Cooperative Learning in Science

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					Cooperative Learning in
   A Workshop for In-Service
   Erin E. Peters
What is cooperative learning?
  Cooperative learning is the instructional use of
   small groups so that students work together to
   maximize their own and each other’s learning.
   (Johnson & Johnson, 1999)
  Students work together in teams to master
   material initially presented by the teacher
   (Slavin, 1995)
  Set of instructional strategies which include
   cooperative student-student interaction over
   subject matter as an integral part of the
   learning process (Kagan, 1994)
In the time of change, learners inherent the
  earth, while the learned find themselves
  beautifully equipped to deal with a world
  that no longer exists.
                      - Eric Hoffer
What is your stance?

  Exercise 1 – Do you Agree or Disagree?
  Exercise 2 – Cooperative, Competitive,
   or Individualistic?
How do I know it works?

    Research in academic achievement
      In 99 experimental research studies, 64%
       significantly favored cooperative learning
      Only 5% of these studies significantly
       favored the control group
      Amount of growth depends on type of
       method among other things
    Research in relationships, self-esteem,
     behavior, and empathy
How do I know it works?
    Research has shown that about 2/3 of the time,
     favorable outcomes will be produced in one or more of
     the following non-academic categories
            Intergroup relations
            Acceptance of mainstreamed students
            Self-esteem
            Proacademic peer norms
            Self-attribution
            Time-on-task
            Liking school
            Feeling liked and liking classmates
            Cooperation, altruism and empathy
How do I plan for cooperative
    Factors to consider
      Enhancement of learning goals
      Setting up groups

      Cooperative learning structure

      Interdependence

      Assessments
Enhancements of learning goals
    The conditions that cooperative efforts may be
     expected to be more productive than
     competitive and individualistic efforts:
        Clearly perceived positive interdependence
        Considerable face-to-face interaction
        Clearly perceived individual accountability and
         personal responsibility to achieve the group’s goals
        Frequent use of the relevant interpersonal and
         small-group skills
        Frequent and regular group processing of current
         functioning to improve the group’s future
                (Johnson & Johnson, 1999)
Setting up groups

     4 most common team assignments
     1.   Heterogeneous
     2.   Random
     3.   Interest
     4.   Homogeneous language

  Teambuilding – team relationship
  Classbuilding – whole class relationships
  Mastery – content skills
  Thinking Skills – cognition
  Communication Skills – expressing
  Information Sharing – dissemination
           (Kagan, 1994)
Lesson Designs

  Mastery Designs
  Division of Labor Designs
  Project Designs
  Multi-Functional Frameworks
      Effective Instruction
      Johnson & Johnson

      Big Four
              (Kagan, 1994)

  Each group member's efforts are
   required and indispensable for group
   success (i.e., there can be no "free-
  Each group member has a unique
   contribution to make to the joint effort
   because of his or her resources and/or
   role and task responsibilities.
        (Johnson & Johnson, 1999)

  Learning Contracts
  Tests and Exams
  Compositions and Presentations
  Portfolios
  Observations
  Interviewing
Jigsaw Activity

  Group – Home groups, mastery groups
  Structure – Mastery, Information Sharing
  Content – Motors, Transformers,
  Interdependence – Non-experts must
   rely on teaching of experts
  Assessment – Individual quizzes on
   mastery of content
Classbuilding Activity

  Group – Whole Group
  Structure – Classbuilding
  Content – Review of forces content
  Interdependence – All students must
   provide at least one correct answer for
   the activity to be completed
  Assessment – Exam on forces on the
   following day
Parting Messages Activity

  Group – Home groups
  Structure – Teambuilding
  Content – Social interactions
  Interdependence – All students must
   provide one comment
  Assessment – Evaluation of positive
Parting Messages

    Team building activity
“Let us put our minds together . . . and see
  what life we can make for our children”
                    -Sitting Bull

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