admitted to the Union
            The Old Northwest




The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 had forbidden slavery in this
 territory yet white settlers feared that blacks would compete
    for land & jobs so they made laws to discourage African
                   Americans from moving in.
                 Election of 1844

•The annexation of TX was a critical issue in this
election.
•The Democratic Party split & James K. Polk became
the first “dark horse” presidential nominee.
•In 1844 President John Tyler failed in his effort to
push a treaty through Congress to annex TX.
•Polk’s victory in 1844 convinced Tyler that voters
wanted TX admitted to the Union so he called for a
joint resolution of Congress admitting TX to the Union.
•TX was annexed as a slave state in 1845.
38. More Effects of Legislation
 * 2 capitals formed in Kansas –
 Topeka & a proslavery capital in
 Lecompton, leaving Kansas in a state
 of civil war

								
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