SMALL ARMS RANGE PRIORITIZATION PROTOCOL by 81eN6G

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									                                                                                             APPENDIX A
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              Small Arms Range Protocol Evaluation Forms
            MCB Hawaii – Kaneohe Bay Range Training Facility
                    R-1 (Known Distance Rifle Range)
                 Table 1: Range Use and Range Management (Source) Element
     (These definitions only apply for the purposes of the Small Arms Range Assessment Protocol)
                                                                                                 Site
 Criteria        Justification/Source                         Score Criteria
                                                                                                Score
                Existence of R-1 is                 5 if usage greater than 30 years
Duration of     documented to the 1940s; it
                                                        3 if usage is 10 to 30 years               5
Range Use       has been used to the
                present time.                          1 if usage less than 10 years
                                                If [range usage duration = bullet capture
                                                duration], then apply a negative score so
                                                  that the [range usage duration + bullet
                                                            capture duration] = 1
Bullet-         No current or historical
                                                If [range usage duration – bullet capture
Capturing       bullet-capturing technology                                                        0
                                                 duration] = 10 to 30 years, then apply a
Technology      is documented.
                                                  negative score so that the [range use
                                                  duration + bullet capture duration] = 3
                                               0 if [range usage duration – bullet capture
                                                      duration] greater than 30 years
                                                       5 if MC loading greater than
                Current average annual                       1,000 pounds/year
MC Loading      lead loading rate is
                                                       3 if MC loading equals 100 to               5
Rates           approximately 3,340
                                                             1,000 pounds/year
                lb/year.
                                               1 if MC loading less than 100 pounds/year
                                                5 if lead is removed less than every three
                                                                   years
Range           No regular maintenance         3 if lead is removed more than every three          5
Maintenance     program noted.                         years but less than annually
                                                  1 if lead is removed at least annually

Source Element Score                                                                               15




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                   Table 1: Range Use and Range Management (Source) Element
      (These definitions only apply for the purposes of the Small Arms Range Assessment Protocol)

Notes:
Based on a joint-use permit between the Army and Navy (USACE, 2001b), R-1 has been in existence
since at least the 1940s.
Based on TRI (2003) and RFMSS (2006 and 2007) expenditure data provided by MCBH, the current
average annual lead loading rate is approximately 3,340 lb/yr. A small amount of expenditures from R-
10 – a small arms sniper range – are fired into the target butts at R-1. Limited data is available with
regards to R-10, and expenditures from its firing points are directed at both R-1 and the main impact
area. Total lead from expenditures recorded at R-10 in 2005 amount to approximately 26 pounds of
lead, though the distribution of this load between R-1 and the impact area is unknown. Expenditure
data from 2005 is from the RFMSS database, which presumably does not capture all expenditures for
that year since this was the inaugural year of the database system at MCBH. Nevertheless, given the
intended use of R-10 and regardless of its expenditure distribution, R-10 is not expected to significantly
to loading at R-1.
No use of bullet-capturing technology or regular maintenance program has been documented for R-1.
One report (BES, 1998) summarized results from soil samples collected from and around the impact
berm of R-1 in 1996; these results showed significant concentrations of lead, ranging as high as 40,000
mg/kg. The same study also examined R-6 and showed concentrations as high as 26,000 mg/kg in its
impact berm. Soil from the R-6 berm was transferred to the R-1 berm in 1998 to fill in eroded bullet
pockets.




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                    Table 2: Surface Water Pathways Characteristics Element
      (These definitions only apply for the purposes of the Small Arms Range Assessment Protocol)
                                                                                                        Site
   Criteria              Justification/Source                        Score Criteria
                                                                                                       Score
                The pH of surface water located
                                                                  5 if pH less than 6.5
                approximately 10 miles from MCB
pH of Water     Hawaii has historically been between            3 if pH greater than 8.5                 1
                6.0 and 8.5. The pH of seawater is
                                                             1 if pH is between 6.5 and 8.5
                slightly above 8.0.
                                                              5 if precipitation greater than
                                                                      40 inches/year
                The average annual precipitation rate           3 if precipitation equal to
Precipitation   at Mokapu Peninsula is between 35                   20-40 inches/year                    3
                and 38 inches per year.
                                                               1 if precipitation less than
                                                                      20 inches/year
                                                              5 if slope greater than 10%
                The overall range has a slope of
Slope of
                between 2 and 6 percent; the impact          3 if slope equal to 5% to 10%               5
Range
                area along the crater wall is steeper.
                                                                 1 if slope less than 5%
                                                          5 if vegetation cover less than 20%

                The impact berms are generally              3 if vegetation cover is between
Vegetation      vegetated with grass, though well-                    20% to 50%                         3
                eroded bullet pockets are evident.         1 if vegetation cover greater than
                                                                          50%
                                                             5 if soil type is clay / silty clay
Soil            The soil at R-1 is comprised of either
Type/Runoff                                                 3 if soil type is clayey sand / silt         5
                Makalapa Clay or Rock Land.
Conditions                                                     1 if soil type is sand/gravel

Runoff/         No engineering controls are present.          0 if no engineering controls
Erosion         Grass growing around the impact berm
                                                            -5 if partial engineering controls           0
Engineering     and butts may not effectively control
Controls        erosion.                                  -10 if effective engineering controls

Surface Water Pathway Score                                                                             17




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                    Table 2: Surface Water Pathways Characteristics Element
      (These definitions only apply for the purposes of the Small Arms Range Assessment Protocol)

Notes:
Measurements of pH of surface water (runoff) on R-1 were not available and are unlikely to have been
recorded. Based on water quality samples collected by the USGS between 1970 and 1998 the pH of
surface water in Haiku Stream near Heeia, HI (gage number 16275000) is between 6.0 and 8.5, the
majority of pH measurements between 7.3 and 8.0. Only two measurements were less than 6.5, of the
more than 100 measurements recorded. Stream gage 16275000 is located 6.7 miles south-southwest
of the KBRTF, above Heeia, HI. There are no surface water bodies located within the KBRTF. The
closest water body is the Pacific Ocean and Kailua Bay. The pH of seawater is slightly more than 8.0
(USGS, 2007).

The average annual precipitation at the Mokapu weather station varies from 35 to 38 inches per year
(Luecker et al., 1984; EMS, 1991; MCBH, 2002).

The soil description for Makalapa Clay, which are located in the lower portions of the range, describes
the slope between 2 and 6% (USDA, 2008). Based on elevation contours, the impact area of the range
are between 12 and 13 % (MCBH, 2007).

According to USDA data, there are two soil types located at R-1. The northern half of the range,
including the target and impact areas, consists of Rock Land soils. The southern half of the range,
containing the firing points, consists of Makalapa Clay. The Rock Land soils are primarily comprised of
silts (49.8%) and clays (42.5%).

There are no engineering controls to prevent, minimize or reduce surface water drainage from the range
or its impact berm. During a December 2007 site visit, grassy vegetation was noted across the impact
berm, with the notable exception of well-eroded bullet pockets; some spent small arms projectiles were
noted on the vegetated maintenance road beneath the bullet pockets. Previous studies have indicated
particular grass species like buffel are not effective in controlling erosion (SRGII, 2004).




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                     Table 3: Groundwater Pathways Characteristics Element
      (These definitions only apply for the purposes of the Small Arms Range Assessment Protocol)
                                                                                                     Site
   Criteria         Justification/Source                         Score Criteria
                                                                                                    Score
                    Shallow groundwater          5 if depth to groundwater less than 20 feet
                    levels are about 1 to 2
                    feet amsl in the             3 if depth to groundwater is between 20-99
                    caprock. Based on the                            feet
Depth to
                    elevation of the impact                                                           3
Groundwater                                    1 if depth to groundwater is between 100-300
                    area at R-1 the depth                           feet
                    to groundwater is 55 to
                    60 feet amsl.              0 if depth to groundwater greater than 300 feet

                    The average annual         5 if precipitation is greater than 40 inches/year
                    precipitation rate at      3 if precipitation is between 20-40 inches/year
Precipitation                                                                                         3
                    MCBH is between 35
                    and 38 inches per year.     1 if precipitation is less than 20 inches/year
                                                              5 if pH less than 6.5
                    The pH of groundwater
pH of Water                                                 3 if pH greater than 8.5                  1-5
                    is unknown.
                                                        1 if pH is between 6.5 and 8.5
                    Based on USDA soil                        5 if pH less than 6.5
                    series descriptions, the
pH of Soil                                                  3 if pH greater than 8.5                  1
                    pH of soil at R-1 is
                    between 6.6 and 8.4.                1 if pH is between 6.5 and 8.5
                    The soil at R-1 is                    5 if soil type is sand/gravel
Soil                comprised of either
Type/Infiltration                                       3 if soil type is clayey sand / silt          1
                    Makalapa Clay or Rock
Conditions          Land.                                1 if soil type is clay / silty clay
                    The soil at R-1 is                    5 if soil type is sand/gravel
Clay Content in     comprised of either
                                                        3 if soil type is clayey sand / silt          1
Soil                Makalapa Clay or Rock
                    Land.                                1 if soil type is clay / silty clay

Groundwater Pathway Score                                                                           10-14
Notes:
On the Mokapu Peninsula, shallow groundwater is located at a depth of 1 to 2 feet amsl (Luecker et al.,
1984). Based on the elevation contours of R-1 (55 to 60 feet amsl), the depth to groundwater is
estimated to be 55 to 60 feet (MCBH, 2007).
There are no known groundwater wells or streams in the immediate vicinity of the range; consequently,
all groundwater is assumed to discharge to the Pacific Ocean. Groundwater pH values are not known.
According to USDA data, there are two soil types located at R-1. The northern half of the range,
including the target and impact areas, consists of Rock Land soils. The southern half of the range,
containing the firing points, consists of Makalapa Clay. The Rock Land soils are primarily comprised of
silts (49.8%) and clays (42.5%).




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                            Table 4: Surface Water Receptors Element
     (These definitions only apply for the purposes of the Small Arms Range Assessment Protocol)
                                                                                                        Site
    Criteria             Justification/Source                           Score Criteria
                                                                                                       Score
                                                           10 if analytical data or observable
                                                       evidence indicates that contamination in
                                                      the media is present at, is moving toward,
                                                         or has a reasonable potential to move
                                                        toward a surface water body used as a
                   The Kailua Bay is                  potable water supply; or if a designation as
                   downstream of Range 1 and              a potable water source is unknown.
                   is not used as a drinking          5 if contamination in the media has moved
Drinking Water     water source. No other             or is expected to move only slightly beyond        2
Usage              surface water bodies used           the source (tens of feet), or could move,
                   for drinking water supply are          but is not moving appreciably, toward
                   located downstream of                 surface water body used as a potable
                   Range 1.                               water supply; or if a designation as a
                                                            potable water source is unknown.
                                                       2 if low possibility for contamination in the
                                                         media to be present at or migrate to a
                                                                   point of exposure.
                                                       5 if analytical data or observable evidence
                                                       indicates that contamination in the media
                                                         is present at, is moving toward, or has
                   Kailua Bay is located                    moved to a point of exposure or if a
                   downstream of R-1. The                   designation as agricultural; or other
                   shore downstream of R-1 is                  beneficial usage is unknown.
Agricultural or
                   off-limits to recreational use.     3 if contamination in the media has moved
Other Beneficial                                                                                         1
                   Fishing and other                     only slightly beyond the source (tens of
Usage
                   recreational activities are no         feet), or could move but is not moving
                   longer permitted in the                              appreciably.
                   waters off KBRTF.
                                                       1 if low possibility for contamination in the
                                                         media to be present at or migrate to a
                                                                   point of exposure.
                   No threatened or
                   endangered species are               10 if identified receptors have access to
                   located within R-1; however,         possibly contaminated media and/or are
Sensitive          several threatened or                located adjacent to the range boundary.
Species Habitat    endangered species have             5 if potential for receptors to have access
and Threatened     been observed in Kailua Bay               to possibly contaminated media.             5
or Endangered      and the Pacific Ocean. Coral
Species            communities are located in           1 if little or no potential for receptors to
                   the waters of Kailua Bay             have access to possible contaminated
                   bordering immediately east                              media.
                   of the KBRTF.

Surface Water Receptor Score                                                                             8




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                              Table 4: Surface Water Receptors Element
      (These definitions only apply for the purposes of the Small Arms Range Assessment Protocol)

Notes:
Kailua Bay is located downstream of R-1. This marine water body is not used as a drinking water
source by MCBH or other communities surrounding the installation.
There are no agricultural resources located downstream of R-1. The beach east of R-1 is off-limits to
recreational users. In the recent past, fishing and other recreational activities were permitted near the
entrance of KBRTF. This area is now closed to non-authorized users (SGRII, 2007).
MCBH is the only Marine Corps installation in the nation with a coral reef ecosystem. Coral reefs have
been identified downstream of R-1, located in the littoral zone between Flyer’s Monument Point and
Ulupau Head. Several species of concern have been observed in the waters around the KBRTF.
These species include the threatened green sea turtle, the endangered hawksbill turtle, the endangered
Hawaiian monk seal, and the endangered humpback whale. Lead is most likely to be transported to
ocean waters during heavy precipitation events. The dilution of the incoming runoff is anticipated to
minimize the potential harm associated with dissolved MC. However, MC adhered to sediment may
settle on the floor of Kailua Bay, potentially creating a continuing impact on the benthic organisms and
other species that come into contact with the sediment. The significance of the potential exposure to
lead compared to the exposure to the sediment itself is not known.
The Ulupau Head WMA is located north of R-1, and was established to help maintain the largest
breeding population of red-footed boobies in the Hawaiian Islands (SRGII, 2004). However, the
potential exposure of the red-footed boobies is expected to be limited, since there is no perennial
surface water source at the Ulupau Crater. Therefore, the only exposure pathway would be direct
contact with lead in the surface soils at R-1, which is likely to be limited.




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                               Table 5: Groundwater Receptors Element
      (These definitions only apply for the purposes of the Small Arms Range Assessment Protocol)
                                                                                                         Site
   Criteria         Justification/Source                          Score Criteria
                                                                                                        Score
                                                  10 if analytical data or observable evidence or
                                                  site conditions indicate that MC may be within
                                                      or moving toward a reasonable radius of
                                                 influence of a well or other point of exposure; or
                                                   if a designation as a potable water source is
                                                                      unknown.
Wells
Identified as    No potable water wells           5 if analytical data or observable evidence or
Potable          were identified in the            site conditions indicate that MC have moved            2
Water            vicinity of KBRTF.              only slightly beyond the source (tens of feet) or
Sources                                             could move toward a reasonable radius of
                                                  influence of a well or other point of exposure,
                                                          but are not moving appreciably.
                                                   2 if low possibility for MC to be present at or
                                                      migrate to within a reasonable radius of
                                                           influence or point of exposure.
                                                   5 if analytical data or observable evidence or
                                                  site conditions indicate that MC may be within
                                                      or moving toward a reasonable radius of
                                                 influence of a well or other point of exposure, or
                                                       if a designation as agricultural or other
Wells                                                        beneficial usage is unknown.
Identified for                                    3 if analytical data or observable evidence or
Agricultural     No wells were identified in       site conditions indicate that MC have moved            1
or Other         the vicinity of KBRTF.          only slightly beyond the source (tens of feet) or
Beneficial                                          could move toward a reasonable radius of
Usage                                             influence of a well or other point of exposure,
                                                           but is not moving appreciably.
                                                   1 if low possibility for MC to be present at or
                                                      migrate to within a reasonable radius of
                                                      influence of a well or point of exposure.
                                                  5 if identified receptors exposed to potentially
                                                     MC-impacted water from groundwater or
Sensitive                                                       groundwater sources.
Species
                 Vertical soil samples           3 if potential for receptors exposed to potentially
Habitat and
                 suggest there is limited             MC-impacted water from groundwater or
Threatened                                                                                                1
                 vertical migration of lead at                   groundwater sources.
and
                 KBRTF.
Endangered                                       1 if little or no potential for receptors exposed to
Species                                                   potentially MC-impacted water from
                                                         groundwater or groundwater sources.

Groundwater Receptor Score                                                                               4



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Notes:
The groundwater beneath the Ulupau Crater is not used as a drinking water source. Based on various
sources the groundwater beneath the Ulupau crater has either been measured or is assumed to be
saline. The Koolau basalt groundwater at Mokapu Peninsula is most likely brackish or saline (Luecker
et al., 1984). The groundwater beneath Ulupau Crater in the upper calcareous aquifer is reported to
have salinity between 2 and 32 parts per thousand (SRGII, 2004). The closest groundwater wells are
located upgradient of the Mokapu Peninsula.

There are no groundwater wells located on the Ulupau Crater; it is assumed that the groundwater is
discharged through submarine springs at an unknown distance off shore. Based on soil samples
collected in 1996 by the Naval Facilities Engineers Services Center, there is limited vertical migration of
lead to the subsurface. Soil samples collected at the surface of R-6 ranged from less than 100 mg/kg to
26,000 mg/kg. Soil samples collected at 12 and 24 inches below ground surface ranges from 20 mg/kg
to 140 mg/kg.




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                       Table 6: Relative Environmental Concern Evaluation
     (These definitions only apply for the purposes of the Small Arms Range Assessment Protocol.)
                                           Surface Water
                           Element                                    Table            Score
Range Use and Range Management (Source)                                1                 15
Surface Water Pathways                                                 2                 17
Surface Water Receptors                                                4                  8
Sum of Surface Water Element Scores                                                      40

                                           Groundwater

                           Element                                    Table            Score

Range Use and Range Management (Source)                                 1                15

Groundwater Pathways                                                    3              10-14
Groundwater Receptors                                                   5                 4
Sum of Groundwater Element Scores                                                      29-33
   The relative environmental concern evaluation ranking for each media is
   determined by selecting the appropriate score based on the data
   elements for that media:

         Environmental Concern Evaluation Ranking*       Score Range
         High                                                 50-65
         Moderate                                             30-49
         Minimal                                               0-29


   *Use the Environmental Concern Evaluation Ranking to determine if
   further actions are warranted based on the guidelines for recommended
   actions, as defined in Table 7.


Surface Water Environmental Concern Evaluation Ranking                              MODERATE
                                                                                    MINIMAL –
Groundwater Environmental Concern Evaluation Ranking                                MODERATE

Notes:




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