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  • pg 1
									Plato’s Cave
As managers, we are all
agents of change

  People make changes
  based on assumptions they
  make about how the world
In order to make change
happen, you have to
understand your
assumptions and how they
differ from those of people
around you.
The world is divided along
two axes

The world is made up of a single set of
 truths. (Monistic) (western religious
The world is made up of multiple
 truths.(Pluralistic) (Newtonian Science)
The world is divided along
two axes

The individual’s role in the world is
 determined - you are along for the
The individual is the source of all that
 happens - you have free will
The Four Realities

  Laws, rules, given truths
  facts,things that can be seen, touched, heard
  Symbols, myths, stories
Almost nobody functions in
the world in just one
reality but people do have
a preferred reality, which
colors the way they act in
Making Changes requires working
in at least two realities

Identify a problem in one reality
Address the problem with the tools from a
 second reality
An Example

Identify a problem in the sensory worldview.
  We observe that, although the earth is spinning, we
   don’t go flying off into space (observations, facts)
Solve it using tools in the Unitary
 worldview.(Laws, rules, given truths)
  The great spirit ties us to the earth
  The law of gravity explains why
The Six Modes of Change

 Analytic - Unitary/Sensory
   The Scientist
 Assertive -Unitary/Mythic
   The Cleric
 Influential-Unitary/Social
   The Politician
 Evaluative-Sensory/Social
   The Manager
 Inventive-Mythic/Sensory
   The Entrepreneur
 Emergent-Mythic/Social
   The Social Activist
Each of us has a preferred
mode of change based on
our predominant world

 We have received a memo from corporate
  asking us to:
 Reduce costs by 10%
Analytic Mode

Gather numbers that reflect costs for each
 expenditure (Sensory)
Reduce each expenditure by
Influential Mode

Which of our expenditures are most
 important and which can we live
Cut % of expenditures based on least to
 most important until we get to 10%
 Overall (Unitary)
Evaluative Mode

How much can we take out of the
 expenditure categories that are least
 important? (social)
Will that get us to our overall corporate
 goal of 15% growth rate this year?
Emergent Mode

Create a campaign with stories, slogans
 signs etc.(Mythic)
Rally the troops in our group
This is a goal that is valuable(Social)
Inventive Mode

Create an innovative way of increasing
 the bottom line by the equivalent of a
 10% cost reduction(mythic)
Determining what resources are needed
 to accomplish the tasks (sensory)
Assertive Mode

Create an innovative contest to motivate
 the workforce at large to reduce
Deliver it as a law to the workforce
What happens next?

Each one of our managers
 goes back to his troops and,
 based on his worldview and
 preferred mode of change,
 attempts to get the job done.
What do we say to the

Unitary or Sensory World View/Analytic Mode
  Corporate says, slash 10%, analyze your
   expenditures and lets figure which expenditures will
   be cut
Unitary or Mythic World View/Assertive Mode
  Corporate says slash 10% - Do it now.
Unitary or Social World View/Influential Mode
  Corporate says slash 10%- Lets see if we can find
   10% fat but don’t cut any of our important programs.
What do we say to the

Sensory or Social Worldview/Evaluative Mode
  What steps can we take to do this so we
   don’t mess up our plans to make bonus?
Sensory or Mythic Worldview/Inventive Mode
  Let’s create an event at Caesar's Palace in Vegas
   during which we can talk to all the employees. Each
   of us can dress up in costumes that reflect
   commitment to cost cutting. Maybe we can get Tom
   Cruise to appear. Lets see what that will cost.
Fill in the Reality Matrix on
Page 53

Your dominant mode of change
Fill in Page 100-101
The group’s preferred modes
Discuss the implications for your group
The Boards of Play
Games on the first board

A game of skill
Winners and losers -
Chess, basketball, tennis, golf
The winner is the one with the most skill
 playing by the rules
Games on the second

Players establish new rules which change
 the rules on the first board
The board of directors, the executive
 committee, The rules committee in
A game of power and persuasion
Games on the 3rd Board

Players change values and policies in
 order to benefit their side
Passing a tax bill making mortgage
 interest not taxable-promoting home
 ownership as a societal value.
Changes appear as different objectives on
 the first board(buyer and agent in house
Games on the 4th board

The marketplace--the world of Donald Trump
 and Bill Gates
Exchange resources for things of value.(money
 and time for education)
Evaluating and allocating are the skills that win
Your salary vs my salary(social)=evaluating
 worth in the market place
use salary survey(sensory)
valuation affects play on the first board(status
Games on the 4th board

Evaluating needs and allocating resources
 to win in the marketplace.
Rules are clear, contracts are between
 identified parties, penalties for violation
Games on the 5th board

New rules and new games are invented
The game is invented here and
 refinements are also invented here that
 enhance the quality of the game
Inventing new games to satisify the needs
 of the marketplace
Everyone on the same side-no concept of
Games on the 6th board

Values emerge from the creation of the
Opportunities for poor to go to college
 emerge from basketball
Improved health for people in
 underdeveloped countries out of
A smaller more familiar world out of the
Implications of Board Play

 Play on lower boards is restriced by play on the higher
 Conflicts on lower boards can be resolved by plays on
  the higher boards
 Skill on one board doesn’t confer skill on a different
  board.(player vs referee vs coach)
 Play on more than one board at a time is difficult.
 Switching boards without announcing the change to
  other players produces conflict.
A Overview of Boards of

    See chart on page 58 and
    review Pages 56-66

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